Olive olea europea l oleaceae

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Notes (Olive):

His branches shall spread, and his beauty shall be as the olive tree, and his smell as Lebanon.

His shoots shall spread out; his beauty shall be like the olive, and his fragrance like Lebanon.

His twigs will go forth, and his dignity will become like that of the olive tree, and his fragrance will be like that of Lebanon.

Olive is mentioned in 33 works of the KJV, including, for example, 5 citations in Deuteronomy.

As one of the most valuable of Holy Land trees, small wonder that it is also one of the most frequently mentioned. Even my best African resource book (UPW), naming many antimalarial plants in Africa, notes that it is not only oft mentioned in the Old Testament, but it also features prominently in Greek mythology. "It has become symbolic of peace, plenty, prosperity, and achievment" (UPW), and let me add health and the Mediterranean diet. Romans thought it the idyllic status symbol to have juice of the grape, alias wine, inside, and oil of the olive, alias olive oil, outside (UPW). And that oil was olive oil, one of our better sources of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). Biblical passages, where the word anoint appears, usually mean anoint with olive oil, often used as the carrier for perfumes. One scholar has said that no tree is more closely associated with the history of man and development of civilization than the olive. An Arabic proverb has it that gardens are folly while olives are kings. Olive oil was the base of the perfumed ointments sold in classic Athens and Rome. It is also used in the textile industry in wool combing. Olive pomace, the residue after milling, is used in animal feeds. The stones (seeds) are used in the manufacture of molded products and plastics. The bitter glucoside, oleuropein, of green olives is usually neutralized with lye or caustic soda before pickling. Wood is hard, beautifully grained, used in turnery and cabinet making. In Italy, an olive branch is hung over the door to keep out evil spirits (BIB).

Common Names (Olive):

Aceituno (Peru; Sp.; KAB); Amil (Ber.; BOU); Amourgha (Arab.; BOU); Arbre Eternel (Fr.; EFS); Azeboudj (Ber.; BOU); Azemmour (Ber.; BOU); Bouttaillaou (Lan.; KAB); Elaia (Greek; KAB); Itm (Arab.; GHA); Jaituni (Fula; Nig.; UPW); Jirjir (Arab.; Malaya; IHB); Julipe (Kan.; KAB); Karazeytin (Tur.; EB51:195); Man Zaitun (Hausa; UPW); Maslin (Rom.; KAB); Mitan (Dho.; Oman; GHA); Ölbaum (Ger.; HH2); Oleastro (It.; EFS); Olijfboom (Dutch; EFS); Oliva (Rus.; KAB); Olive (Eng.; Scn.; AH2; CR2); Oliveira (Por.; EFS); Oliveira Brava (Por.; UPW); Oliven Ölbaum (Ger.; EFS); Olivenbaum (Ger.; HH2); Olivera (Cat.; KAB); Olivier (Fr.; BOU); Olivier Sauvage (Fr.; BOU); Olivio (Sp.; EFS); Olivo (It.; Peru; Sp.; EFS; HH2; KAB; ROE); Olivo Selvatico (It.; EFS); Oliwa Drzewo (Pol.; KAB); Oljetroee (Den.; KAB); Oljetroeed (Swe.; KAB); Saisun (Tam.; KAB); Tahatimt (Tamachek; MALI); Tazbboujt (Ber.; BOU); Thatimt (Ber.; BOU); Tsi T'un (China; TAN; UPW); Tzetta (Ber.; BOU); Ulivo (It.; KAB; HH2; UPW); Zait (Arab.; Malaya; IHB); Zaitun (Arab.; Malaya; IHB); Zayit (Heb.; KAB); Zaytoun (Arab.; BOU); Zebboudj (Arab.; BOU); Zebbour (Arab.; BOU); Zebbug (Malta; KAB); Zeytin (Tur.; EB49:406); Zeytin Agaci (Tur.; EFS); Zeytun (Arab.; Malaya; Mali; IHB; UPW); Zzit (Ber.; BOU).

Activities (Olive):

ACE Inhibitor (1; VVG); Antiadrenergic (1. x 15070161); Antiarrhythmic (1; PHR; PH2; X15070161); Antiatherosclerotic (1; X12648829); Antidysrhythmic (1; X15070161); Antihypertensive (1; APA; X12648829); Antiischemic (1; X15070161); Antioxidant (1; APA); Antipyretic (f; VVG); Antiscle-rotic (f; ZUL); Antiseptic (f; EFS); Antispasmodic (1; PHR; PH2; ZUL); Astringent (f1; EFS; KAB; ZUL); Bactericide (f1; BIB; BOU); Beta-Adrenergic Antagonist (1; X15070161); Beta-Blocker (1; X15070161); Cardioprotective (1; X15070161); Cardiotonic (1; X15070161); Cholagogue (f; BIB; BOU; EFS); Collyrium (f; ZUL); Depurative (f; ZUL); Diuretic (f1; APA; BOU; PHR; VVG; X12648829); Dromotropic (1; X15070161); Febrifuge (f; EFS); Hypocholesterolemic (1; HH2); Hypoglycemic (1; APA; BIB; BOU; HH2; VVG); Hypotensive (f1; APA; BIB; BOU; PH2; SKJ; VVG; ZUL; X15070161); Hypouricemic (1; ZUL); Lactogogue (f; NMH); Lipoxygenase Inhibitor (1; X15086818); Mollusci-cide (1; HH2); Myorelaxant (1; ZUL); Nephrotonic (f; VVG); Pectoral (f; BIB); Positive Inotropic (1; X15070161); Tonic (f; VVG); Vasodepressor (1; X15070161); Vasodilator (1; ZUL).

Indications (Olive Leaf):

Aphtha (f; BOU); Arrhythmia (1; PH2); Atherosclerosis (1; HH2; X12648829); Bacteria (f1; BIB; BOU; ROE); Boil (f; GHA); Cancer (f; JLH); Cancer, breast (f; JLH); Cancer, gum (f; JLH); Cardiopathy (1; APA; PH2; X15070161); Cataract (f; GHA); Colic (f; VVG; ZUL); Condyloma (f; BIB; JLH); Constipation (f; GHA); Corns (f; ZUL); Cough (f; BOU); Cystosis (f; ZUL); Dermatosis (f; GHA); Diabetes (f1; APA; BIB; BOU; HH2; ROE); Diarrhea (f; UPW; VVG); Diptheria (f; ZUL); Dysrhythmia (1; X15070161); Fever (f; APA; HH2; UPW; VVG); Fracture (f; GHA); Gingivosis (f; GHA; JLH); Gout (f; HH2; ROE); Headache (f; ZUL); Hemorrhoid (f; EB51:195); Hepatosis (f; BIB); High Blood Pressure (1; APA; PH2; ROE; X15070161); High Cholesterol (1; HH2); Hypertonia (1; PHR); Malaria (f; FEL; KAB; ZUL); Mastosis (f; JLH); Ophthalmia (f; UPW; VVG; ZUL); Pain (f; EB51:195); Rheumatism (f; HH2; ZUL); Schistosomiasis (1; HH2); Scrofula (f; EFS; ZUL); Sore (f; UPW); Sore Throat (f; UPW; VVG; ZUL); Sprain (f; EB51:195); Stenocardia (1; X15070161); Stomatosis (f; BOU); Swelling (f; EB51:195); UTIs (f; ZUL); Venereal Disease (f; JLH); Virus (1; X15869811); Wart (f; BIB; JLH); Wounds (f; APA).

FIGURE 1.76 Olive Leaf (Olea europea).

Dosages (Olive):

Although processed olives are a mainstay in American culture, it takes a lot of processing to make them edible. The relatively inedible fruits are pickled or cured with brine, lye, oil, salt and/or water. They can be sun-cured and eaten as relish. Leaves of the African variety are used as a condiment. (FAC). Leaves are capable of exuding manna (UPW): 7-8 g dry leaf in 150 ml water, 3-4 x/day (that totals to an ounce of leaf (APA); 2 tsp leaf in hot water and steep 30 minutes (PHR).

• Algerians chew the leaves for toothache and oral sores caused by excess tobacco (HJP).

• Dhofari apply pounded leaves to boils, dermatoses, and itch, and apply burnt leaf ashes to blisters and sores (GHA).

• Dhofari take bark decoction or macerate for constipation (GHA).

• Eclectics suggest a "wineglass" of leaf decoction every 3 hours for malaria (FEL).

• Levant citizenry boil a handful in a quart of water until reduced to a pint, and drink for obstinate fevers (GMH).

• North Africans use leaves or their extracts as an antibacterial, antidiabetic, cholagogue, diuretic, hypoglycemic, hypotensive, and pectoral, the wood decoction for aphtha and stomatitis (bOU).

• Peruvians suggest the diuretic leaf decoction for high blood pressure (EGG).

• Saudis use the stems as toothbrushes to keep the gums healthy (GHA).

Downsides (Olive):

None known at proper dosage (PHR).

Natural History(Olive):

Beta-sitosterol, more so than beta-sitosteryl-D-glucoside, stimulated feeding of the olive weevil (Dyscerus perforatus) (X12872942). (-)-Olivil and (+)-1-acetoxypinoresinol, minor lignans, were significantly higher feeding attractants for the female than for the male weevil (X12729011).

Extracts (Olive):

From extra-virgin olive oil, Beauchamp et al. (2005) describe a new antiinflammatory COX-2-inhibiting phytochemical, oleocanthal, comparable, they say, to ibuprofen, even in pungency (X16136122). Micol et al. (2005) demonstrated antiviral activity against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia rhabdovirus (VHSV), a salmonid rhabdovirus, for leaf extracts and oleuropein, reducing viral infectivity 10 to 30%, respectively (X15869811). Somova et al. (2004) demonstrated cardio-tonic and antidysrhythmic activities of oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, methyl maslinate, and uvaol, all of which showed low toxicity on brine shrimp. Oleanolic acid and methyl maslinate displayed a significant, dose-related vasodepressor effect on sinus bradycardia, acting as beta-adrenergic antagonists, blocking the effect of adrenaline and isoprenaline. They also exhibited positive inotropic and dromotropic effects (X15070161). Here is a suite of compounds acting on cardiopathy at many levels: antiarrhythmic, antidysrhythmic; anti-ischemic; beta-blocker; cardioprotective; cardiotonic; dromotropic, hypotensive, positive-inotropic; and vasopressor. LD50 = 1300 mg/lg ipr mus; >3000 mg/kg orl mus.

Notes (Olive Oil):

The Mediterranean diet (high in olive oil, vegetables, fruit, fish, and lean meat) significantly reduces recurrence of adenoma, and may reduce the recurrence of colorectal adenomas, at least in women (X15677892).

Activities (Olive Oil):

Adaptogenic (1; X15566625); Antiaggregant (1; APA); Antiatherosclerotic (1; X15585759); Antidote (f; BOU); Antidote (lead) (f; FEL); Antiinflammatory (1; X15665734); Apoptotic (1; X15642702); Cardioprotective (1; APA); Chemopreventive (1; X15677892; X15642702); Cholagogue (f; BOU); Demulcent (f; KAB; WOI); Emollient (f1; APA; KAB; WOI); Enteroprotective (1; APA; X15677892);

Gastroprotective (f1; APA); Hypercholesterolemic (1; APA; X15572303); Hypoglycemic (1; APA); Laxative (f1; APA; KAB; WOI); Orexigenic (f; BOU); Purgative (f; BOU); Vulnerary (f; KAB).

Indications (Olive Oil):

Abscess (f; BOU); Adenoma (1; X15677892); Anorexia (f; BOU); Antidote (poison) (f; GMH); Arthrosis (f; GMH; ROE); Asthenia (f; BOU); Atherosclerosis (1; X15585759); Biliousness (f; ROE); Bite (f; FEL); Blister (f; GHA); Boil (f; BOU); Bruise (f; FEL); Burn (f; FEL); Calculus (f; ROE); Callus (f; JLH; X15677892); Cancer (f1; JLH; X15677892); Cancer, breast (f1; JLH; X15677892; X15642702); Cancer, colon (f1; JLH; X15677892); Cancer, liver (f1; JLH; X15677892); Cancer, neck (f1; JLH; X15677892); Cancer, spleen (f1; JLH; X15677892); Cancer, stomach (f1; JLH; X15677892); Cardiopathy (1; APA); Cholecocystosis (1; PHR); Colic (f; ROE); Constipation (f; BOU; ROE); Corns (f; ZUL); Dermatosis (f; GHA; GMH); Diabetes (1; APA); Dropsy (f; GMH); Earache (f; FEL); Earwax (f1; APA); Endotoxic Shock (1; X15665734); Enterosis (f1; APA; GMH); Exanthema (f; FEL); Gallstone (f; GMH); Gastrosis (f1; APA; JLH); Hepatosis (f; BOU; JLH; ROE); High Cholesterol (1; APA); Induration (f; JLH; X15677892); Inflammation (1; X15665734); Itch (f; GMH); Mastosis (f; FEL); Myalgia (f; GMH); Ophthalmia (f; GHA; JLH); Phthisis (f; FEL); Plague (f; FEL; GMH); Proctosis (f; FEL); Pulmonosis (f; GMH); Rheumatism (f; ROE); Scarlatina (f; FEL; GMH); Shock (1; X15665734); Sore (f; GHA); Splenosis (f; JLH); Sting (f; ROE); Stone (f; FEL; ROE); Stress (1; X15566625); Typhoid (f; GMH); Worm (f; FEL; GMH); Wound (f; FEL).

Dosages (Olive Oil):

Romans thought it an idyllic status symbol to have juice of the grape, alias wine, inside, and oil of the olive, alias olive oil, outside. Olive oil has been deemed one of the best MUFA oils. As early as 1931 we read that it is best for cooking, and a valuable article of diet for both sick and healthy of all ages. Delicate babies absorb its nourishing properties through the skin (GMH). 1-2 oz olive oil as a laxative (APA); 1 Tbsp olive oil in the morning to protect the GI tract linings (APA); 1 oz as purge (FEL); 15-60 ml olive oil (PNC).

• Algerians use for baldness, cough, earache, fractures, gonorrhea, hemorrhage, hernia, impotence, liver congestion, skin diseases, sprains and stones (HJP).

• Arabs apply fruit juice around the eyes to soothe (GHA).

• Arabs mix powdered fruits with dates and salt to paste on fractures (GHA).

• Dutch East Indians apply olive oil or fruits to cancers (JLH).

• Germans and North Americans apply olive oil poultice to breast cancer (JLH).

• Latinos rub arthritic areas with olive oil (JAD).

• Peruvians treat cancer with olive oil/Plumbago salve (JLH).

Downsides (Olive Oil):

Class 1 (JAD). Commission E reports the oil should not be used in patients with gall- or bile stones because of the risk that a biliary colic is induced. Topical application rarely results in allergic skin reactions (AEH).

Extracts (Olive Oil):

Olive oil contains 0.05-1% phenolics (3-11 ppm p-hydroxyphenylethanol; 1.4-5.5 ppm 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylethanol; 0.8-3.2 ppm protocatechuic acid; 0.9-3.5 ppm p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 0.5-2.2 ppm vanilic acid; 0.4-1.8 ppm syringic acid, 0.3-1.1 ppm cinnamic acid, 0.3-1.2 ppm p-coumaric acid, 0.31.2 ppm o-coumarinic acid, 0.4-11.7 ppm caffeic-acid); 0 0.0125-0.75% carbohydrates, 0.125-0.25%

sterols, 500 ppm triterpenealcohol and hydroxytriterpene acids, 175-200 ppm tocopherol, 40-135 phospholipids, 3-13 ppm carotenoids, 1-10 ppm chlorophyll, and 0.2-20 ppm phaeophytine. The oil contains 1310 ppm beta-sitosterol, 58 ppm delta-7-stigmasterol, 29 ppm delta-5-avenasterol, 28 ppm campesterol, and 14 ppm stigmasterol. Obied et al. (2005) reported the following chemicals and activities in olive mill wastes, estimating recovery of 98% of the biophenols; that suggests to me that one would be 49 times better off eating the residues as the olive, at least as far as biophenols are concerned (e.g., caffeic acid (antiatherogenic, antidepressant, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antiseptic, chemopreventive); catechol (antioxidant, antiseptic, antitumor, carcinogenic, herbicide); p-coumaric acid (antioxidant, antiseptic, chemopreventive); elenoic acid (antiseptic, antiviral); hydroxytyrosol (antiatherogenic, antiinflamma-tory, antioxidant, antiseptic, atheroprotective, cardioprotective, chemopreventive, whitener); oleuro-pein (antiatherogenic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antiseptic, antiviral, cardioactive, hypoglycemic); rutin (antiatherogenic, antiinflammaory, antioxidant, cardioactive, cytostatic, thyrostimulant); tyrosol (antiatherogenic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, cardioactive, cytostatic, thyrostimulant); vanillic acid (antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, antiseptic); and verbascoside (antiatherogenic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive) (FNF; X15712986). It is thus another recitation of the same old story — the unprocessed food is an order of magnitude better than the processed. Our paleolithic foods were better than that brought to us by our USDA and food processing industry.

lebanese oregano (origanum syriacum l.) +++ lamiaceae


Amaracus syriacus (L.) Stokes; Marjorana crassa Moench.; Marjorana crassifolia Benth Raf.; Marjorana maru (L.) Brig.; Marjorana nervosa Benth.; Marjorana scutellifolia Stokes; Marjorana syriacum (L.) Raf.; Origanum crassa (Moench.) Chev.; Origanum maru L.; Origanum pseudo-onites Lindberg fide HH2

Notes (Lebanese Oregano):

Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean: wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow.

Psalms 51:7 (KJV)

Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean; wash me, and I shall be whiter than snow.

Psalms 51:7 (RSV)

May you purify me from sin with hyssop, that I may be clean; may you wash me, that I may become whiter even than the snow.

Psalms 51:7 (NWT)

This is the first time I remember both the KJV and the RSV reading exactly alike, in these two in the imperative. And the meaning is pretty much the same in the NWT. As almost always, at least in my limited purview, the NWT takes more space to say the same thing. However, it is difficult to simplify a Psalm such as this one. Recent scholars suggest that the hyssop of the Old Testament is most probably Origanum syriacum, not Origanum maru, as I concluded in my 1985 book. The herb more usually called hyssop, Hyssopus officinalis, does not even grow in Israel or Sinai (ZOH). Tucker and DeBaggio, like Zohary, refer bibliophiles to Origanum syriacum as the plant name for hyssop in the Bible. This species is abundant in the Holy Land, usually among dwarf shrubs on stony grounds. Alternatively, many scholars tend to agree that the hyssop of the Crucifixion is a sorghum. The common oregano (O. vulgare), herb of the year in 2005, so well known in gardens, grows to the north of the biblical settings, while O. syriacum abounds throughout the central hills. An aromatic substance is obtained from the crushed and dried leaves. The "hyssop" of the Scriptures was used to sprinkle the doorposts of the Israelites in Egypt with the blood of the Paschal Lamb so that the angel of death would pass by that house. It was employed in the purification of lepers and leprous houses, suggesting the Psalmists purge.

Common Names (Lebanese Oregano):

Biblical Hyssop (Eng.; TAD); Echter Staudenmajoran (Ger.; HH2); Egyptian Marjoram (Eng.; BIB); Ezov (Heb.; TAD; ZOH); Hyssop (Eng.; BIB; TAD); Lebanese Oregano (Eng.; TAD; USN); Syrian Hyssop (Eng.; TAD; ZOH); Syrian Majoram (Eng.; HH2); White Oregano (Eng.; TAD); Wild Marjoram (Eng.; X12009988); Ysop (Eng.; HH2); Za'atar (Arab.; TAD; ZOH). One author mentioned more than fifty species in six plant families going under the confusing common name "oregano" (EB42:232). Nscn.

Activities (Lebanese Oregano):

Analgesic (f; HH2); Antiacetylcholinesterase (1; X15652288); Antioxidant (1; X14969528); Antiradicular (1; X14969528); Antispasmodic (f; BIB); Diuretic (f; BIB); Emmenagogue (f; BIB); Fungicide (1; TAD); Insecticide (1; HH2); Iron Chelator (1; X14969528); Laxative (f; BIB); Purgative (f; BIB); Stimulant (f; BIB); Sudorific (f; BIB).

Indications (Lebanese Oregano):

Cancer (f; JLH); Cardialgia (f; HH2); Cardiopathy (f; HH2); Cold (f; BIB); Colic (f; BIB); Constipation (f; BIB); Cough (f; HH2); Debility (f; HH2); Dermatosis (f; BIB); Dysmenorrhea (f; HH2); Fibroid (f; BIB); Fungus (1; TAD); Infection (1; TAD); Leprosy (f; BIB); Mycosis (1; TAD); Pain (f; HH2); Paralysis (f; BIB); Polyp (f; BIB); Rheumatism (f; BIB); Sprain (f; BIB); Swelling (f; BIB); Toothache (f; HH2); Tumor (f; JLH); Uterosis (f; JLH).

Dosages (Lebanese Oregano):

Fruits of Sicilian sumac are crushed with Origanum syriacum to constitute main ingredients of the Middle Eastern spice mixture called za'atar (FAC; TAD). Arabs use it in teas and cook it in baked foods. Sold in the markets, it is a popular Arab spice (ZOH). The uses of the Syrian marjoram, if in fact it is specifically distinct, are not expected to differ from those of the true marjoram (BIB).

• Lebanese apply leaves to rheumatic sprains and swellings (BIB).

• Lebanese take tea of Origanum maru for childrens colds and colic (HPP)

Extracts (Lebanese Oregano):

As theoretically one of the richest sources of carvacrol in my USDA database (up to 5% essential oil; up to 80% of which can be carvacrol), this plant probably shares many of the biological activities of carvacrol.

star of bethlehem (ornithogallum umbellatum l.) + liliaceae

Notes (Star of Bethlehem):

And there was a great famine in Samaria: and, behold, they besieged it, until an ass's head was sold for fourscore pieces of silver, and the fourth part of a cab of dove's dung for five pieces of silver.

FIGURE 1.77 Star of Bethlehem (Ornithogallum umbellatum).

And there was a great famine in Sama'ria, as they besieged it, until an ass's head was sold for eighty shekels of silver, and the fourth part of a kab of dove's dung for five shekels of silver.

In time a great famine arose in Sama'ria, and look! they were besieging it until an ass's head got to be worth eighty silver pieces, and the fourth of a cab measure of dove's dung was worth five silver pieces.

Whether in the KJV, the RSV, or the NWT, in 2 Kings 6:25 it is consistently "dove's dung," apparently a famine food that commanded good money during a famine in Samaria. To this day, I still think of it only as famine food. And yet Zohary neither indexes Ornithogalum nor "dove's dung," nor the more euphonious "Star of Bethlehem," alluding to the six white points of the flower. So be it. Bulbs were used for food in Syria. In Dioscorides' day, the bulbs were commonly gathered, ground into meal, and mixed with flour to make bread. Modern Italians in time of scarcity eat the bulb. As Moldenke and Moldenke (1952) note, "These apparently authentic reports are remarkable since chemical analysis shows that the entire plant is intensely poisonous. Grazing animals avoid it, or, if they do eat of it are poisoned ... the bulbs are edible only after being thoroughly roasted or boiled." Having read such alarming notes, I ventured out one March morning and boiled a few of the bulbs from the dark green weedy patches in my lawn. I boiled the tubers vigorously, without salt, and then cautiously consumed one. It had a saponaceous quality, suggesting to me that I might be consuming a hemolytic saponin from a dangerous family. There was a bitter aftertaste. Then I salted the bulb, which was a bit more palatable. I would need to be near starvation to consume more of these. I experienced a shortness-of-breath following the ingestion of only two bulbs. Philips (HJP) said that Egyptians and Syrians stored the bulbs for their pilgrimages to Mecca. My favorite foraging book for use in the field, Edible Wild Plants of Eastern North America, also treats them as edible, while my favorite poisonous plants text reports that the bulbs have caused death in cattle in the United States. Because the pretty stars open rather late in the day, they have been called "Sleepy Dick" or "Eleven O'Clock Lady." They marked 11:00 a.m. in Linnaeus's floral clock. I find that even as a floral clock species, it is not very timely. Specimens pulled during the day and left under fluorescent bulbs until 11:00 p.m. never close; hence, they do not open the next day. However, similar batches of specimens placed on a table in the unlit gazebo of the Green Farmacy Garden do close, early on dark days, later on bright days, to reopen with the morning light (BIB).

Common Names (Star of Bethlehem):

Aglio Florido (It.; HHB); Bath Asparagus (Eng.; GMH); Bella d'Undici Ore (Fr.; EFS); Belle d'Onze Heures (Fr.; EFS); Bogelmelk (Dutch; EFS); Cipollone Bianco (It.; HHB); Dame d'Onze Heures (Fr.; EFS); Dolden Milchstern (Ger.; USN); Doldiger Milchstern (Ger.; HH2); Dove's Dung (Eng.; GMH); Ebenstraussige (Ger.; HHB); Great Arabic Star Flower (Eng.; GMH); Leche de Gallina (Sp.; EFS); Leite de Galinha (Por.; EFS); Lesser Spanish Star (Eng.; GMH); Milchstern (Ger.; EFS); Nap at Noon (Eng.; HOC; USN); Ornitagalo (Sp.; EFS); Ornithogalum (Greek; GMH); Sleepy Dick (Eng.; USN); Snowdrop (Eng.; HHB; HOC); Star of Bethlehem (Eng.; CR2; EFS); Star of Hungary (Eng.; GMH); Stern von Bethlehem (Ger.; USN); Tukrukotu (Tur.; EFS); Vogelmilch (Ger.; EFS; HHB); White Field Onion (Eng.; GMH); Nscn.

Activities (Star of Bethlehem):

Cardiotonic (1; HOC); Digitalic (1; HOC); Emollient (f; HHB; HOC); Poison (f; CRC).

Indications (Star of Bethlehem):

Adenopathy (f; CRC; HJP); Cancer (f; GMH); Cardiopathy (1; HOC); Debility (f; CRC; HJP); Lym-phosis (f; CRC). Bulbs of other eastern species were used for cachexia, infections, parotitis, scabs, ulcers, and wasting disease.

Dosages (Star of Bethlehem):

Although EFS defines it as nutritive, and FAC, GMH, HOW, and TAN, and even Dioscorides, say that bulbs are edible, raw or cooked, I no longer feel safe with these bulbs as food. Facciola says the flowers are eaten baked in bread (FAC).

• Lebanese used the bulb for lymphatic ailments and recommended them in diets for debility (HJP).

Downsides (Star of Bethlehem):

For a change, I should like to mention Peggy Duke, who illustrated Steve Hill's and Peggy Duke's 1985 100 Poisonous Plants of Maryland. "The bulbs contain toxic alkaloids that have killed sheep and cattle. There have been heavy losses in Maryland, where more than 1000 sheep were lost in a single year after eating bulbs that were brought to the surface by frost heaves. Apparently the leaves are not poisonous" (Hill and Duke, 1985).

Extracts (Star of Bethlehem):

Although early reports of the gout medicine colchicine have been extricated from the credible literature, there are still reports of other toxins (e.g., convallotoxin, convalloside, and strophanthidin) in


christ's thorn (paliuris spina-christi mill.) + rhamnaceae


Paliurus aculeatus Lam.; Paliurus australis Gaertn.; Rhamnus paliurus L. Notes (Christ's Thorn):

And when they had platted a crown of thorns, they put it upon his head, and a reed in his right hand: and they bowed the knee before him, and mocked him, saying, Hail, King of the Jews!

Matthew 27:29 (KJV)

And plaiting a crown of thorns they put it on his head, and put a reed in his right hand. And kneeling before him they mocked him, saying, "Hail, King of the Jews!"

Matthew 27:29 (RSV)

And they braided a crown out of thorns and put it on his head, and a reed in his right hand. And kneeling before him they made fun of him, saying, "Good day, you King of the Jews!"

Matthew 27:29 (NWT)

To my surprise, there are two Rhamnaceous crown of thorns: one in the genus Paliurus, and the other is Ziziphus. Paliurus has a dry flattened, probably inedible fruit with a wing-like margin; Ziziphus has a fleshy globular edible fruit. Pliny the elder reported it useful for inflamed tumors (JLH).

Common Names (Christ's Thorn):

Christ's-thorn (Eng.; USN); Farah Joli (Tur.; GEP); Paliure (Sp.; VAD); Samur (Arab.; Syria; GEP); Nscn.

Activities (Christ's Thorn):

Anticathartic (f; FP2); Antiinflammatory (f; JLH); Astringent (f; FP2); Diuretic (f; FP2; VAD); Hypocholesterolemic (f; VAD); Hypotensive (f; VAD); Tonic (f; FP2).

Indications (Christ's Thorn):

Arteriosclerosis (f; VAD); Cancer (f; JLH); Cardiopathy (f; VAD); High Blood Pressure (f; VAD); High Cholesterol (f; VAD); Inflammation (f; JLH); Oliguria (f; VAD); Stone (f; VAD); Tumor (f; JLH); Urolithiasis (f; VAD).

Dosages (Christ's Thorn):

Facciola erroneously equates this species with the edible Ziziphus spinus-christi. Otherwise, I find no reference to this species being edible. 30g/l in tea, 3 to 4 cups a day (VAD); 30 drops fluid extract (1:1) 3 x/day (VAD); 50-100 drops tincture (1:5) 1-3 x/day (VAD).

sea daffodil (pancratium maritimum l.) + amaryllidaceae

Notes (Sea Daffodil):

The wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad for them; and the desert shall rejoice, and blossom as the rose.

Isaiah 35:1 (KJV)

The wilderness and the dry land shall be glad, the desert shall rejoice and blossom; like the crocus.

Isaiah 35:1 (RSV)

The wilderness and the waterless region will exult, and the desert plain will be joyful and blossom as the saffron.

Isaiah 35:1 (RSV)

Like Panax, the name Pancratium implies all powerful, alluding to its healing potential (Greek pan = all; krotion = power). Widely cultivated as an ornamental, the plant also volunteers along tropical seashores, sometimes reaching higher latitudes. Zohary is skeptical about this representing either the biblical lily or the biblical rose, as some non-Israeli writers had suggested. Looks like RSV and NWT identified it with the saffron crocus.

Common Names (Sea Daffodil):

Busayl (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Qa'bul (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Qu'bul (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Sanbak Bahari (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Sand Lily (Eng.; HJP); Sea Daffodil (Eng.; FAC; TAN; ZOH); Shoshan (Heb.;

ZOH); Soosan (Arab.; Egypt; X9617056, 1998); Susan (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Susan al Bahr (Arab,; ZOH); Nscn.

Activities (Sea Daffodil):

Acaricide (1; X9617056); Anticancer (1; X15909123); Antimalarial (f; X14669261); Antinociceptive (1; X9379365); Aphrodisiac (f; HJP); Apoptotic (1; X15909123); Emetic (f; DAW); Larvicide (1; X9617056); Mosquitocide (1; X9617056); Poison (f; HJP); Purgative (f; DAW).

Indications (Sea Daffodil):

Impotence (f; HJP); Malaria (f; X14669261); Pain (1; X9379365); Sore (f; HJP); Splenosis (f; DAW); Venereal Disease (f; HJP); Wound (f; HJP).

Dosages (Sea Daffodil):

"Bulbs may be edible" (TAN). Edible bulbs exhibited with other foods at the International Exhibition of 1862 (FAC; TAN). Seeds apparently eaten in ancient Greece (GAC).

Downsides (Sea Daffodil):

As of July 2004, the FDA Poisonous Plant Database listed titles alluding to toxicity of this species. Natural History (Sea Daffodil):

The sea daffodil is regarded as a herald of rain in Israel. Flowering late in summer in the Holy Land, the leaves develop later. Flowers, like the evening primrose, open late in the afternoon, and are pollinated by nocturnal hawk moths — during their "one night stand." The plant, growing on unstable beaches and shorelines, has contractive roots that pull exposed roots deeper into the ground (ZOH).

millet (panicum miliaceum l.) ++ poaceae


Panicum asperimum L.; Panicum effusum R. Br.; Panicum miliaceum L. convar. effusum Alef.; Panicum miliaceum L. var. effusum Alef.; Panicum miliaceum L. var. ruderale Kitagawa; Panicum milium Pers.; Panicum ruderale fide DEP and POR (Kitag.) Chang; Panicum spontaneum Lysov ex Zuk

Notes (Millet):

Take thou also unto thee wheat, and barley, and beans, and lentiles, and millet and fitches, and put them in one vessel, and make thee bread thereof, according to the number of the days that thou shalt lie upon thy side, three hundred and ninety days shalt thou eat thereof.

Ezekiel 4:9 (KJV)

And you, take wheat and barley, beans and lentils, millet and spelt, and put them into a single vessel, and make bread of them. During the number of days that you lie upon your side, three hundred and ninety days, you shall eat it.

Ezekiel 4:9 (RSV)

And as for you, take for yourself wheat and barley, and broad beans and lentils, and millet and spelt, and you must put them in one utensil, and make them into bread for you, for the number of days that you are lying upon your side, three hundred and ninety days you shall eat it.

Ezekiel 4:9 (NWT)

FIGURE 1.78 Millet (Panicum miliaceum).

Ezekiel is said to have received an order from God to make bread with wheat, barley, beans, lentils, and pannag (millet), (and spelt or fitches, depending on the version). The mixture was moistened with camel's milk, oil, or butter. It was the main food that the common people ate. And as I stated previously, it certainly sounds healthier than some of today's breads — even the fortified breads. Zohary notes that millet or dohan was mentioned only once in the scriptures, suggesting that it may have become more popular after biblical times. He suggests that it derived from Ethiopian Panicum cal-losum. Relics are found in Mesopotamia as early as 3000 B.c., but no traces have been found in Israel, where it requires irrigation. Some writers suggest that pannag may be etymologically related to the Greek panexia, meaning a universal medicine or panacea, considered by Greek physicians as the cure for many ailments. It is eaten, often cooked unground like rice, during the religious fasts of Hindus. Proso millet is grown mainly in the United States as a grain crop, but may occasionally be grown for forage, but as forage the stems are coarse, hairy, and unpalatable. The seeds are chewed and the juice is applied to children's sores. Decoction is used as an antidote to Momordica poisoning (BIB).

Common Names (Millet Panic):

Acte hirse (Ger.; NAD); ^gte Hirse (Den.; POR); Akdari (Tur.; EFS); Anne (Pun.; DEP); Anu (Sanskrit; DEP); Arzan (Iran; DEP); Azhaum (Ashkobi; KAB); Azhdan (Kila Saifulla; KAB); Azhdun (Tobu; KAB); Bansi (Bundel.; KAB); Barag (Mar.; KAB); Baragu (Kan.; NAD; WOI); Bili Baragu (Kan.; DEP); Borona de Filipinas (Sp.; EFS); Bread Millet (Eng.; HHB); Broomcorn Millet (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2; NPM); Cavers (Tur.; POR); Chabor (Shoran; KAB); Cheena (Beng.; WOI); Chenaa (Hindi; Pun.; POR); Cheno (Mah.; NAD); Chi (China; EFS); Chin (Hindi; DEP; KAB); China (Beng.; Hindi; Sanskrit; EFS; NAD); Chinh (Bihar; DEP); Chino (Dec.; Mah.; Sindh; NAD); Chinu (Sin.; DEP; KAB); Chinwa (Kas.; DEP; KAB); Ciinaa (Guj.; POR); Cino (Nepal; POR); Cinu (Nepal; POR); Common Millet (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2; DEP; NPM); Dhengali (Mah.; NAD); Dhengli (Mah.; NAD); Dhurah Hhamra' (Arab.; POR); Dick Hirse (Ger.; EFS; HHB); Dohan (Heb.; ZOH); Dohna (Arab.; ZOH); Dokhu (Arab.; DEP); Dudha Vari (Mah.; NAD); Duhn (Arab.; ZOH); Dukhn (Arab.; POR); Echte Hirse (Ger.; EFS; HHB); Flatter Hirse (Ger.; EFS; HHB); Gadio (Guj.; NAD); Gamh (Quetta; KAB); Gemeiner Hirse (Ger.; EFS); Gewöhnliche Rispenhirse (Ger.; POR); Ghoti Savi (Mah.; NAD); Hairy Millet (Eng.; POR); Harilik Hirss (Estonia; POR); Hirs (Swe.; POR); Hirse (Den.; POR); Hirssi (Fin.; POR); Hog Millet (Eng.; NPM); Indian Buffalo Grass (S. Afr.; KAB); Indian Millet (Eng.; POR); Ji (China; POR); Kadukanni (Tam.; WOI); Katakanai (Tam.; DEP); Khra ma (Tibet; NPM); Kibi (Japan; POR); Klumpe Hirse (Ger.; EFS; HHB); Köles (Hun.; EFS); Kuri (Guj.; Nwp.; DEP; NAD); Mainairi (Sin.; DEP; POR); Miglio (It.; EFS); Miglio Nostrale (It.; EFS); Miglio Nostrano (It.; Swiss; POR); Mijo (Sp,; USN); Mijo Comun (Sp.; EFS); Mijo Mayor (Sp.; EFS); Mil (Fr.; POR); Mil en Branches (Fr.; KAB); Milho Miudo (Por.; EFS); Milho Paingo (Por.; POR); Millet (Eng.; Scn.; AH2); Millet Commun (Fr.; EFS); Millet d'Inde (Fr.; EFS); Millet Panic (Eng.; USN); Millet Panicule (Fr.; EFS); Millet Rond (Fr.; NAD); Milocorn (Eng.; HHB); Panico Coltivato (It.; Swiss; POR); Panico Miglio (It.; POR); Panivaragu (Tam.; POR); Phikai (Bundel.; DEP); Pliumgierst (Dutch; EFS); Plui-mgierst (Dutch; POR); Proso Millet (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2; NPM); Proso Obyknovennoe (Rus.; POR); Proso Posevnoe (Rus.; POR); Proso Sornoe (Rus.; POR); Proso Zwyczajne (Pol.; POR); Rad (Sanskrit; DEP); KRalle (Mah.; NAD); Rispenhirse (Ger.; POR); Russian Millet (Eng.; HHB); Salar (Pun.; KAB); Sama (Bom.; KAB); Samli (Guj.; DEP; KAB); San Zhi Ji (China; POR); Sava (India; EFS); Save (Kan.; KAB; NAD); Sawan Chaitwa (Nwp.; DEP); Sawanjethwa (Nwp.; KAB); Shamakh (Dec.; DEP); Shu (China; DEP; POR); Small Millet (Eng.; NAD); Thulo Kaguno (Nepal; POR); Trosgierst (Dutch; POR); True Millet (Eng.; POR); Tzedze (Ladak; DEP; KAB); Vara (Mah.; NAD); Varagu (Tam.; KAB; POR); Varaka (Sanskrit; KAB); Vari (Bom.; Dec.; Mah.; Sindh; DEP; NAD); Variga (Tel.; WOI); Varo (Mar.; WOI); Viljahirssi (Fin.; POR); Vogelgierst (Dutch; POR); Waaraagaalu (Tel.; POR); Wadi (Bom.; DEP); Wari (Dec.; KAB); Wild Millet (Eng.; POR); Wild Proso Millet (Eng.; POR); Wilde Rispenhirse (Ger.; POR); Worga (Tel.; DEP; KAB); Worglo (Arab.; KAB); Ye Sheng Ji (China; POR); Ye Sheng Ji Cao (China; POR).

Activities (Millet Panic):

Antidote (Cinnabar) (f; DAW); Antidote (Momordica) (f; DAW); Demulcent (f; DAW; EFS; NAD); Diuretic (f; DAW; EFS); Intoxicant (f; DAW); Pectoral (f; DAW; EFS); Refrigerant (f; BIB; DAW).

Indications (Millet Panic):

Abscess (f; DAA; DAW); Bleeding (f; DAW); Boil (f; DAW); Cancer (f; DAA); Cancer, breast (f; DAW); Childbirth (f; DAW); Cough (f; DAW); Dermatosis (f; DAA); Diarrhea (f; NAD); Fever (f; DAW); Gonorrhea (f; KAB); Hematuria (f; DAW); Mastosis (f; BIB); Sore (f; DAA; DAW); Venereal Disease (f; DAW).

Dosages (Millet Panic):

As human food, millet is used as meal for making bread and other baked foods, as a paste from pounded wet seeds or as a boiled gruel. Prepared with milk and sugar, it is frequent at Indian marriage ceremonies. In Bihar, it is boiled and parched to make markka. In eastern Europe, the Balkans, Caucasus, and Asia, it is used to make an alcoholic beverage. The grain is eaten readily by livestock (mainly hogs, cattle, and poultry), but is not suited for horses. It is also grown for commercial birdfeed. It should be ground for livestock feed, equal to or superior in food value to oats (BIB; DEP; NPM).

• Baluchistanis use the plant to treat gonorrhea (KAB).

• Germans paste powdered seeds onto mammary cancers, (it was even tried at Memorial Hospital in New York) (JLH).

opium poppy (papaver somniferum l.) (+++ seeds) (xxx opium) papaveraceae

Notes (Opium Poppy):

They gave him vinegar to drink mingled with gall: and when he had tasted thereof he would not drink.

Matthew 27:34 (KJV)

They offered him wine to drink, mingled with gall; but when he tasted it, he would not drink it.

Matthew 27:34 (RSV)

They gave him wine mixed with gall to drink; but after tasting it, he refused to drink.

Matthew 27:34 (RSV)

Unlike Zohary (ZOH), I am still inclined to believe that the biblical gall was opium. First I quote from my 1985 book, now out of print: "Walker equates this gall with Papaver somniferum while Moldenke and Moldenke equate it with Citrullus colocyntkis, not even considering the opium poppy." The gall added to the vinegar and offered to Jesus was the juice of the opium poppy, a flower thriving in the Holy Land. The plant provides a narcotic that induces a heavy sleep. When the Roman soldiers at Golgatha took pity on their prisoner on the cross, they added poppy juice to the sour wine. Opium is the air-dried milky exudation obtained from excised unripe fruits. Egyptians claim to become more cheerful, talkative, and industrious following the eating of opium. When falling asleep, they have visions of orchards and pleasure gardens embellished with many trees, herbs, and various flowers (BIB). Jewish authorities maintain that the plant and its stupefacience were well known among the Hebrews more than 2000 years ago. The Jerushalmi warns against opium eating (BIB). Perhaps the following from Associated Press will strengthen my case: Researchers uncovered evidence of a thriving Bronze Age drug trade which supplied narcotics to ancient Mediterranean

Jerusele Ayukan Jesu
FIGURE 1.79 Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum).

cultures to ease pain of childbirth and disease. Ancient ceramic pots, most nearly identical in shape and about five inches long, found in settlements throughout the Middle East, date as far back as 1400 BC, according to Joe Zias, anthropologist, Hebrew University, Jerusalem. If turned upside down, the thin-necked vessels with rounded bases each resemble a poppy pod. The Mycenaean ceramics, analyzed with gas chromatography, turned up traces of opium. (Associated Press, August 8, 2002). And now there is new evidence as to why this plant has been a balm (and bane) to mankind for at least 5 millennia.

Common Names (Opium Poppy):

Abin (Sin.; DEP; NAD); Abini (Tam.; Tel.; DEP; NAD); Abkini (Tel.; DEP); Abou en Noum (Arab.; BOU); Abunom (Arab.; DEP); Adormidero (Sp.; EFS); Afim (Dec.; Hindi; Kasahmir; Nepal; Pun.; DEP; KAB; NAD); Afioun (Arab.; BOU); Afu (Mah.; NAD); Afyun (Arab.; Hindi; GHA; KAB); Agria (Greek; KAB); Ahiphena (Sanskrit; DEP; NAD; WOI); Amapola (Peru; Sp.; EGG); Anfiao (Por.; POR); A Phien (Ic.; KAB); Aphim (Bom.; Guj.; Mah.; Nepal; NAD; POR); Aphina (Guj.; DEP); Aphioni (Greek; POR); Aphu (Mar.; DEP; KAB); Aphukam (Sanskrit; POR); Apkim (Nepal; DEP; KAB); Appo (Bom.; DEP; KAB); Balewort (Eng.; KAB); Bhain (Burma; DEP); Bhainzi (Burma; KAB); Bhinbin (Burma; NAD); Bilgasgase (Kan.; KAB; WOI); Birkes (Den.; POR); Biz-rulkhashkhash (Arab.; KAB); Blauwmaanzaad (Dutch; POR); Bou en Noum (Arab.; BOU); Boudi (Arab.; BOU); Boundi (Arab.; BOU); Bungapion (Malaya; KAB); Cascall (Cat.; KAB); Chosa (Sanskrit; KAB); Doda (Kachhi; Pun.; DEP; KAB); Dormideira (Por.; EFS); Dormidera (Sp.; KAB); Gartenmohn (Ger.; EFS); Gasagasala (Tel.; KAB); Gasagase (Kan.; DEP); Gasalu (Tel.; WOI); Gashagasha (Tam.; NAD); Harir Igran (Arab.; BOU); Hashas (Tur.; EFS); Hashash (Tur.; KAB); Heul (Dutch; KAB); Hishas (Arab.; GHA); Kasakase (Kan.; Kon.; NAD); Kaskakasha (Mal.; KAB); Keshi (Japan; POR); Khas Khas (Sanskrit; EFS); Khashkhash Aswad (Arab.; Iran; BOU; DEP; KAB); Khashkhashsufaid (Urdu; KAB); Kheskkhash (Arab.; BOU); Khuskhus (Guj.; Mar.; WOI); Koknar (Iran; KAB); Kuru (Mal.; DEP); Maankop (Dutch; EFS; POR); Maanzaad (Dutch; POR); Mak (Hun.; EFS); Mak Lekarski (Pol.; POR); Mak Opiinyi (Rus; POR); Mak Opijnyj (Rus.; POR); Mak Sety (Czech; POR); Mak Snotvornyi (Rus.; KAB; POR); Oeillette (Fr.; POR); Oopiumiunikko (Fin.; POR); Opievallmo (Swe.; POR); Opium Poppy (Eng.; Scn.; AH2; CR2); Opiumvallmo (Swe.; POR); Opiumvalmue (Den.; Nor.; POR); Papavero (It.; EFS); Papavero da Oppio (It.; POR); Papoula Branca (Por.; KAB); Parag Tarbuti (Heb.; POR); Pasto (Beng.; KAB); Pavot (Fr.; BOU); Pavot Somnifère (Fr.; EFS); Peony Poppy (Eng.; KAB); Pest (Hindi; KAB); Pianta da Oppio (Malta; KAB); Pikincha (Sa.; ROE); Pioniunikko (Fin.; POR); Pionvallmo (Swe.; POR); Posht (Kum.; DEP); Post (Beng.; Hindi; DEP); Posta (Oudh; DEP); Postaka (Tam.; KAB; WOI); Posta Katol (Tel.; NAD); Posto Dheri (Beng.; NAD); Saphenaka (Sanskrit; NAD); Schlafmohn (Ger.; EFS); Slaapbol (Dutch; EFS; POR); Slaappapaver (Dutch; POR); Somnisor (Rom.; KAB); Sufeed Srah (Hindi; NAD); Tilidout (Ber.; BOU); Uniko (Fin.; POR); Vallmo (Swe.; KAB); Valmuafrœ (Iceland; EFS); Valmue (Den.; Nor.; EFS; POR); Valmue Fr0 (Den.; POR); Vrtni Mak (Croatia; POR); Yang Gwi Bi (Korea; POR); Yanko Maiwa (Sa.; ROE); Ya Pin (China; NAD); Ying Su (Pin.; DAA); Ying Tzu Shu (China; EFS); Za Zang (Laos; POR).

Activities (Opium Poppy):

Abortifacient (f; SKJ); Analgesic (f1; APA; CRC; PHR); Anaphrodisiac (f1; FEL); Anodyne (f1; CRC; KAP); Anorectic (1; PR14:401); Antidiarrheal (f; PNC); Antidote (Atropine) (f; FEL); Antidote (Physostigmine) (f; FEL); Antidote (Strychnine) (f; FEL); Antiinflammatory (f; DEP); Antino-ciceptive (f1; PR14:401); Antispasmodic (f1; APA; DEM; DEP; FEL; PNC); Antitussive (f1; APA; PHR; PNC); Aphrodisiac (f; CRC; KAB); Astringent (f1; CRC; DAA; KAB); Bactericide (1; BIB); Bradycardic (1; PR14:401); Calmative (f1; CRC); Carminative (f; BIB; CRC); Cerebrostimulant (1; KAP; FEL); Chemopreventive (1; JAC7:405); Constipative (f1; PR14:401); Decongestant (1; CRC);

Deliriant (f; KAB); Demulcent (f; BIB; CRC); Diaphoretic (f; FEL; PNC); Diuretic (f; KAB); Emmenaogue (f; BOU); Emollient (f; CRC); Euphoric (f1; APA); Expectorant (f; CRC; ROE); Febrifuge (f1; FEL); Glutathiogenic (1; JAC7:405); Hemostat (f; CRC; KAB); Hypotensive (f; BIB; CRC); Hypnotic (1; APA); Intoxicant (f1; CRC); Lipogenic (f; KAB); Myorelaxant (f1; APA; FEL); Narcotic (f1; APA; CRC; SUW); Nervine (f; BIB; CRC; EFS); Refrigerant (f; KAB); Sedative (f1; APA; CRC; KAP); Spinostimulant (f; FEL); Stimulant (1; APA); Sudorific (f; CRC); Tonic (f; BIB; CRC); Tranquilizer (f; DEM); Vasodilator (1; CRC).

Indications (Opium Poppy):

Abscess (f; NAD); Amenorrhea (f; BOU); Anemia (f; KAB); Angina (1; DAA); Anxiety (f1; APA); Asthma (1; APA; CRC; FEL); Bleeding (f; KAB); Boil (f; BIB; CRC); Bronchosis (f; KAP; PHR); Bruise (f; CRC); Calculus (f1; FEL; NAD); Cancer (f1; CRC; FNF; JAC7:405); Cancer, bladder (f1; JLH); Cancer, breast (f1; JLH); Cancer, colon (f1; JLH); Cancer, ear (f1; JLH); Cancer, esophagus (f1; JAC7:405); Cancer, eye (f1; JLH); Cancer, liver (f1; JLH); Cancer, nose (f1; JLH); Cancer, skin (f1; JLH); Cancer, spleen (f1; JLH); Cancer, stomach (f1; JLH); Cancer, throat (f1; JLH); Cancer, tongue (f1; JLH); Cancer, uterus (f1; JLH); Cancer, uvula (f1; JLH); Cancer, vagina (f1; JLH); Carbuncle (f; NAD); Cardiopathy (f; NAD; WOI); Catarrh (f; CRC; FEL; ROE); Childbirth (f1; FEL); Cholecocystosis (f; PHR); Cholera (f; DEP; FEL; NAD); Cold (f; CRC); Colic (f; DEP; PHR; PH2); Condyloma (f; JLH); Conjunctivosis (f; CRC; FEL; NAD; PH2); Convulsion (f; KAP); Cough (f1; APA; FEL; PHR; PNC; ROE); Cramp (f1; APA; BOU; DEM; PH2); Cystosis (f1; BIB; CRC; DEP; PH2); Delirium (f; DEP; FEL); Depression (f; PH2); Dermatosis (f; FEL; JLH; ROE); Diabetes (f; NAD); Diarrhea (f1; APA; BOU; CRC; FEL; PH2); Duodenitis (f; WOI); Dysentery (f1; CRC; DEP; FEL; PH2); Dysmenorrhea (f; CRC; DEP); Dyspepsia (f; FEL; NAD); Earache (f; NAD); Eclampsia (1; FEL); Embolism (1; WOI); Enterosis (f1; APA; BOU; CRC; FEL; PH2); Epistaxis (f; BIB); Erysipelas (f; FEL); Fever (f; CRC; DEP; PH2); Flu (f; ROE; WOI); Flux (f; CRC); Gallstone (f; PH2); Gangrene (f; DEP); Gastrosis (f1; APA; DEP); Gonorrhea (f; FEL); Gout (1; FEL); Headache (f; CRC; DAA); Hemicrania (f; BIB; CRC; NAD); Hemorrhoid (f; FEL; NAD); Hepatosis (f; DEP; JLH); Hernia (f; NAD); High Blood Pressure (f; CRC); Hyperacidity (f; WOI); Hypochondria (f; CRC); Hysteria (f; CRC; FEL); Induration (f; JLH); Inflammation (f; CRC; EGG; PH2); Inhibition (1; APA); Insomnia (f1; APA; CRC; GHA); Itch (f; BIB); Kidney stone (f; PH2); Labor (f; NAD); Leprosy (f; NAD); Leukorrhea (f; CRC; DAA); Lumbago (f; NAD); Malaria (f; CRC; NAD); Mania (f; BIB; CRC); Mastosis (f; JLH); Melancholy (f; CRC); Menorrhagia (f; DEP); Metritis (f; NAD); Mucososis (f; FEL); Myocardosis (f; WOI); Nausea (f; CRC; FEL); Nephrosis (f; DEP; FEL); Neuralgia (f; CRC; FEL); Neurosis (f; DEP; GHA); Ophthalmia (f; DEP; PH2); Otosis (f; CRC); Pain (f1; APA; BOU; FEL); Peritonosis (f; DEP; FEL); Pertussis (f; CRC; WOI); Phthisis (f; DEP; FEL); Polyp (f; JLH); Proctosis (f; CRC; FEL; PH2); Prolapse (f; CRC; PH2); Pulmonosis (f; FEL; ROE); Raynaud's (1; WOI); Respirosis (f1; APA; FEL); Rheumatism (f; CRC; DEP); Scirrhus (f; JLH); Scrofula (f; NAD); Smallpox (f; NAD); Snakebite (f; CRC; NAD); Sore Throat (f; EGG; JLH); Spasm (f1; PHR); Spermatorrhea (f; CRC; DAA); Splenosis (f; JLH); Sprain (f; BIB; CRC); Stomachache (f1; APA; BIB; CRC); Stomatosis (f; EGG); Sunstroke (f; NAD); Swelling (f; CRC); Tenesmus (f; FEL; NAD); Tetanus (f; DEP; FEL; NAD); Toothache (f; CRC; DAA); Tuberculosis (f; PH2; WOI); Tumor (f; CRC); Typhoid (f; FEL); Typhus (f; NAD; PH2); Ulcer (f; CRC; PH2; WOI); Urethrosis (f; NAD); Urogenitosis (f1; BOU; PHR); Uterosis (f; DEP; FEL; JLH; NAD); Uvulosis (f; JLH); Vaginosis (f; JLH); Vomiting (f; DAA); Wart (f; CRC; JLH); Wound (f1; PHR).

Dosages (Opium Poppy):

Seeds widely eaten or used as oil seed. Seeds contain no opium, and are used extensively in baking and sprinkling on rolls and bread. Although the seeds contain no narcotic alkaloids, urinalysis following their ingestion may suggest morphine or heroin use. Leaves not so widely eaten as potherb or salad (BIB; DEP). Prescription only (for opiates). I do not believe I would recommend the dosage in KAP that is, 30-125 mg).

• Algerians tamp opium into tooth cavities (BIB).

Ayurvedics, consider seeds aphrodisiac, constipating, and tonic, the fruit antitussive, binding, cooling, deliriant, excitant, and intoxicant, yet anaphrodisiac if freely indulged, the plant aphrodisiac, astringent, fattening, stimulant, tonic, and good for the complexion (KAB).

• Chinese use poppy heads for diarrhea, dysentery, and fluxes (KAB).

• Iranians use the seeds for epistaxis; applying a paste made from Linum, Malva, and Papaver to boils (BIB).

• Lebanese use opium wisely, to quiet excitable people, to relieve toothache, headache, incurable pain and for boils, coughs, dysentery, and itches (HJP).

• Peruvians suggest decoction of white flowers for flu, with milk for cough (ROE).

• Peruvians suggest floral or capsular tea for oral inflammation (EGG).

• Unani medicine suggests the fruit for anemia, chest pains, dysentery, fever. Deemed hypnotic, narcotic, and perhaps harmful to the brain (KAB).

Downsides (Opium Poppy):

Seeds Class 1 (AHP, 1997). Not indexed in Commission E. Opium overdoses can cause cold clammy skin, fast weak pulse, fluid in the lungs, cyanosis, pupil constriction, and possible death from circulatory and respiratory failure. Opium addicts can reportedly tolerate 2000 mg over 4 hours, but 300 mg will kill many naive subjects. Opiates have been detected in urine of poppy seed eaters as much as 48 hours after ingestion.

Natural History (Opium Poppy):

Although some self-pollination occurs before the flowers open, cross-pollination by insects also occurs. Some of the fungi attacking opium poppy include the following species: Alternaria bras-sicae var. somniferi, Cladosporium herbarum, Erysiphe polygoni, Fusarium scirpi var. caudatum, Heterosporium echinulatum, Macrosporium papaveris, M. bresdolae, Mucor mucedo, Ophiobolus sativus, Oidium erysiphoides, Peronospora arborescens, P. papaveracea, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Trichothecium roseum. Plants are also attacked by the bacteria Bacillus (Erwinia) papaveri, causing bacterial blight, and Xanthomonas papavericola. The following nematodes have been isolated from the opium poppy: Ditylenchus dipsaci, Longidorus maximus, Meloidogyne sp., Pratylenchus crenatus, P. penetrans, and P. pratensis. Insect pests include Aphis papaveris, Ceutorhynchus abbreviatus, C. albovittatus, C. maculaalba, Cynips minor, Dasynevra papaveris, C. callida, Lestodiplosis callida, Mamestra brassicae, Phytomiza albiceps, Sciophila wahlbomiana, and Stenocarus fuliginosus (HOE).

Extracts (Opium Poppy):

Like ginkgo, it "increases blood flow to the brain" (APA). But there is more. Poeaknapo (2005) reports de novo formation of morphine in human cells. Morphine, the major alkaloid of opium of Papaver somniferum, is one of the strongest analgesics known. "Endogenous morphine" has been long isolated and authenticated by mass spectrometry in trace amounts from specific animal and human tissue or fluids. The most widely accepted explanation presently is that morphine detected in human and animal tissues is of exogenous sources (e.g., dietary origin). Poeaknapo concludes that morphine, reticuline, and norlaudanosoline are unequivocally biosynthesized by cultured human cells, the precursors conclusively shown to be oxygen, tyramine, reticuline, and thebaine (X15874902). Phillips et al. (2005) quantified the phytosterols in poppy seed: delta-5-avenasterol, 177 ppm; delta-7-avenasterol; campestanol, 26 ppm; campesterol, 290 ppm; phytosterols, 1850 ppm; poriferasta-7,25-dienol, 89 ppm; poriferasta-7,22,25-dienol; sitostanol, <13 ppm seed; beta-sitosterol, 1093 ppm; spinasterol; stigmastanol; delta-7-stigmastenol and stigmasterol, 68 ppm (X16302759).

date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) +++ arecaceae

Notes (Date Palm):

And the greater house he cieled with fir tree, which he overlaid with fine gold, and set thereon palm trees and chains.

2 Chronicles 3:5 (KJV)

The nave he lined with cypress, and covered it with fine gold, and made palms and chains on it.

2 Chronicles 3:5 (RSV)

And the great house he covered with juniper wood, after which he covered it with good gold, and then he brought up upon it palm tree figures and chains.

2 Chronicles 3:5 (NWT)

The versions are consistent with the palm, but the ceiling was fir in KJV, cypress in RSV, and juniper in NWT. Zohary says the date palm is one of the Holy Land's most ancient fruit trees (cultivated remains found in Chalcolithic [circa 3700 B.c.] and Ubaidian [circa 4000 B.c.] strata at several sites in the Near East). In Judges 4:5, Deborah sat under the palm tree, poetic symbol of justice, righteousness, and upright stature. It continues to symbolize holiness and resurrection in Christian worship. Jericho was described as the "city of palm trees" (Deuteronomy 34:3). Date palm has long been associated with Palestine, even being the symbol on its coinage. Arabs say that there are as many uses for dates as there are days in the year. There is an Arab adage: "its head should be in fire (sunshine) and its feet in water." And Psalmists say "the righteous shall flourish like the palm tree." There is sap in the palm tree that, after fermentation, is used as a liquor. This may be some of the strong drink or wine of the Bible (BIB; ZOH).

Common Names (Date Palm):

Abdandan (Kej.; KAB); Agjjuf (Ber.; BOU); Arabian Date (Eng.; KAB); Balah (Arab.; Nig.; Syria; AVP; BOU; HJP; UPW); Begamjangi (Panjgur; KAB); Blah (Arab.; BOU); Chhomer (Heb.; KAB); Chohoraa (Nepal; POR); Chhuharra (Bom.; NAD); Chuara (Bom.; DEP); Chuhara (India; EFS); Curmal (Rom.; KAB); Dabino (Gambia; UPW); Dabinos (Sudan; AVP); Daddel (Den.; Nor.; POR); Daddelpalme (Den.; Nor.; POR); Dadelpalm (Dutch; EFS); Dadels (Dutch; AVP); Daktyle (Pol.; AVP); Daktylowiec (Pol.; POR); Date (Eng.; USN); Date Palm (Eng.; Scn.; AH2; CR2); Dátil (Cuba; Peru; Sp.; AVP; EGG); Datilero (Col.; Peru; Sp.; AVP; EGG); Datte (Fr.; Haiti; AVP); Dattel (Ger.; AVP); Dattelpalm (Ger.; EFS); Dattelpalme (Ger.; POR); Datteri (It.; AVP); Dattero (It.; EFS); Dattier (Fr.; Haiti; AVP; BOU; EFS); Dattier Commun (Fr.; POR); Dipya (Sanskrit; KAB); Dvash (Heb.; ZOH); Dwane (Ivo.; UPW); Echte Dadelpalm (Dutch; POR); Echte El-nakheil (Arab.; BOU); Edible Date

Khejur Gas

FIGURE 1.BG Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera).

(Eng.; NAD); Finikovaia Pal'ma (Rus.; POR); Gajjira (Badaga; KAB); Gewone Dadelpalm (Dutch; POR); Gharar Khejur (Beng.; NAD); Gijjira Hannu (Kan.; NAD); Hai Zao (China; POR); Hazdacht (Ber.; BOU); Hurma Agaci (Tur.; EFS); Ichu (Tam.; KAB); Indi (Singh.; DEP; KAB); Inthaphalam (Thai; POR); Isgaren (Ber.; BOU); Ita (Tel.; KAB); Itta (Mal.; KAB); Ittappazham (Mal.; WOI);

Kajura (Kan.; Nwp.; Pushtu; DEP; KAB); Karchuram (Tam.; POR); Karek (Guj.; DEP; KAB); Kerjura Kaya (Tel.; NAD); Karmah (Tur.; DEP); Kasser (Bhutan; DEP); Khaji (Hindi; Pun.; KAB; POR); Khajur (Beng.; Guj.; Hindi; Mar.; Kon.; Pun.; Sharig; KAB; NAD; POR; WOI); Kharakia (Guj.; NAD); Kharchuram (Tam.; WOI); Kharik (Mah.; NAD); Kharjjuraha (Sanskrit; DEP); Khar-jur (Mar.; KAB); Kharjura (Ayu.; Kan.; AH2; DEP; WOI); Kharjuramu (Tel.; WOI); Khorjjuri (Oriya; KAB; WOI); Khourma (Tur.; AVP); Khurma (India; Nasiribad; Urdu; EFS; KAB); Khur-mae Yabis (Arab.; DEP); Khurmal Kshusk (Iran; EFS; NAD); Khurmal Yabis (Arab.; EFS; NAD); Kurma (Sin.; DEP); Mach (Kohhaja; KAB); Mtende (Swahili; POR); Nakhel (Arab.; GHA); Nakhl (Arab.; Iran; Syria; BOU; DEP; GHA; HJP); Nakhleh (Arab.; KAB); Natchla (Arab.; Mali; UPW); Natsuma yashi (Japan; TAN); Natsume Yashi (Japan; POR); Nekhla (Arab.; BOU); Ntamaro (West Cameroons; UPW); Palma (It.; Malta; KAB); Palma Datil (Sp.; EFS); Palma Datilifera (Sp.; EFS); Pal'ma Finikovaia (Rus.; POR); Palmeira (Por.; KAB); Palmera (Sp.; AVP); Palmera Datilera (Sp.; POR); Palmier Dattier (Fr.; BOU; USN); Palmera de Dátiles (Sp.; POR); Palmizio (It.; POR); Palm-trae (Swe.; KAB); Perichchankay (Tam.; DEP; NAD; POR); Perita (Tel.; DEP); Phinikovoe Dyerevo (Rus.; KAB); Phoinix (Greek; KAB); Pinda Kharjura (Sanskrit; NAD); Pindakhejur (Hindi; India; EFS; NAD); Salma (Hindi; POR); Sendhi (Hindi; POR); Sunbalun (Burma; KAB); Swonpalwon (Burma; DEP); Taatelipalmu (Fin.; POR); Tafinaout (Ber.; BOU); Tamalo (Sierra Leone; UPW); Tamar (Arab.; Heb.; POR; ZOH); Tamara (Por.; AVP); Tamareira (Por.; Mad.; AVP); Tamaruy (Sen.; UPW); Tambaroohi (Upper Volta; UPW); Tammar (Arab.; GHA); Tammr (Arab.; BOU; GHA); Tanekht (Ber.; BOU); Tar (Sin.; KAB); Tayniyut (Ber.; BOU); Tazdait (Ber.; BOU); Teeney (Niger; UPW); Temer (Arab.; POR); Tenitta (Mal.; WOI); Tiyni (Ber.; BOU); Tomer (Heb.; KAB); Ton Inthaphalam (Thai; POR); Ttmer (Arab.; BOU); Uttatti (Kan.; NAD); Vrai Dattier (Fr.; UPW); Wu Lou Zi (Pin.; DAA; EFS; KAB); Ye Zao (China; POR); Zao Ye (China; POR); Zao Ye Zi (China; POR).

Activities (Date):

Allergenic (1; X1485659); Antihistaminic (1; X15814265); Antiinflammatory (f; KAB); Antimuta-genic (1; X11804538); Antioxidant (1; X15814265); Antiradicular (1; X11804538); Aphrodisiac (f; BIB; BOU; DEP; EFS; GHA); Candidicide (1; FNF); Contraceptive (f; BIB); Demulcent (f; BIB; DEP); Deobstruent (f; HJP); Depurative (f; KAB); Diuretic (f; BIB; EFS); Emollient (f; BIB); Estro-genic (1; BIB; FNF); Expectorant (f; BIB); Fungicide (1; FNF); Gastroprotective (1; X15814265); Hepatotonic (f; KAB); Immunostimulant (1; X10904150); Laxative (f; BIB); Nephrotonic (f; KAB); Pectoral (f; BIB); Purgative (f; BIB); Refrigerant (f; BIB); Tonic (f; BOU; EFS; GHA).

Indications (Date):

Adenopathy (f; JLH); Ague (f; BIB); Anemia (f; BIB); Asthma (f; BIB; KAB); Bleeding (f; BOU); Blepharosis (f; BOU); Bronchosis (f; BIB; PH2); Bruise (f; GHA); Cancer (f; BIB); Cancer, abdomen (f; JLH); Cancer, colon (f; JLH); Cancer, liver (f; JLH); Cancer, mouth (f; JLH); Cancer, parotid (f; JLH); Cancer, spleen (f; JLH); Cancer, stomach (f; JLH); Cancer, testes (f; JLH); Cancer, throat (f; JLH); Cancer, uterus (f; JLH); Cancer, vagina (f; JLH); Candida (1; FNF); Catarrh (f; BIB); Chest (f; BIB); Coma (f; KAB); Condylomata (f; BIB); Cornea (f; NAD); Cough (f; BIB; BOU; KAB); Diarrhea (f; BIB; BOU; DEP); Enterosis (f; KAB); Fatigue (f; BIB); Fever (f; BIB); Flu (f; BIB); Gastro-sis (f1; JLH; PH2; X15814265); Gonorrhea (f; BIB; KAB); Halitosis (f; DEP); Hangover (f; NAD); Headache (f; GHA; PH2); Hemorrhoid (f; BIB); Hepatosis (f; JLH); Impotence (f; BIB); Induration (f; BIB; JLH); Infertility (f; BIB; BOU; UPW); Inflamation (f; PH2); Intoxication (f; NAD); Jaundice (f; BOU); Keratitis (f; DEP); Leprosy (f; KAB); Longevity (f; BIB); Malaria (f; NAD); Mastosis (f; HHB); Mycosis (1; FNF); Nausea (f; KAB); Nephrosis (f; PH2); Opacity (f; NAD); Ophthalmia (f; BIB; NAD; PH2); Orchosis (f; JLH); Paralysis (f; KAB); Parotosis (f; JLH); Pterygia (f; BIB); Pulmonosis (f; KAB); Smallpox (f; NAD); Sore (f; BOU); Sore Throat (f; JLH); Splenosis (f; BIB;

JLH); Sterility (f; BIB); Stomachache (f; BIB); Stomatosis (f; JLH); Thirst (f; BIB; BOU); Toothache (f; BIB); Tuberculosis (f; BIB); Ulcer (f1; X15814265); Unconsciousness (f; KAB); Urogenitosis (f; BIB); Uterosis (f; JLH); Vaginosis (f; BIB); Wart (f; BIB); Whitlow (f; BIB); Wound (f; PH2); Yeast (1; FNF).

Dosages (Date):

Fruits widely eaten; green fruits pickled and eaten; spathes soaked in water and chewed; male inflorescence (with estrone-containing pollen) eaten; pollen eaten; seeds occasionally eaten; pressed for edible oil; sap tapped for sugar or fermented. In some areas, 95% of the people survive on dates 9 months of the year. Fruits often preserved by drying or pressing them together into large cakes. Other products include date "honey" (bees are mentioned only four times in the Bible, while "honey" is mentioned 49 times), made from the juice of fresh fruit; date sugar; date sap, often made into a fermented beverage; date palm flour, made from pith of tree; oil from seeds; the kernels are ground up or soaked in water for days and used for animal food; both wine and honey are derived from the date; Nigerians feed dates with bran and Sterculia to immature young heifers to make them more prolific (BIB; FAC; TAN).

• Algerians smoke the seed powder for fever (HJP).

• Arabians consider the estrogen-containing pollen aphrodisiac and tonic (GHA).

• Arabians paste fruit on head and eyes for headache, salted fruits on bruises (GHA).

• Arabians use dates folklorically for gastric ulcers, and they work (X15814265).

• Arabians use green fruits as an astringent for hemorrhoids, applying powdered seeds or directing their smoke onto any affliction (BIB).

• Ayurvedics, viewing fruits as alexiteric, aphrodisiac, and tonic, use them for asthma, bron-chosis, enterosis, fatigue, fever, leprosy, thirst, tuberculosis, and unconsciousness (KAB).

• Hausa add dates with hot peppers to native beer to make it less intoxicating (BIB).

• Lebanese believe the sugar from the fruits helps hepatitis (HJP).

• North Africans use fruit in vaginal pessary with other herbs to improve fertility (BOU).

• North Africans plaster powdered seeds on genital sores (BOU).

• North Africans ingest terminal bud for diarrhea, internal bleeding, and jaundice (BOU).

• North Africans use seed ashes in ophthalmic collyria (BIB).

• Unani consider the leaves aphrodisiac, hepatotonic; the flowers depurative, expectorant, febrifuge; the fruits aphrodisiac, nephrotonic, used for paralysis and pulmonosis; they apply the antiinflammatory seed to wounds (KAB).

Downsides (Date):

No health hazards or contraindications reported with proper administration of suggested therapeutic dosages (PH2) (but PH2 designates no dosage!; JAD).

Natural History (Date):

The Agriculture Handbook No. 165 lists the following diseases affecting the date palm: Alternaria sp. (leaf spot), Alternaria citri (brown spot of fruit), Alternaria stemphylioides (fruit spoilage), Aspergillus niger (calyx-end rot), Auerswaldia palmicola (on leaves), Catenularia fuliginea (fruit rot), Ceratostomella radicicola (root rot), Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (on leaves), Diplodia phoenicum (leafstalk rot, shoot blight, fruit rot), Endoconidiophora paradoxa (black scorch, heart bud rot), Fusarium spp. (inflorescence blight, fruit rot), Graphiola phoenicis (leaf spot, false smut), Meliola furcata (black mildew), Meloidogyne spp. (root knot nematodes), Omphalia pigmentata (decline disease), Omphalia tralucida (decline disease), Penicillum roseum (fruit rot), Pestalotia sp. (leaf spot), Phomopsisphoenicola (fruit rot), Phymatotrichum omnivorum (on roots), Pleospora herbarum (fruit rot, mold), and Poria spp. (wood rot). Popenoe (1920) assesses the percent damage caused by some of the major insect pests. Tackholm and Drar (1969-1973) give a good account of Egyptian diseases and pests.

Extracts (Date):

A 5% date extract showed better growth inhibition on C. albicans as compared to amphotericin B. The date extract caused a leakage of cytoplasmic contents from the yeast cells (Sallal, El-Teen, and Abderrahman, 1998). Al-Qarawi et al. (2005) demonstrated ameliorative effects of dates on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Aqueous extracts of the fruit demonstrated potent antioxidant and antimutagenic properties (X11804538). The ethanolic undialyzed extract was more effective than other extracts tried (X15814265). Vayalil (2002) demonstrated potent antioxidant and antimutagenic properties of the aqueous extracts of the fruits (X11804538).

common reed (phragmites australis (cav.) trin. ex stead.) ++ poaceae


Arundo phragmites L.; Arundo vulgaris Lam.; Phragmites communis Trin.; Phragmites communis var. longivalvis (Steud.) Miq.; Phragmites longivalvis Steud.; Phragmites vulgaris (Lam.) Crép.; Phragmites vulgaris var. longivalvis (Steud.) W. Wight

Notes (Common Reed):

For the LORD shall smite Israel, as a reed is shaken in the water, and he shall root up Israel out of this good land, which he gave to their fathers, and shall scatter them beyond the river, because they have made their groves, provoking the LORD to anger.

Zohary adduces evidence for identifying kaneh with "reed," in analogies with the reed pen that I mentioned in my first Bible book (III John 13), the broken reed of a staff (II Kings 18:21; measures of length, Ezekiel 40:5), and the shaft of the lamp stand (Exodus 25:31). During the biblical period, reeds were extensively grown and used for field hedges, flutes, housing, mats, pens, scales, and walking scales (ZOH). Extensively used in Mediterranean regions and elsewhere for buil

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  • Olive
    Is word qurma used for dry date chuhara?
    3 years ago

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