Allergy (1; WO2); Alzheimer's (1; COX; X12413723); Amenorrhea (f1; DAA; PH2; WO2); Anesthetic (f1; WO2); Anorexia (12; BGB; KOM; PH2); Arthrosis (f1; COX; DAA; X12413723); Ascites (f; WO2); Asthenia (f; BGB); Asthma (1; BGB; WO2); Bacillus (1; X12423924); Bacteria (1; X12423924); Bloating (2; BGB; KOM); Bronchosis (1; BGB); Cancer (f1; JLH; X15652283; X12860272); Cancer, bladder (f1; JLH; X15652283); Cancer, colon (f1; COX; JLH; X12413723); Cancer, diaphragm (f1; JLH; X15652283); Cancer, kidney (f1; JLH; X15652283); Cancer, liver (f1; JLH; X15652283); Cancer, rectum (f1; JLH; X15652283); Cancer, spleen (f1; JLH; X15652283); Cancer, stomach (f1; JLH; X15652283); Cancer, vagina (f1; JLH; X15652283); Cancer, uterus (f1; JLH; X15652283); Chills (f; DAA); Circulosis (f; X15796573); Cold (f; BGB; CAN); Colic (f1; BGB; CAN; DAA; PH2); Condyloma (f; JLH); Cough (f; BGB; DAA); Cramps (f1; BGB); Cystosis (f; JLH); Diabetes (f; DAA); Diaphragmosis (f; JLH); Diarrhea (f1; BGB; CAN; DAA; PH2); Dysmenorrhea (f; DAA); Dyspepsia (f12; BGB; CAN; KOM; PH2); Dysuria (f; DAA; WO2); Edema (f; WO2); Enteralgia (f; BGB); Enterosis (f; BGB; PH2; WO2); Enuresis (f; PH2); Epilepsy (f; WO2); Escherichia (1; X12423924); Exhaustion (f; PH2); Fever (f1; BGB; DAA; WO2; X15796573); Fungus (1; HH2); Gas (f1; BGB; PH2); Gastrosis (f; BGB; DAA; PH2; WO2); Goiter (f; DAA); Gout
(1; X11025157); Gray Hair (f; WO2); Hepatosis (f; JLH); Hernia (f; PH2); Impotence (f; PH2); Induration (f; JLH); Infection (f1; HH2; X15796573); Inflammation (f1; X15710356; X15796573); Insomnia (f; DAA); Jaundice (f; DAA); Listeria (1; X12423924); Lumbago (f; DAA); Menopause (f; PH2); Mycosis (1; HH2); Nephrosis (1; BGB; WO2); Neuralgia (f1; WO2); Neurasthenia (f; PH2); Ophthalmia (1; WO2); Orchosis (f; PH2); Pain (f1; WO2); Parasite (1; X12847923); Pharyngosis (f; WO2); Salmonella (1; X12423924); Sore (f; JLH); Splenosis (f; JLH); Stomachache (f; DAA); Staphylococcus (1; X12423924); Streptococcus (1; HH2); Tracheosis (1; WO2); Trypanosoma (1; X15567249); Urethrosis (f; WO2); Uterosis (f; WO2); Vaginosis (f; JLH); Vertigo (f; DAA); Vomiting (f; PH2); Wart (f; JLH).
Dried green fruits are the cassia buds of commerce, which resemble cloves. Cassia bark is also an important spice. All parts of the plant possess an essence, cinnamic aldehyde, which may be distilled for export. Buds of the tree are used in place of cloves to season dishes (BIB; FAC; TAN). 2-4 g ground bark/day (BGB; PH2); 0.7-1.3 g bark in 150 ml water 3 x/day (BGB); 0.5-1 g bark, as tea, 3 x/day (CAN); 0.05-0.2 ml cassia oil 3 x/day (CAN); 0.3-1.2 ml flower tincture (1:5 in 90% ethanol) 3 x/day (CAN).
• Chinese suggest that prolonged use improves the complexion, making it more youthful (DAA).
• Chinese use the plant for amenorrhea, arthritis, cancer, chills, cold, colic, cough, diabetes, diarrhea, dizziness, dysmenorrhea, dyspepsia, dysuria, fever, goiter, headache, jaundice, lumbago, rheumatism, and stomachache (DAA).
• Egyptians use the leaves for cancer of the womb, the "grains" for condylomata, vaginosis, and warts (JLH).
• Indonesians use the plant for tumors (JLH).
• Iranians use bark tea for excessive salivation (BIB).
• Javan brides must drink a potion containing two Bunga Lawang (cassia buds) (IHB).
• Malayans use the imported bark in decoction with other herbs for chest complaints and cough (IHB).
• Unani, considering the bark carminative, emmenagogue, hematotonic, and tonic, use it for headache, inflammation, piles, and pregnancy (KAB).
Class 2b, reportedly abortifacient (AHP, 1997). Newall, Anderson, and Phillipson (1996) caution that the cinnamaldehyde in the volatile oil is allergenic and an irritant (CAN). May interfere with absorption of tetracycline (AHP, 1997). No health hazards or side effects known with proper therapeutic dosages (PH2). Prolonged use of the essential oil should be restricted during pregnancy (AHP, 1997). Commission E reports contraindications for bark; hypersensitivity to cinnamon or Peruvian balsam; pregnancy, and adverse effects often allergic reactions of skin and mucosae. Flower not permitted for therapeutic use. Contraindications for hypersensitivity to cinnamon or Peruvian balsam, pregnancy, and adverse effects allergic skin reactions and mucosal reactions (AEH).
He et al. (2005) note that cinnamaldehyde (83% or bark essential oil, 65% or twig essential oil) has anti-fungal, antioxidant, antipyretic, antiseptic, cytotoxic, and larvicidal activities, inhibiting the production of lymphocytes and modulating T-cell differentiation. In TCM, cassia is used for circulatory disorders, dyspepsia, gastritis, and inflammation (X15796573). EO LD50 = 320 mg/kg dermal (CAN) (should not be used on skin at levels >0.2%); Aqueous extracts of cassia deemed as effective as cimetidine in preventing ulcers (BGB; WO2). Trans-cinnamaldehyde (IC50 = 3 ^g/ml) and weakly cinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamic acid, and eugenol inhibited aldose reductase (but quercitrin was 6 times more potent than cinnamaldehyde) (X12553890). Cinnamomum cassia inhibited epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, (IC50 = 3.9 ^g/ml) (X15567249). Butanol extracts inhibit metalloproteinase-9 (IC > 90 = 100 |ag/ml) (X15652283); LD50 (cinnamaldehyde) = 2200-3350 mg/kg orl rat HH2; LD50 (cinnamaldehyde) = 200 mg/kg ipr mus HH2; LD50 (cinnamaldehyde) = 132 mg/kg ivn mus HH2; LD50 (cinnamaldehyde) = 2225 mg/kg orl mus HH2; LD50 (EO) = 5200 mg/kg orl rat HH2.
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