Russian olive elaeagnus angustifolia l elaeagnaceae

Synonyms:

Elaeagnus angustifolia var. orientalis (L.) Kuntze; Elaeagnus hortensis M. Bieb.; Elaeagnus moorcroftii Wall. ex Schltdl.; Elaeagnus orientalis L. fide (DEP; USN)

Notes (Russian Olive):

And that they should publish and proclaim in all their cities, and in Jerusalem, saying, Go forth unto the mount, and fetch olive branches, and pine branches, and myrtle branches, and palm branches, and branches of thick trees, to make booths, as it is written.

Nehemiah 8:15 (KJV)

And that they should publish and proclaim in all their towns and in Jerusalem, "Go out to the hills and bring branches of olive, wild olive, myrtle, palm, and other leafy trees to make booths, as it is written."

Nehemiah 8:15 (RSV)

Elaeagnus Angustifolia

FIGURE 1.44 Russian Olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia).

And that they should make proclamation and cause a call to pass throughout all their cities and throughout Jerusalem, saying "Go out to the mountainous region and bring in olive leaves, and the leaves of oil trees and myrtle leaves and palm leaves and the leaves of branchy trees to make booths, according to what is written."

Nehemiah 8:15 (NWT)

Some of the biblical references to oil or olive trees are believed to refer to the Russian olive, a common shrub in Palestine. I did not arrive at those conclusions; I just report them. The RSV makes a distinction between olive and wild olive, and the NWT distinguishes between the olive leaves and the oil trees. I like to think they are singling out leaves of Olea, fruits of which are one of the better sources of oleic acid, a heart-friendly monounsaturated fatty acid, and the Elaeagnus, the fruits of which are one of the better sources of prostate-friendly lycopene. The KHV does not suggest Elaeagnus to me at all. Speaking of Lebanon, my late friend, anthropologist Jane Philips, said,

"There is a sacralization of the olive and the oleaster in the area." The plant is said to bring some people back from the shadows of death. Oleaster was called "umm-zayt" by an illiterate villager, who responded no when asked if that was the name of the plant, "that was what it is" (BIB; HJP). I also confess to having trouble distinguishing the species. Kirtikar and Basu illustrate and key three species, as follows:

• Endocarp hard and bony:

• Endocarp ribbed, coriaceous, closed inside with a dense felt of white hairs:

The oleaster yields an inferior oil, used as a medicine but not as a food. Spaniards use the flower juice for malignant fevers. The seed oil is used for bronchitis and catarrh. The leaves are astringent. Seeds have been used in homeopathy. Lebanese use all parts of the plant medicinally, including hot flowers compressed onto neuralgia and aching wounds. Persons near death are sometimes turned around by the flower infusion (BIB).

Common Names (Russian Olive):

Árbol del Paraíso (Sp.; USN); Árvore-do-Paraíso (Por.; USN); Bohemian Olive (Eng.; DEP); Bull (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Chalef (Fr.; USN); Chalef à Feuilles Étroites (Fr.; USN); Dar el Kalbah (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Eleagno (It.; HHB); Gewöhnliche Ölweide (Ger.; HHB); Jerusalem Willow (Eng.; DEP; KAB); Nuqd (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Oil Tree (Eng.; NWT); Oleaster (Eng.; Ger.; DEP; USN); Olivagno (It.; HHB); Olivier de Bohême (Fr.; DEP; USN); Olivier des Sables (Fr.; KAB); Olivier Sauvage (Fr.; KAB); Olivo de Bohemia (Sp.; USN); Panjino (Sp.; USN); Paradusbaum (Ger.; HHB); Russian-olive (Eng.; USN); Sanjata (Afg.; DEP; KAB); Sanjit (Afg.; Pushtu; DEP; KAB); San-til (Afg.; DEP; KAB); Sanzalai (Zhob; KAB); Sh-Zao (Pin.; DAA); Shiulik (Hindi; Nwp.; DEP; KAB; NAD); Silverberry (Eng.; FNF); Sinjid (Pishin; Toba; KAB); Sinjit (Kharan; Pushtu; KAB); Sinjli (Barkhan; Bori; Sanjawi; KAB); Sinzalae (Kohlu; Bori; Sharig; KAB); Sinzalai (Barkhan; Bori; Sanjawi; KAB); Sirshing (Tibet; DEP; WOI); Sirsing (Tibet; DEP); Sugarberry (Eng.; FNF); Trebizond-Date (Eng.; USN); Wild Olive (Eng.; BIB; JLH; RSV); Wilde Oelbaume (Ger.; DEP); Zaqqum? (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Zayzafûn (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Zineid (Iran; DEP). Nscn.

Activities (Russian Olive):

Allergenic (1; X15461599); Analgesic (f; BIB); Antiaggregant (1; FNF); Antibacterial (1; FNF); Anticancer (1; FNF); Anticarcinogenic (1; FNF); Antiglaucomic (1; JNU); Antihepatotoxic (1; FNF); Antihistamine (1; FNF); AntiHIV (1; FNF); Antiinflammatory (1; FNF; X10967484); Antileukemic (1; FNF); Antileukotriene (1; FNF); Antilipoperoxidant (1; FNF); Antimutagenic (1; FNF); Antinitrosaminic (1; FNF); Antinociceptive (1; X10967484); Antioxidant (1; CRH (Feb.):13.1997; FNF); Antiperoxidant (1; FNF); Antipresbyopic (1; JNU); Antiprostatitic (1; CRH (Feb.):13.1997); Antiradicular (1; FNF; HAD); Antiseptic (f; BIB); Antispasmodic (1; FNF); Antitumor (1; FNF); Antitumor, bladder (1; NR56:35); Antitumor, brain (1; NR56:35); Antitumor, breast (1; NR56:35); Antitumor, cervical (1; NR56:35); Antitumor, colon (1; JNU); Antitumor, esophagus (1; JNU); Antitumor, lung (1; JNU); Antitumor, mouth (1; JNU); Antitumor, pancreas (1; JNU); Antitumor, prostate (1; NR56:35; JNU); Antitumor, rectum (1; JNU); Antitumor, stomach (1; JNU); Antiviral (1; FNF); Astringent (f; HHB); Cancer Preventive (1; 525); Cholagogue (1; FNF); Choleretic (1; FNF); COX-2 Inhibitor (1; FNF); Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor (1; FNF); Cytotoxic (1; FNF); Diuretic (1; FNF); Gastroprotective (f1; X12902057); Hepatoprotective (1; FNF); Hypocholesterolemic (1; FNF); Hypotensive (1; JBH); Immunostimulant (1; FNF); Lipoxygenase Inhibitor (1; FNF); Myorelaxant (1; X12648826); ODC Inhibitor (1; FNF); Prostaglandigenic (1; FNF); Sunscreen (1; FNF).

Indications (Russian Olive):

Bacteria (1; FNF); Bronchosis (f1; FNF; KAB; WOI); Burn (f; BIB; HJP); Cancer (f1; FNF; JLH; JNU); Cancer (1; FNF); Cancer, bladder (1; NR56:35); Cancer, brain (1; NR56:35); Cancer, breast (1; NR56:35); Cancer, cervical (1; NR56:35); Cancer, colon (1; JNU); Cancer, esophagus (1; JNU); Cancer, lung (1; JNU); Cancer, pancreas (1; JNU); Cancer, prostate (1; NR56:35; JNU); Cancer, rectum (1; JNU); Cancer, stomach (1; JNU); Cancer, mouth (f; JLH; JNU); Carcinoma (1; FNF); Catarrh (f; KAB; WOI); Cerebrosis (1; NR56:35); Cervicosis (1; FNF); Constipation (f; BIB; HJP); Cramp (1; FNF; X12648826); Cystosis (1; FNF); Dysuria (f; HAD); Enterosis (f1; BIB; JNU); Esophagosis (1; FNF); Fever (f; HHB; HJP); Gastrosis (f1; FNF; X12902057); Glaucoma (1; JNU); High Blood Pressure (1; FNF; JBH); High Cholesterol (1; FNF); HIV (1; FNF); Immunodepression (1; FNF); Infection (f; BIB; HJP); Inflammation (1; FNF; X10967484); Maculitis (1; FNF); Mastosis (1; FNF); Neuralgia (f; BIB; HJP); Pain (f1; BIB; HJP; X10967484); Pancreatosis (1; FNF); Presbyopia (1; JNU); Proctosis (1; FNF); Prostatosis (1; CRH (Feb.):13.1997; FNF); Pulmonosis (1; FNF); Stomato-sis (f1; FNF; JLH); Ulcer (f1; X12902057); Water Retention (1; FNF); Wound (f; BIB).

Dosages (Russian Olive):

The fruit is small and insipid, or large and quite edible. I ate many of the astringent fruits as a boy in Carolina, not realizing I might be sharing a culinary experience with the children of Israel. The fruits, believed by some to be implied by some olive references in the Bible, are known as Trebizond dates, sometimes dried and powdered to make an Arabian breadstuff. An intoxicant is distilled from the fruits. Middle Easterners may boil the fruits (even spoiled fruits known as afouna) to express an oleaster oil, used rather like olive oil (BIB).

• Lebanese boil astringent leaves to treat enteric fevers (HJP).

• Lebanese consider the oil antiseptic, laxative, and apply it to burns (HJP).

• Lebanese apply heated flowers as a compress for neuralgia, pain, and wounds (HJP).

Natural History (Russian Olive):

Fruit is a favorite food of birds and mammals; leaves are eaten by sheep and goats (WOI). Extracts (Russian Olive):

Eleagnine is a racemic form of tetrahydroharman (HHB). Many of the activities and indications above followed by FNF are scored 1 because of suspected high lycopene content.

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