Cnicus indicus fide EFS Notes (Safflower):
Thy plants are an orchard of pomegranates, with pleasant fruits; camphire, with spikenard, Spikenard and saffron; calamus and cinnamon, with all trees of frankincense; myrrh and aloes, with all the chief spices:
Song of Solomon 4:13-14 (KJV)
Your shoots are an orchard of pomegranates with all choicest fruits, henna with nard, nard and saffron, calamus and cinnamon, with all trees of frankincense, myrrh and aloes, with all chief spices.
Song of Solomon 4:13-14 (RSV)
Your skin is a paradise of pomegranates, with the choicest fruits, henna plants along with spikenard plants; spikenard and saffron, cane and cinnamon, along with all sorts of trees of frankincense, myrrh and aloes, along with all the finest perfumes.
Song of Solomon 4:13-14 (NWT)
Israeli authors such as Zohary, more familiar with the Israeli Flora and the Holy Land than am I, should be better equipped to speculate as to which herbs were really meant in some elusive passages. I am both pleased and displeased to note that Zohary, too, leaves a few problems unresolved, including one involving two major medicinal plants (saffron and turmeric) and one minor medicinal (safflower), all sources of yellow dyes. All three can be grown in the warmer regions of Israel, but the turmeric would be difficult. Saffron and safflower would both be easy to grow. Here are points that Zohary makes: "Saffron (in Hebrew, karkom) is mentioned only once in the Bible." (ZOH) Some commentators identify it with turmeric, which "was never grown" (ZOH) in Israel, others with saffron, which was probably grown but only in postbiblical times. There is linguistic support for both possibilities. "There is no doubt that the sown karkom fields mentioned in the Mishnah (of the Talmud) refer to Crocus sativus." (ZOH) More data he presents point "to the identification of biblical karkom as turmeric and not as crocus But doubt arises when one considers another widely cultivated annual yielding numerous heads of orange flowers" (ZOH) (safflower, Carthamus tincto-rius). Zohary notes that safflower was cultivated in Egypt as early as 3500 B.C., first for its flowers and dyes, later for its oilseed potential. Where does this leave me? Should I include just one or all three candidates for the one mention of saffron in the Bible? From the medicinal point of view, turmeric seems even more important than saffron, which appears even more important than safflower. Ditto from the likelihood point of view, based on the views of Zohary. In reading Zohary, I think he would place his bets first on safflower, then on turmeric, and finally on crocus, as the biblical saffron.
Common Names (Safflower):
Agafrao (Mad.; Por.; EFS; PST); Agafrao Bastardo (Por.; USN); African Saffron (Eng.; KAB); Agnishikha (Sanskrit; KAB); Agnisikha (Tel.; KAB); Akhariza (Arab.; KAB); Alazar (Sp.; EFS); Alazor (Spain; VAD); American Saffron (Eng.; EFS); Azafrán (Sp.; Ven.; JLH); Azafrán e la Tierra (Pi.; KAB); Azafrán Romí (Sp.; KAB; EFS); Barre (Hindi; Nwp.; DEP; KAB); Bastard Safran (Ger.; EFS); Bastard Saffron (Eng.; HJP); Basterd Saffraan (Dutch; KAB); Biri (Tag.; KAB); Brandusa de Tvvamna (Rom.; KAB); Bundi (Rajputana; KAB); Cachumba (Pam.; KAB); Cartamo (It.; EFS);
Cartamo (Sp.; EFS; USN); Carthame des Teinturiers (Fr.; EFS); Carthamine Dye (Eng.; DEP); Casabha (Vis.; KAB); Chendurukam (Tam.; KAB); Cnigue (Fr.; KAB); Croco Bastardo (It.; EFS); Croco Hortense (It.; KAB); Crocus (Eng.; JLH); Daccam (Ic.; KAB); Dyer Saffron (Eng.; ZOH); Farberdistel (Ger.; EFS); Farber Saflor (Ger.; EFS); Faux Safran (Fr.; EFS); Galapmachu (Manipur; KAB); Gartensafran (Ger.; KAB); Ghosfor (Malta; KAB); Graine de Perroquet (Fr.; EFS); Grano de Perrouget (Lan.; KAB); Gulekafshah (Iran; KAB); Habb et Quirthim (Arab.; JLH); Heboo (Burma; KAB); Hong Fah (Malaya; KAB); Hong Hua (China; Pin.; AH2; EFS); Hong Lang Hoa (China; KAB); Ihhrid (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Kadaya (Mar.; KAB); Kagireh (India; EFS); Kajirah (Beng.; KAB); Kamalottara (Sanskrit; DEP; EFS); Kar (Hindi; Nwp.; DEP; KAB); Karada (Guj.; KAB); Kardai (Bom.; DEP; KAB); Karha (Urdu; KAB); Karkom? (Heb.; ZOH); Kartam (Tur.; EFS); Kas-embar (India; EFS); Kasumba (Malaya; EFS); Kazhirah (Iran; DEP); Kazirah (Iran; EFS); Kes-umba (Malaya; EFS); Khasaddana (Iran; EFS); Khoinbo (Sin.; KAB); Knikos (Greek; KAB); Kurdi (Mar.; DEP); Kurtam (Pun.; DEP); Kurthum (Arab.; EFS); Kurtim (Egypt; KAB); Kusambe (Kan.; KAB); Kusanbe (Kan.; DEP); Kusbo (Kon.; KAB); Kushumba Vittulu (Tel.; DEP); Kusum (Beng.; DEP); Kusumba (Cutch; India; DEP; EFS); Kusumbha (Ayu.; AH2); Mexican Saffron (Eng.; FAC); Parrot Seed (Eng.; HJP); Powari Jo Bij (Sin.; DEP); Qirtim (Arab.; DEP); Qurtum (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Saffler (Swe.; KAB); Saffloer (Dutch; EFS); Safflower (Eng.; Scn.; AH2; HJP; USN; ZOH); Safir (Pun.; KAB); Saflor (Rus.; KAB); Safra Bort Saafrano (Cat.; KAB); Safran Bâtard (Fr.; DEP; EFS); Sendurgam (Tam.; DEP); Su (Burma; DEP); Usfar (Arab.; EFS); 'Usfur (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Wilder Safran (Ger.; EFS); Wilde Saffraan (Dutch; EFS); Wild Saffron (Eng.; EFS); Za'farân (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Zafferano Falso (It.; EFS).
Abortifacient (AHP; HHB; PH2); Analgesic (f1; EFS; WO3); Anodyne (f; EFS); Antiacne (1; JAR12:99); Antiaggregant (1; AHP; PNC); Antiaging (f; KAB); Antiedemic (1; WO3); Antifertility (f; DAA); Antihydrotic (f; HHB; PH2); Antiinflammatory (1; PNC; WO3; X8987908); Antiischemic (1; X8425843; X12802724); Antimelanogenic (1; X15577216); Antimelanomic (1; X15577216); Antioxidant (1; X15706901); Antipyretic (f; PED); Antitumor (1; PH2; X8604239); Aphrodisiac (f; KAB); Bactericide (1; WO2); Bechic (f; KAB); Bitter (PED); Calcium Blocker (1; WO3; X8281577); Cardiotonic (1; WO3); Carminative (f; KAB); Cathartic (1; WO2); Cytotoxic (1; X11090999); Decongestant (f; DAA); Diaphoretic (f; DAA; HJP; PED); Diuretic (f; KAB; PNC); Emmenagogue (f1; AHP; EFS; HHB; PH2; WO2); Expectorant (f; HHB; PH2); Febrifuge (f; DAA); Fungicide (1; DAA; VAD); Hypocholesterolemic (1; HHB); Hypoglycemic (f1; VAD); Laxative (f1; DEP; HHB; HJP; PH2; PNC; WO2); Lipolytic (f; VAD); Nematicide (1; VAD; WO2); Neuroprotective (1; X8425843; X12802724); Orexigenic (f; KAB); Phototoxic (f; DAA); Purgative (f; EFS; PH2); Sedative (f1; KAB; WO2); Stimulant (f1; HHB; PH2; WO2); Teratogenic (1; X11090999); Thrombolytic (1; X15806964); Tyrosinase Inhibitor (1; X15577216); Uterotonic (1; AHP; X7646782); Vermifuge (f; DAA).
Acne (1; JAR12:99); Amenorrhea (f1; AHP; DAA; DEP; PH2); Anorexia (f; KAB); Arteriosclerosis (f; VAD); Arthrosis (f; HJP; PH2); Bacteria (1; DAA); Boil (f; DAA); Bronchosis (f; KAB; PH2); Bruises (f; PNC); Cancer (f; JLH); Cancer, liver (f; JLH); Cancer, skin (f1; PH2; X8604239); Cancer, stomach (f; PH2); Cancer, uterus (f; JLH); Candida (1; DAA); Cardiopathy (f; PNC); Catarrh (f; KAB); Chickenpox (f; PED); Childbirth (f; DAA; DEP); Cold (f; KAB); Comedon (1; JAR12:99); Congestion (f; DAA); Constipation (f; DEP; HJP; VAD); Cough (f; PH2); Dermatosis (f; KAB; PNC; VAD); Dysmenorrhea (f; DAA; PNC); Dystocia (f; DAA); Dysuria (f; KAB); Edema (1; WO3); Embolism (f1; VAD; X15806964); Enterosis (f; VAD); Escherichia (1; DAA); Fever (f; DAA; PNC); Fungus (f1; DAA; KAB; VAD); Hepatosis (f; JLH; KAB; PED); High Cholesterol (f; VAD);
Impotence (f; KAB); Induration (f; JLH); Infection (1; DAA; VAD); Inflammation (1; JLH; WO3); Insomnia (1; WO3); Ischemia (1; X8425843); Itch (f; KAB); Jaundice (f; DEP; KAB); Leprosy (f; KAB); Leukoderma (f; KAB); Measles (f; DEP; KAB; PNC); Metrorrhagia (f; HHB); Mycosis (f1; DAA; KAB; VAD); Neurosis (1; X8425843); Ophthalmia (f; KAB); Pain (f1; PH2; VAD; WO3); Paralysis (f; DEP; HHB); Parasite (f; VAD); Pemphigus (f; DAA); Pneumonia (f; DAA; HHB; PH2); Pulmonosis (f; KAB); Rheumatism (f; DEP; HHB); Ringworm (f; KAB); Scabies (f; KAB; PH2); Scarlatina (f; DEP; KAB); Sore (f; DEP; KAB); Sore Throat (f; KAB); Sprain (f; HJP); Strangury (f; KAB); Swelling (1; WO3); Thrombosis (f1; VAD; X11243195); Uterosis (f; DAA; DEP); Wound (f; DAA; PH2; PNC); Yeast (1; DAA).
Seeds roasted and eaten as vegetable; leaves cooked like spinach; flowers used as poor man's saffron, often cooked with rice or used as food dye; seed oil commercially available in the United States (DEP; FAC); 1 g in tea; to 3 x/day (HHB); 1-2 tsp fresh flower (PED); 2-3 g dry flower (PED); 3 g dry flower:15 ml alcohol/15 ml water (PED); 10 g achene/day as laxative (VAD).
• Ayurvedics suggest laxative flowers for leprosy, strangury; seeds aphrodisiac; leaves diuretic, laxative, orexigenic, for dysuria and ophthalmia (KAB).
• Bengali apply seed oil, three to six applications, for itch (KAB).
• Indochinese use flowers as emmenagogue and tonic, for dysmenorrhea and paralysis (KAB),
• Iranians use seed oil in salves for rheumatism and sprains (HJP).
• Jamaicans mash the seed in sweet water as laxative, flowers for jaundice (DEP).
• Lebanese often give children the diaphoretic laxative floral tea (HJP).
• Lebanese use safflower oil in liniments (e.g., for rheumatism) (HJP).
• Philippinos use flowers to treat jaundice (KAB).
• Unani view flowers as diuretic, expectorant, hepatotonic, hypnotic, for boils, bronchitis, complexion, leukoderma, piles, ringworm, scabies; the seeds or seed oil good for old folk, analgesic, aphrodisiac, bechic, carminative, purgative, for arthrosis, catarrh, hepa-tosis, leukoderma, scabies, sore throat (KAB).
• Venezuelans apply the plant in cataplasms to tumors (JLH).
Class 2b-2d. Contraindicated in patients with hemorrhagic disease or peptic ulcers. Reportedly abortifacient, emmenagogue, and uterotonic. May prolong blood coagulation time (AHP). No health hazards or side effects known with proper therapeutic dosages (PH2).
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