Indications Saffron

Adenopathy (f; JLH; X12776492); Aegilops (f; JLH); Amenorrhea (f1; CRC; MAD; NAD; PH2); Anorexia (f; VAD); Anuria (f; ?); Arthrosis (f; KAB); Asthenia (f; VAD); Asthma (f; BOU; MAD); Bladder Ailments (f; CRC); Bleeding (f; DAA; MAD); Blood Disorders (f; CRC); Bronchosis (f; PH2): Burn (f; JLH); Cacoethes (f; JLH); Cancer (f1; APA; PR14:149; X11582266); Cancer, abdomen (f1; APA; CRC); Cancer, bladder (f1; APA; CRC); Cancer, breast (f1; APA; CRC; JLH); Cancer, colon (f1; APA; JLH); Cancer, diaphragm (f1; APA; JLH); Cancer, ear (f1; APA; CRC); Cancer, eye (f1; APA; JLH); Cancer, kidney (f1; APA; CRC); Cancer, larynx (f1; APA; JLH); Cancer, liver (f1; APA; CRC); Cancer, mouth (f1; APA; CRC); Cancer, neck (f1; APA; CRC); Cancer, spleen (f1; APA; CRC); Cancer, stomach (f1; APA; CRC; JLH); Cancer, testicle (f1 APA; JLH); Cancer, throat (f1; APA; JLH); Cancer, tonsil (f1; APA; CRC); Cancer, uterus (f1; APA; CRC; JLH); Cardiopathy (f1; APA; X12776492); Catarrh (f; CRC; DEP; SKJ); Cerebrosis (f1; APA; KAB); Chemopreventive (f1; X11582266); Chickenpox (f; HOS); Childbirth (f; DAA; PH2); Chlorosis (f; HOS); Cholera (f; CRC; HOS); Chorea (f; HHB; MAD); Circulosis (1; X12776492); Cold (f; CRC); Colic (f; NAD); Condyloma (f; DAA); Conjunctivosis (f; MAD); Cough (f; DAA; MAD); Cramp (f1; DAA; HHB; VAD); Cystosis (f; JLH); Cytotoxic (1; HH3); Debility (f; NAD); Depression (f12; CRC; DAA; PNC; X15852492);

Dermatosis (f; CRC; KAB); Diabetes (f; CRC); Diarrhea (f; NAD); Dysmenorrhea (f; DAA; HHB; MAD; PNC); Dyspepsia (f1; VAD); Edema (f1; APA); Enterosis (f; JLh); Epistaxis (f; MAD); Fear (f; CRC; DAA); Fever (f; CRC; NAD; PH2); Fibroid (f; JLH); Fibrosarcoma (1; HH3); Fractures (f; KAB); Gas (f1; MAD; VAD); Gastrosis (f; JLH); Gingivosis (f1; VAD); Gout (f; MAD); Hangover (f; LIL); Headache (f; KAB; PH2); Hemicrania (f; KAB); Hemoptysis (f; DAA; MAD); Hemorrhoid (f; NAD); Hepatosis (f1; CRC; DEP; JLH; SKJ; X12776492); High Blood Pressure (1; APA; X12648816); High Cholesterol (1; APA); Hysteria (f; BOU; CRC; DAA; MAD); Induration (f; JLH); Infection (f1; HJP); Inflammation (f1; JLH; X11914135); Lachrymosis (f; JLH); Laryngosis (f; JLH); Leukemia (f1; JLH; X12776492); Lochiostasis (f; PH2); Lymphoma (1; APA; JLH; HH3); Measles (f; CRC; DAA; MAD); Melancholy (f12; CRC; DEP; HHB; KAB; X15852492); Menorrhagia (f; HHB; HOS; PH2); Menox-enia (f; CRC); Nausea (f; KAB); Nephrosis (f; JLH; KAB); Neuralgia (f; NAD); Neurosis (1; CRC; FNF); Obesity (f1; VAD; PR14:149); Ophthalmia (f; JLH; HOS); Orchosis (f; JLH); Osteosarcoma (1; HH3); Pain (f1; DAA; X11914135); Papilloma (1; X12776492); Parotosis (f; HOS; JLH); Pertussis (f; BIB; BOU; DAA; MAD); Pharyngosis (f; KAB); Phymata (f; JLH); Plague (f; MAD); Puerperium (f; CRC); Rhabdomyosarcoma (1; X12776492); Sarcoma (1; X12776492); Scabies (f; KAB); Sclerosis (f; CRC); Shock (f; CRC; DAA); Snakebite (f; NAD; SKJ); Sore Throat (f; PH2); Spasms (f; CRC); Sple-nosis (f; CRC; JLH; KAB); Spermatorrhea (f; NAD); Swelling (f1; APA); Thrombosis (1; X16180089); Tonsilosis (f; JL); Toothache (f; VAD); Twitching (f; MAD); Uterosis (f; CRC; DAA; JLH); Venereal Disease (f; CRC; DAA); Vertigo (f; MAD); Vomiting (f; PH2); Wart (f; CRC).

Dosages (Saffron):

Prominent coloring agent and spice in cookery (especially Spanish), soups, stews, especially chicken dishes, and in confectionery to give color, flavor, and aroma (BIB). 10-15 stigmata/cup water (APA); 0.5-1.5 g day (APA; HHB). 10 g as abortive (HH3); 0.1-1 g powdered saffron (MAD); 15-16 drops tincture (MAD). 0.5-2.5 g saffron (PNC); tea (2g/l) 3 x/day (VAD).

• Algerians and Gypsies use the saffron infusion as a collyrium (HJP).

• Asian Indians use saffron for bladder, kidney, and liver ailments; also for cholera. Mixed with ghee, it is used for diabetes (BIB).

Ayurvedics, deeming saffron alexiteric, anthelmintic, laxative, tonic, use it for anuria, biliousness, bronchosis, cerebrosis, dermatoses, headache, pharyngitis, scabies, and vomiting (KAB).

• Iranians view saffron as antispasmodic and stimulant (HJP), and now as antidepressant (X15852492). Iranians report saffron (30 mg/day) as effective as imipramine (100 mg/day) in mild to moderate depression (X15341662).

• Lebanese add a dozen pistils to a large cup of hot water for children coming down with chickenpox, measles, or mumps (HJP).

• Germans take saffron in milk for measles (MAD).

• North Africans suggest eight to ten filaments (stigmata) per cup of tea as a "narcotic for cases of asthma, whooping cough, hysteria" (BOU).

• Spanish suggest massaging the gums with tincture (1:10) for gingivosis or toothache (VAD).

• Unani, deeming the herb antiinflammatory, aphrodisiac, bechic, diuretic, hematinic, lac-tagogue, laxative, use it for disorders of brain, kidney, liver, and spleen (KAB).

Downsides (Saffron):

Class 2b. Abortifacient; emmenagogue; uterotonic. Severe side effects may result from ingesting 5 g saffron (lethal dose = 20 g) (AHP, 1997). "Health risk or side effects following the proper administration of designated therapeutic dosages are not known" (PH2). Controversial. The 200-mg/kg dose of saffron alleged to extend the life of cancerous mice translates to 22,000 mg or 22 g saffron with a 100-kg rat named Jim Duke. Commission E reports no risks for doses up to 1.5 g; however, 5 g is toxic, 10 g is abortive, and 20 g is lethal (AEH; PHR). Conversely, Tucker and DeBaggio report that "ingesting 0.05 ounce (1.5 g) saffron has resulted in death" (TAD). Paradoxically, the life-saving dose is lethal! It is good that saffron is so expensive, so thatwe will not have too many fools overdosing on it. Preferring to err on the safe side, we can think of saffron only as an expensive spice to be used judiciously. I think these numbers may be alarmist. Of mice and men, the oral LD50 in mice is 20,000 mg/kg according to the German Hager's Handbuch (HH3), while for man, 5 to 10 g can prove lethal.

Extracts (Saffron):

Iranians found that saffron at 30 mg/day was as effective as imipramine at 100 mg/day in mild to moderate depression (F = 2.91, d.f. = 1, P = 0.09) (X15341662). Jessie and Krishnakantha (2005) found that saffron extract inhibited platelet aggregation in vitro (IC50 = 0.35-0.86 mg) (X16180089). LD50 (saffron) = 20,000 mg/kg orl mus HH3; LD50 (saffron extracts >600 mg/kg ipr mus HH3; LDlo 5,000-10,000 mg total orl hmn HH3). If Hager's Handbuch numbers are correct, we had better leave the saffron for the mouse, to whom the saffron seems orders of magnitude safer than to the man, where a few milligrams could be good, a few grams could be bad.

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