One study concluded that bees increase seed production by 15 to 20%. Honeybees were estimated to account for 80% of cross-pollination, bumblebees less than 20%, and wild bees less than 1%. A closed-flower phenotype (recessive to normal) exists which lacks the typical scent and is avoided by bees (Poulsen, 1977). Many fungi attack broadbeans, depending on the area where they grow. The following have been reported on broadbeans: Alternaria brassicae var. phaseoli, A. tenuis, A. tenuissima, Ascochyta boltshauseri, A. fabae, A. pinodella, A. pinodes, A. pisi (A. viciae), Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinera, B. fabae, Cercospora fabae, C. viciae, C. zonata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, C. herbarum, C. pisi, Clonostachys araucariae, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, Corticium rolfsii, C. solani, Cunninghamella echinulata, Deplosporium album, Dothiorella fabae, Erysiphe pisi, E. polygoni, many species of Fusarium, Gibberella fujikuroi, G. saubinettii, Gloeo-sporium viciae, Helicobasidium purpureum, Leveillula taurica, Macrophomina phaseoli, Mela-nospora papilata, Mycospharaella pinodes, Nectria anisophylla, Olpidium viciae, Peronospora fabae, P. lagerheimee, P. pisi, P. viciae, Phoma malaena, Phyllosticta fabae, Phymatotrichum omnivorum, Physoderma fabae, Phytophthora cactorum, Ph. cinnamoni, Pleospora herbarum, P. vulgaris, Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia solani, Rhizopus nigricans, Sclerotinia fuckeliana, S. minor, S. sclerotiorum, Sclerotium rolfsii, Stagonospora carpathica, Stemphylium botryosum, S. consor-tiale, Trichothecium roseum, Uromyces appendiculatus, U. fabae, U. orobi, and U. viciae-fabae. Broadbeans also attacked by the sweet pea streak, tooth-tumor swelling vein virus and broadbean wilt, red-clover vein mosaic (Marmor trifolii), virus 1-celery mosaic (a strain of cucumber mosaic virus: Marmor cucumeris), and spotted wilt (Lethum australiensis). Bacteria causing diseases in broadbean include Bacterium phaseoli, B. viciae, Erwinia phytophthora, and Psuedomonas viciae. Nematodes isolated from broadbean include Ditylenchus dipsaci, Heterodera glycines, H. goet-tingiana, H. rostochiensis, Longidorus maximus, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. artiella, M. hapla, M. incognita, M. incognita acrita, M. javanica, Pratylenchus brachyurus, P. coffeae, P. goodeyi, P. pnetrans, P. pratensis, P. vulnus, P. zeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Tylenchorynchus dubius, and T. parvus. The most serious insect pests are the broadbean weevil, Bruchus rufimanus, and aphids, especially the bean aphid, Aphis fabae. Broomrape (Orobanche crenata) may be a serious problem in the Middle East. Eptam, applied as a postemergence spray, was fairly effective, as was soil fumigation with dibromochloropropane, and oxak (terbutol), if deeply incorporated into the soil before sowing.
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Make money with honey How to be a Beekeeper. Beekeeping can be a fascinating hobby or you can turn it into a lucrative business. The choice is yours. You need to know some basics to help you get started. The equipment needed to be a beekeeper. Where can you find the equipment you need? The best location for the hives. You can't just put bees in any spot. What needs to be considered when picking the location for your bees?