Abscess (f; VAD; WOI); Acne (f; VAD); Adenopathy (f; CRC; HHB); Aging (f; BOW); Alactea (f1; PH2; WOI); Allergy (f; PED); Alopecia (1; APA; KAP; MAD); Anemia (f1; BOU; GMH; SPI; VAD); Anorexia (f12; APA; CAN; KOM; PH2; JAC7:405); Aposteme (f; JLH); Arthrosis (1; KOM); Atherosclerosis (1; BGB; SKY); Backache (f; BOW); Bacteria (1; WOI; X15331344); Blepharosis (f; VAD); Boil (f; BGB; GMH; KAP); Bronchosis (f; APA; BOU; GHA; PH2); Burn (f; CRC; IHB); Calculus (1; APA); Cancer (f1; APA); Cancer, abdomen (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, bladder (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, breast (f1; FNF; JLH; X15936223); Cancer, cervix (f1; BOW); Cancer, colon (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, eye (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, gland (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, groin (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, intestine (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, kidney (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, liver (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, parotid (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, rectum (f1; FNF; JLH; MAD); Cancer, spleen (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, stomach (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, testes (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, throat (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, uterus (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, uvula (f1; FNF; JLH); Carbuncle (f; GMH; KAP); Cardiopathy (f1; HJP); Catarrh (f; PH2); Cellulitis (f; BOW); Cervicosis (f; BOW); Chafing (f; BIB); Chickenpox (1; DAA); Childbirth (f; BGB; BPW; GHA); Chilblain (f; CRC); Childbirth (f; BOU); Cholecystosis (f; CRC); Colic (f; GHA; KAP); Colitis (f; PH2); Conjunctivosis (f; VAD); Constipation (f1; VAD); Cough (f; APA; GHA; PED; PH2); Constipation (f1; SKY; SPI); Cystosis (f1; FNF; JLH; SKJ); Debility (f; MAD); Dermatosis (f12; APA; BOU; CRC; PHR; PH2); Diabetes (f12; APA; BRU; CAN; CRC; X15738612), Diarrhea (f1; APA; CRC; KAP); Dropsy (f; NAD); Dysentery (f; HHB; KAB; SUW); Dysgeuzia (f; KAB); Dysmenorrhea (f; BGB); Dyspepsia (f12; APA; CAN; PHR); Dystrophy (f; UPW); Eczema (f1; BGB; PHR; PH2; VAD); Edema (f; BGB; SKJ);
Enteralgia (f; APA; CRC); Edema (f; BOW); Enterosis (f; BGB; BOU; PH2; WOI); Exhaustion (f; MAD); Fever (f1; APA; BOU; CRC; PH2; X15374601); Fistula (f; CRC); Fracture (f; HJP); Furunculosis (f; BGB; HHB; PHR; VAD), Gas (f1; APA); Gastrosis (f; APA; BGB; BOU; CAN; GMH); Gonorrhea (f; UPW); Gout (f; BGB; CAN; CRC; GMH); Hay Fever (f; PED); Helicobacter (1; X15331344); Hemorrhoid (f; MAD; NAD); Hepatosis (f; CRC; JLH; KAP); Hernia (f; APA; BGB; CRC; PH2); High Blood Pressure (f1; CAN; HJP), High Cholesterol (2; APA; BRU; CAN; SKY); High Triglycerides (1; BGB; SKY); Hyperlipidemia (1; BGB); Impotence (f; APA; CRC; PH2); Impotence (f; DAA); Infection (1; APA; WOI; X15331344); Inflammation (f12; APA; BRU; KOM; PH2; X15374601); Itch (f; BOU); Ischemia (1; X16205934); Kidney stone (1; JEB26:249); Labor (f1; APA); Leprosy (f; UPW); Leukorrhea (f; KAP); Lymphadenitis (f; BGB; CAN); Mastosis (f; JLH); Muscular Dystrophy (f; UPW); Myalgia (f; BGB; CAN); Nematode (1; PR15:538); Nephrosis (f; APA; CRC; JLH); Neuralgia (f; APA; CRC); Neurasthenia (f; BOW; GMH; NAD); Ophthalmia (f; JLH; VAD); Orchosis (f; JLH); Osteomyelitis (f; HHB; MAD); Oxaluria (1; APA); Pain (f1; HJP; PH2; TAD; X15374601); Parotosis (f; JLH); Pharyngosis (f; VAD); PMS (f; BGB); Proctosis (f; JLH; MAD); Rachitis (f; MAD); Respirosis (f; APA; PH2); Retinosis (1; X16205934); Rheumatism (f; APA; CRC); Rickets (f; NAD); Sciatica (f; CRC); Scrofula (f; GMH; HHB); Smallpox (1; DAA; KAB; KAP; SUW); Sore (f; APA; BGB; MAD; PH2); Sore Throat (f1; APA; CRC; MAD); Spermatorrhea (f; BOW); Splenosis (f; HHB; KAP); Splenomegaly (f; BOU; CRC; KAB); Sprain (f; GHA); Stomatosis (f; APA); Stone (1; JEB26:249); Swelling (f; HHB; KAB; PHR); Syndrome-X (1; SYN); Syphilis (f; SKJ); Tonsilosis (f; BOU); Tuberculosis (f; APA; CRC; HHB; MAD; SPI); Tumor (f; CRC); Typhoid (f; HJP); Ulcer (f1; APA; PNC; X15331344); Ulcus cruris (f; HHB); Uterosis (f; BOU; JLH; NAD); Vaginosis (f; BGB; NAD; VAD); Venereal Disease (f; SKJ); Virus (1; DAA); Vomiting (f; PH2); Worm (1; PR15:538); Wound (f; BGB; HHB).
Leaves and pods eaten as spice and vegetable; seeds and leaves used to make tea; seeds used to adulterate or flavor coffee; to make artificial maple syrup flavoring; ground seeds used in curry powder; sprouted seed braised in oil and eaten with parboiled cardoon; Yemeni add seeds to gravies and soups; sprouts important in Near Eastern lamb stews flavored with honey. Europeans add seed to hay, especially old hay, to make it more savory to the animals. Seeds are used as an adulterant in or substitute for coffee. Fenugreek also has wide use in the Middle and Near East today. According to Philips, the fenugreek is almost as popular in Lebanon today as the peanut is in America as a snack. In Beirut, they make a mush from the green seed after soaking, forming a fenugreek "milkshake" (FAC, GHA; HJP; TAN; EB54:155). Lydia Pinkham's Vegetable Compound contained 12 oz fenugreek seed, 8 oz unicorn root (Aletris), and 6 oz each of life root (Senecio), black cohosh (Cimicifuga), and pleurisy root (Asclepias) in enough alcohol to make 100 pints of compound. One Tbsp mashed seed/8 oz water, up to 3 x/day as gargle (APA); 1-6 g seed, 3 x/day (CAN); 50 g powdered seed with 1/4 l water (HH2). One 620-mg capsule 2-3 x/day (NH); 1/4-1/2 cup seed (PED); 6-12 g dry seed (PED); 9 g dry seed, 6.3 g/day (MAD). 5-90 g seed/day (SKY).
• Arabians use seeds boiled with dry dates and figs for bronchosis and cough (GHA).
• Arabians give seeds with boiled water and egg to new mothers for 7 days after birth (GHA).
• Iranians infuse the seed for menorrhagia (BIB).
• Lebanese take fenugreek "milkshake" in Lebanon for hypertension (HJP).
• Lebanese use as a poultice, and for diabetes, dyspepsia, fever, fractures, heart trouble, lung problems, and typhoid, using the root more often than the herb for pain and rheumatism (HJP).
• Middle Easterners respect fenugreek as both preventive and panacea (HJP).
• North Africans use seed flour boiled with saltpeter and vinegar for splenomegaly (BOU).
Class 2b (AHP, 1997). Health hazards or side effects following the proper administration of designated therapeutic dosages are not known (PH2). Contraindicated in pregnancy (f; PH2); Commission E reports no contraindications or interactions for oral use of the seed. Adverse skin reactions to repeated external use (AEH). An idiosyncratic gastroenterosis was blamed on fenugreek in LRNP (July 1987). Commission E reports no contraindications or interactions for oral use of the seed. Adverse effects: skin reactions to repeated external use (AEH). One micromastic female complained of mastogenic activity following ingestion of fenugreek sprouts. Newall, Anderson, and Phillipson (1996) caution that because of its oxytoxic and uterine stimulant actions, in vitro, its use in pregnancy and lactation is to be avoided. May interfere with anticoagulant, blood sugar, hormonal, and/or MAOI therapies. High mucilaginous/fiber content may interfere with absorption of other drugs. Because all herbs, spices, and food plants, like drugs, contain pharmacologically active ingredients, it seems it could go without saying that "the presence of pharmacologically active constituents would suggest that excessive ingestion is inadvisable" (CAN).
Treating rats with seed for 4 weeks significantly decreased the quantity of calcium oxalate deposited in the kidneys, supporting Saudi folklore (JEB26:249). Leaf extract antinociceptive at 1000-2000 mg/kg ipr, but the LD50 was circa 4000 mg/kg ipr (X9406901). Alcoholic seed extract LD50 = 5000 mg/kg orl rat, 2000 der rbt (CAN); oxytocic; uterotonic. Trigonelline antihypertensive, antiinflam-matory, diuretic, hypoglycemic (CAN); converted to niacin and other pyridines and pyrroles when cooked (PED). Methanol-soluble fraction showed high (>92%) nematicidal activity (PR15:538).
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