Adenopathy (1; HOS); Alzheimer's (1; COX; FNF; HOS); Amenorrhea (f1; CRC; KAB; WHO; WO2); Amnesia (f; ZUL); Anorexia (f12; CAN; GAZ; KOM; PH2; WHO); Aphonia (f; HOS); Arthrosis (f1; COX; CRC; HOS); Asthenia (1; BGB); Asthma (f; CRC; LIB); Bacillus (1; X10548758); Bacteria (1;
WO2); Biliousness (f; KAB); Bleeding (f; KAB); Bloating (f1; BGB); Bronchosis (f12; CRC; KAB; PHR); Cancer (f1; COX; CRC; HOS); Cancer, abdomen (f1; COX; HOS; JLH); Cancer, bladder (f1; COX; HOS; JLH); Cancer, breast (f1; COX; HOS; JLH); Cancer, colon (f1; COX; HOS; JLH); Cancer, diaphragm (f1; COX; HOS; JLH); Cancer, ear (f1; COX; HOS; JLH); Cancer, gum (f1; COX; HOS; JLH); Cancer, kidney (f1; COX; HOS; JLH); Cancer, liver (f1; COX; HOS; JLH); Cancer, mouth (f1; COX; HOS; JLH); Cancer, neck (f1; COX; HOS; JLH); Cancer, rectum (f1; COX; HOS; JLH); Cancer, sinus (f1; COX; HOS; JLH); Cancer, spleen (f1; COX; HOS; JLH); Cancer, stomach (f1; COX; HOS; JLH); Cancer, vagina (f1; COX; HOS; JLH); Cancer, uterus (f1; COX; HOS; JLH); Candida (f1; CRC; LIB; JAR12:83); Cardiopathy (f1; EGG; KAB; LIB; X14633804); Cerebrosis (f; KAB); Childbirth (f; LIB); Chill (f; PHR; PH2); Cholera (f1; CRC; SKJ; WO2); Cold (f12; CAN; GAZ; PHR; ZUL); Colic (f1; APA; CAN; EGG; TRA); Condylomata (f; JLH); Conjunctivosis (f; WHO); Convulsion (f; LIB); Cough (2; CRC; PHR); Cramp (f1; APA; DEP; VOD; ZUL); Dandruff (1; JAR12:83); Debility (f; LIB); Depression (f; LIB); Dermatosis (1; JAR12:83); Diabetes (f12; TGP; X14633804; JAF52:65); Diarrhea (f1; DEP; EGG; PHR; TRA; WHO); Dropsy (f; NAD); Dysentery (f; CRC; DEP; WO2); Dysmenorrhea (f1; APA; DEP; WHO); Dyspepsia (f12; CAN; IED; KOM; PH2; WHO); Dyspnea (f; WHO); Earache (f; LIB); Edema (f1; HOS); Enteralgia (f1; WHO); Entero-sis (f; JLH; VOD); Enterospasm (2; KOM; WHO); Epidermophyton (1; JAR12:83); Escherichia (1; CRC; X10548758); Exhaustion (f; LIB); Fatigue (f; GAZ); Fever (f12; AHP; PHR; TRA; VOD); Fistula (f; CRC; SKJ); Flatulence (f12; KOM; VOD; WHO); Flu (f; PHR; PH2); Frigidity (f; LIB; WHO); Fungus (1; GAZ; LIB; X10548758); Gas (f1; APA; DEP; TRA; VOD); Gastrosis (f; DEP; HOS; VOD; WO2); Gastrospasm (f12; KOM; VOD); Gingivosis (f; JLH); Glossosis (f; DEP; HOS; WO2); Gonorrhea (f; LIB; NAD); Gout (1; X11025157); Halitosis (f; PH2); Headache (f1; DEP; WO2; ZUL); Heart (f; CRC); Hemorrhage (f1; APA); Hemorrhoid (f; KAB); Hepatosis (f; JLH; NAD); Hiccup (f; KAB); High Blood Pressure (f; LIB; ZUL); High Cholesterol (12; X14633804); Hydrocele (f; KAB); Hyperglycemia (f12; X4585184); Hypertriglyceridemia (f12; X4585184); Immunodepression (1; HOS); Impotence (f; LIB; WHO); Infection (2; PHR; WO2); Inflammation (f1; HH2; HOS; LIB); Itch (f; KAB); Leukemia (1; TRA; WO2); Leukorrhea (f; WHO); Listeria (1; X12380758); Lumbago (f; CRC); Lungs (f; CRC); Lupus (f; LIB); Lymphoma (1; WO2); Malassezia (1; JAR12:83); Mastosis (f; JLH); Melancholy (f; NAD); Menorrhagia (f; CRC; LIB); Mycosis (1; ZUL; JAR12:83); Nausea (f; CRC; EGG; TRA; ZUL); Nephrosis (f; CRC; LIB); Neuralgia (f; DEP; WHO; WO2); Obesity (12; X4585184); Oketsu Syndrome (f; LIB); Otosis (f; LIB); Pain (f1; KAB; WHO; WO2); Paralysis (f; DEP; HOS; WO2); Pharyngosis (2; PHR); Phthisis (f; CRC); Phymata (f; JLH); Proctosis (f; JLH; KAB); Prolapse (f; CRC; SKJ); Pseudomonas (1; HH2); Psoriasis (f; CRC); Rheumatism (f; APA; WHO; WO2; ZUL); Salmonella (1; WO2); Sinusosis (f; JLH); Sore (f; JLH); Spasm (f; CRC); Splenosis (f; JLH); Staphylococcus (1; CRC; HH2); Stomachache (f; EGG); Stomatosis (2; CRC; JLH; PHR); Stress (f; LIB); Syncope (f; WO2); Tension (f; LIB); Thirst (f; SKJ); Thrush (f1; LIB); Toothache (f; DEP; PH2; WHO); Tuberculosis (1; LIB; PR14:303); Tumor (f; CRC; JLH); Typhoid (f; LIB; NAD); Ulcer (f1; HOS; WHO); Vaginosis (f; CRC; JLH; WHO); Venereal Disease (f; LIB); Virus (f; LIB); Vomiting (f; CRC; PH2); Wart (f; CRC; JLH); Wen (f; JLH); Worm (f; PHR; PH2); Wound (f1; PHR; PH2; WHO; X13680838); Xerostomia (f; KAB); Yeast (f1; APA; WO2; X10548758; JAR12:83).
The bark is one of the world's premier spices. Cinnamon leaves used also as spice (e.g., in Jamaica's jerked pork) (FAC). 1 tsp bark/cup water/2-3 x/day with meals (APA); 0.5-1 g bark, as tea, 3 x/day (CAN); 0.5-1.0 ml liquid extract (1:1 in 70% ethanol) 3 x/day (CAN); 2-4 ml cinnamon tincture (CAN, PNC); 20 grains bark for dysentery (DEP); 2-4 g bark (KOM); .05-0.2 g EO (KOM); 0.05-0.2 ml cinnamon oil (PNC); 0.3-1.2 ml spirit of cinnamon (PNC); 0.3-1 g powdered bark (PNC); 2-4 g bark/day (WHO); 0.05-0.2 g essential oil/day (WHO); 1 tsp bark/cup water 2-3 x/day (WIC).
• Asian Indians use the bark in bolmes, enemas, or ghees for abdominal cancers (JLH).
• Asian Indians use a spicy triad trijataka (cardamom, cinnamon, and "tejapatra," possibly cassia) for lengual paralysis, stomach cramps, and toothache (HOS).
• Belizeans for snoring suggest 1 cup of cinnamon tea with two teaspoons grated ginger and honey and milk added. Drink at bedtime each night until cured (or until death do us part!) (AAB).
• Caribbean Tramilenos take the bark infusion for diarrhea and nausea (TRA).
• Dominicans take bark decoction, with or without cilantro, for enterosis and fever (VOD).
• Egyptians use the leaves for uterine cancer, the seeds for venereal warts (JLH).
• Haitians use the bark decoction as carminative, digestive, and febrifuge (VOD).
• Haitians use the essence topically for rheumatism, internally (dilute I presume) for enteric or gastric gas and spasms (VOD).
• Lebanese use cinnamon as a stimulant, for colds, rheumatism, halitosis, and slobbering (HJP; HOS).
• Pakistanis chew the bark for dysmenorrhea (DEP).
• Peruvians suggest the bark infusion for the heart, the decoction for colic (EGG).
• Ukrainians give raw grated carrots with cinnamon for anemia (HJP).
• Unani consider the oil carminative, emmenagogue, and as a tonic to the liver, using it for abdominal pains, bronchitis, head colds, and inflammation (HOS).
Class 2b,2d; "Not for long-term use; do not exceed recommended dose (2-4 g bark/day; 50-200 mg essential oil daily). May overstimulate the vasomotor center" (AHP, 1997). Commission E reports bark contraindications: hypersensitivity to cinnamon or Peruvian balsam and adverse effects: often allergic reactions of skin and mucosae. Tramil warns against continued use because of mutagenicity (TRA). Other sources report contraindications: GI ulcer, pregnancy (AEH). Newall, Anderson, and Phillipson (1996) caution that the cinnamaldehyde in the volatile oil is allergenic and an irritant. The allergenic oil should not be taken internally (CAN). "There are no known problems with the use of cinnamon during pregnancy and lactation, provided that doses do not greatly exceed the amounts used in foods____May cause some people to break out in a rash" (Castleman, 1996). Regrettably, I was unable to read the article on allergic contact dermatitis from cinnamon used as an odor-neutralizing agent in shoe insoles (X15186386). High doses caused vomiting in experiments with dogs, corresponding with reported side effects in humans. Cinnamaldehyde 5% in petrolatum is a skin irritant. Prolonged contact with cinnamon oil on skin may cause burns. Cinnamaldehyde in cosmetics or perfumes may cause allergic reactions. Allergic reactions (i.e., swollen lips or tongue, itching, burning sensation, blistering of the oral mucosa, and urticaria) reported from contact with ointments, toothpaste, mouth-wash, or foods containing cinnamon oil or cinnamaldehyde (AEH1). Sensitized and sensitive justifiable chemophobes may develop dermatosis using mouthwash, perfume, soap, or toothpaste flavored with camphor, cassia, or cinnamon (FNF; RIN). May reduce the activity of tetracycline (WHO). Extracts and cinnamaldehyde reported mutagenic in some studies, nonmutagenic in others.
Toxicity: Following ingestion of cinnamon, contact dermatosis may flare up. Eugenol has been reported to be an irritant and a weak tumor promoter. Cinnamic aldehyde in perfumes can cause dermatosis. In toothpaste it can cause sensitivity (DAD).
In a study by Park and Shin (2005), cinnamon and onion oil followed garlic and clove bud oils in lethality to the Japanese termite, Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe. Diallyl trisulfide was most toxic, then diallyl disulfide, eugenol, diallyl sulfide, and beta-caryophyllene (X15913300). Chericoni et al. (2005)
found that eugenol was, by far, the most potent antioxidant in cinnamon's essential oil, recounting its use as antioxidant, antiperoxidant, antiradicular, antiseptic, hepatoprotective, and sedative. Oral eugenol is rapidly absorbed, reaching blood plasma levels of 5 pM, significantly antioxidant levels, 2 hours after 150 mg of the eugenol, but almost completely excreted in the urine by 24 hours (X15941312). Pakistani scientists (X14633804) found that cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of type-2 diabetics. Cinnamon, consumed (1, 3, or 6 g/day) for 40 days followed by a 20-day washout period, reduced mean fasting serum glucose (18-29%), triglyceride (23-30%), LDL cholesterol (7-27%), and total cholesterol (12-26%) levels; compared to placebo (X4585184). Korean scientists (Lee et al., 2003) showed that cinnamate, a phenolic in the bark, enhances hepatic lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense systems in high cholesterol-fed rats. Cinnamate supplementation resulted in higher catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Lee et al. (2003) suggested that dietary cinnamate inhibits hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity, resulting in lower hepatic cholesterol (X14585184). LD50 (EO) = 690 mg/kg der (CAN); perhaps second only to some varieties of clove (up to 20% eugenol), cinnamon (to 3.8%) is a major source of eugenol, which has all sorts of biological activities. Analgesic; anesthetic 200-400 ppm; antiaggregant IC50 = 0.3 pM (PR4:93); antiarachidonate; anticonvulsant; antiedemic, 100; antiinflammatory (11 pM); antimitotic; antimutagenic; antinitrosating; antioxidant, IC65 = 30 ppm; antiprostaglandin, 11 pM, IC50 = 9.2 mM; antiradicular, EC50 = 2 pl/l; antiseptic (3 ml/man/day); antithromboxane; antitumor; antiulcer; apifuge; bactericide, 500 ppm; calcium antagonist, IC50 = 224 pM; cancer preventive; candidicide; carminative; choleretic; CNS depressant; cytochrome-p450 inhibitor; enterorelaxant; febrifuge (3 ml/man/day); fungicide; hepatoprotective, 100 ppm; larvicide; motor depressant; sedative; spasmolytic; trypsin enhancer; and vermifuge (FNF).
Was this article helpful?
A time for giving and receiving, getting closer with the ones we love and marking the end of another year and all the eating also. We eat because the food is yummy and plentiful but we don't usually count calories at this time of year. This book will help you do just this.