Notes Spiny Cocklebur

And thorns shall come up in her palaces, nettles and brambles in the fortresses thereof: and it shall be an habitation of dragons, and a court for owls.

Isaiah 34:13 (KJV)

Thorns shall grow over its strongholds, nettles and thistles in its fortresses. It shall be the haunt of jackals, an abode for ostriches.

Isaiah 34:13 (RSV)

On her dwelling towers thorns must come up, nettles and thorny weeds in her fortified places, and she must become an abiding place of jackals, the courtyard for the ostriches.

Isaiah 34:13 (NWT)

FIGURE 1.120 Spiny Cocklebur (Xanthium spinosum). Source: Regina Hughes in Reed (1970); Colored by Peggy Duke.

In my earlier book, I followed the Moldenkes (BIB), who concluded that the spiny cocklebur was the most likely candidate for this biblical thorn. But Zohary does not even cover this species in his Bible book, although three species of Xanthium, including this spiny one, are included in his Flora of Palestine (FP3).

• Leaves with three spines at base of leaf stalk: Xanthium spinosum

• Leaves spineless:

• — Burr more than 2.5 cm, the prickles hairy at the base: Xanthium italicum

• — Burr less than 2.1 cm, the prickles glandular pubescent: Xanthium strumarium

Common Names (Spiny Cocklebur):

Abrojillo (Arg.; MPG); Abrojito (Arg.; MPG); Abrojo (Arg.; Bol.; MPG); Alqo Khichkha (Bol.; Que.; MPG); Amor de Negro (Brazil; MPG); Amor Seco (Bol.; Ecu.; MPG); Anuchaphi (Aym.; Bol.; MPG); Atulet (Arg.; MPG); Badhipjan Tariaki (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Bathurst-bur (Australia; Eng.; USN); Cachurrera Menor (Sp.; USN); Cadillos (Sp.; EFS); Carrapicho Bravo (Brazil; MPG); Casa Marutsja (Ecu.; MPG); Cepa de Caballo (Arg.; Sp.; Uru.; EFS; MPG); Choquchapi (Bol.; MPG); Chunngil (Ecu.; MPG); Clonqui (Chile; MPG); Dornige Spitzklette (Ger.; EFS; USN); Elpererin (Araucano; Arg.; MPG); Espina de Perro (Bol.; MPG); Espinho de Carneiro (Brazil; MPG); Floraria (Spain.; EFS; MPG); Gedoornde Stekelnoot (Dutch; EFS); Gratteron (Fr.; EFS); I Mop (Arg.; MPG); Juan de Alonzo (Bol.; MPG); Kachu Kawell (Arg. Vilele; MPG); Kokelin (Arg. Vilele; MPG); Lampourde aux Écrouelles (Fr.; EFS); Lampourde Épineuse (Fr.; USN); Lappolino (It.; EFS); Marucha (Ecu.; MPG); Matagallegos (Sp.; EFS); Pegotes (Sp.; EFS); Pitrak (Tur.; EFS); Prickly Burweed (Australia; Eng.; USN); Qopajchi (Bol.; Torotooro; MPG); Rat (Araucano; Arg.; MPG); Rat Ratraid (Arg.; MPG); Spino D'Asino (It.; EFS); Spiny Clotbur (Eng.; EFS); Spiny Cock-lebur (Eng.; USN); Thorny Burweed (Eng.; EFS); Thorny Buttonbur (Eng.; EFS); Thorny Cockle-bur (Eng.; EFS); Urusumaru (Bol.; Chiriguano; MPG); Xanthio (It.; EFS); Nscn.

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