Fringed rue ruta chalepensis l rutaceae

Synonyms:

Ruta angustifolia Lowe; Ruta bracteosa DC.; Ruta chalepensis var. bracteosa (DC.) Boiss.; Ruta graveolens var. angustifolia Lowe fide HH2

Notes (Fringed Rue):

But woe unto you, Pharisees! for ye tithe mint and rue and all manner of herbs, and pass over judgment and the love of God: these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone.

But woe to you Pharisees! for you tithe mint and rue and every herb, and neglect justice and the love of God; these you ought to have done, without neglecting the others.

But woe to you Pharisees, because you give the tenth of the mint and the rue and of every[other] vegetable, but you pass by the justice and the love of God! These things you were under obligation to do, but those other things not to omit.

At least the three versions above agree on mint and rue being tithed. But which rue? In my Medicinal Plants of the Bible, I relied on my predecessors and assumed that the biblical rue was Ruta

Ruta Graveolens

graveolens. Israeli botanist Michael Zohary, however, without even indexing or mentioning R. gra-veolens, assigns it to Ruta chalepensis, the only species covered in the Flora of Palestine. Mentioned only once in the Bible, first under its Greek name peganon, most often post-biblically as pigam, closely cognate with the Arabic fegam. Pliny mentions honeyed wine flavored with rue, as well as 84 remedies containing rue, but I cannot be sure which species of rue he mentioned (FP2; ZOH). I feel rather certain that both could be grown in Israel but in this, my third botanical trip through the Bible, I will follow Zohary and treat Ruta chalepensis. The more temperate Ruta graveolens, thriving in Maryland in the United States, was discussed in my CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs (Edition 2).

Common Names (Fringed Rue):

Afar (Eth.; HH2); Al Shathap (Arab.; HH2); Aleppo Rue (Eng.; BOU); Aourmi (Ber.; BOU); Arou-vadam Chedi ((Tam.; HH2); Arruda (Mad.; Por.; JAD); Arvada (Tam.; HH2); Bou Ghans (Arab.; BOU; HH2); Citronelle (Sp.; HH2); Citronelle Marron (Haiti; AVP); Common Rue (Eng.; ZOH); Djell (Ber.; BOU); Eastern Rue (Eng.; HH2); Egyptian Rue (Eng.; FAC); Ermul (Beng.; HH2); Fegan (Arab.; ZOH); Fidgel (Arab.; BOU; HH2); Fidjla (Arab.; BOU; HH2); Fringed Rue (Eng.; Scn.; AH2; USN); Ispunol (Beng.; HH2); Issel (Ber.; BOU); Issin (Ber.; BOU); Peganon (Greek; ZOH); Pigam

(Heb.; ZOH); Pismarum (Hindi; HH2); Red d'Alep (Fr.; BOU); Rora (Ma.; JFM); Ruda (Cr.; Peru; DAV; MDD); Ruda Antillana (Ma.; HH2; JFM); Ruda de España (Sp.; HH2); Ruda de la Tierra (Ma.; JFM; HH2); Ruda de las Antilles (Ma.; HH2; JFM); Ruda d'Espanya (Ma.; JFM); Ruda Tropical (Ma.; JFM); Rue (Eng.; Fr.; Pr.; AVP; BOU); Rue Ailee Fetide (Fr.; AVP); Rue d'Alep (Fr.; AVP); Rue d'Antilles (Fr.; AVP); Rue d'Orient (Fr.; AVP); Rura (Ma.; JFM); Ruta (Arab.; BOU); Ruta Sfangiata (It.; HH2); Rutsa (Arab.; BOU); Saadab (Arab.; ZOH); Sadab (Arab.; Hindi; GHA; HH2); Sadhab (Arab.; BOU; GHA); Satari (Hindi; HH2); Shadhab (Arab.; GHA); Shathab (Oman; Saudi; Yemen; GHA); Syrian Rue (Eng.; BOU; HH2); T'enadam (Arab.; HH2); Zent (Ber.; BOU).

Activities (Fringed Rue):

Abortifacient (f; UPH); Analgesic (1; HH2); Antiedemic (1; JEB28(3):305); Antiendotoxemic (f; JEB90:267); Antiexudative (1; HH2); Antifeedant (1; X11935899); Antifertility (1; X2748734); Antiinflammatory (f1; HH2; JEB90:267; JEB28(3):305); Antiseptic (1; HH2); Antispasmodic (f; SOU; ZOH); Aphrodisiac (f; GHA); Arachnifuge (f; BOU); Bactericide (1; X12423924); Candidi-cide (1; HH2); Cardiotonic (f; DAV); CNS Depressant (f1; JEB28(3):305); CNS Depressant (f; JFM); Decongestant (f; DAV; JFM); Digestive (f; DAV); Emetic (f; JFM); Embryotoxic (1; JEB69:93); Emmenagogue (f; BOU; UPH); Febrifuge (1; HH2); Fungicide (1; X10680445); Immunomodulator (f1; JEB90:267; X15013191); Insectifuge (1; PR17:202; X12672146); Molluscicide (1; FT71:308); NO Inhibitor (1; X15013191); Oxytocic (f; SOU); Phototoxic (1; DAV); Rubefacient (f; JFM); Sedative (f; BOU; DAV); Spasmodic (f; BOU); Stomachic (f; JFM); Sudorific (f; JFM); Vermifuge (f; SOU; UPH); Vulnerary (f; BOU).

Indications (Fringed Rue):

Amenorrhea (f; FP2); Arthrosis (f1; GHA; X2598777); Cold (f; BOU); Bacillus (1; X12423924); Bacteria (1; X12423924); Bronchosis (f; AHL); Candida (1; HH2); Cardiopathy (f; JFM); Childbirth (f; JFM); Cold (f; HH2); Colic (f; GHA); Congestion (f; JFM); Cough (f; HH2); Cramp (f; WOI); Dermatosis (1; X10680445); Dysmenorrhea (f; DAV; FP2; HH2); Earache (f; BOU; HH2; JFM); Edema (1; JEB28(3):305); Endotoxemia (1; X15013191); Enterosis (f; BOU; GHA); Epilepsy (f; SOU); Epistaxis (f; SOU); Escherichia (1; HH2); Fever (f1; BOU; HH2); Fungus (1; X10680445); Gingivosis (f; JFM); Headache (f; GHA; HH2); Hysteria (f; DAV; FP2); Infection (1; X12423924; HH2); Inflammation (1; HH2); Measles (f; JFM); Microsporium (1; X10680445); Myalgia (f; DAV); Mycosis (1; X10680445); Nausea (f; BOU; HH2); Nervousness (f; BOU; HH2); Neurosis (f; HH2); Ophthalmia (f; DAV; HH2; UPH); Otosis (f; DAV); Pain (f1; BOU; GHA; HH2); Palpitation (f; SOU); Paralysis (f; HH2); Pediculosis (f; DAV); Pseudomonas (1; HH2); Pulmonosis (f; HH2); Rheumatism (f1; BOU; FP2; X2598777); Rhinosis (f; BOU; HH2); Scarlet Fever (f; JFM); Shock (f; HH2); Snakebite (f; GHA); Sore (f; BOU; UPH); Soroche (f; SOU); Staphylococcus (1; HH2); Stomachache (f; GHA); Stroke (f; DAV); Swelling (f1; BOU; JEB28(3):305); Worm (f; FP2; UPH); Wound (f; BOU; GHA); Yeast (1; HH2).

Dosages (Fringed Rue):

Aromatic leaves esteemed as spice by North African Jews, added to lamb and beef sausages (merguez); also used in Tunisian omelettes (hajja) (FAC).

• Arabians rub leaves on arthritic or painful areas (GHA) (watch out for photodermatitis; JAD).

• Dominicans mix juice with castor oil for bronchosis (AHL),

• Haitians use the plant as antiepileptic, emmenagogue, sudorific, vermifuge, and to treat ulcerated gums (JFM).

• Expressed juice heated and used as eardrop in earache (JFM).

• Venezuelans take the decoction to overcome shock or spasms (JFM).

• Yemeni chew leaves with sugar for stomachache (GHA).

• Vapors of the plant said to dispel eye fatigue (JFM).

Downsides (Fringed Rue):

Although widely used in Latin America, Julia Morton described the tropical rue as causing cold extremities, feeble slow pulse, gastroenterosis, salivation, swelling of the tongue, and vomiting (when taken in large doses). Overdoses taken in attempted abortion have been fatal (JFM).

Extracts (Fringed Rue):

Iauk et al. (2004) showed that the antiinflammatory biblical rue protected against murine endotox-emia (gavage at 1 g/kg per day for 7 to 14 days before injecting 0.75 mg endotoxin), There was evidence of reduced nitric oxide production. Ruta chalepensis has immunopharmacological properties counteracting the lethal effects of high doses of endotoxin (X15013191). Hadis et al. (2003) showed that rue (50% in coconut oil) repelled Mansonia mosquitoes in western Ethiopia. At 50% concentration, protection was 91.6%, 87.0%, 96.0%, 97.9% for rue, neem, pyrethrum, and deet, respectively. At 40% concentration deet, lemon eucalyptus and pyrethrum were significantly more effective than rue and neem (X12672146). Mancebo et al. (2001) demonstrated a clear antifeedant activity for rue extracts at a concentration of 0.32% (X11935899).

sugarcane (saccharum officinarum l.) +++ POACEAE

Notes (Sugarcane):

Thou hast bought me no sweet cane with money, neither hast thou filled me with the fat of thy sacrifices: but thou hast made me to serve with thy sins, thou hast wearied me with thine iniquities.

Isaiah 43:24 (KJV)

You have not bought me sweet cane with money, or satisfied me with the fat of your sacrifices. But you have burdened me with your sins, you have wearied me with your iniquities.

Isaiah 43:24 (RSV)

For me you have bought no [sweet] cane with any money, and with the fat of your sacrifices you have not saturated me. In reality you have compelled me to serve because of your sins, you have made me weary with your errors.

Isaiah 43:24 (NWT)

To what purpose cometh there to me incense from Sheba, and the sweet cane from a far country? Your burnt offerings are not acceptable, nor your sacrifices sweet unto me.

Jeremiah 6:20 (KJV)

To what purpose does frankincense come to me from Sheba, or sweet cane from a distant land? Your burnt offerings are not acceptable, nor your sacrifices pleasing to me.

Jeremiah 6:20 (RSV)

FIGURE 1.94 Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum). Source: BIB.

What does this matter to me that you bring in even frankincense from She'ba, and the good cane from the land far away? The whole burnt offerings of you people serve for no pleasure and your very sacrifuces have not been gratifying to me.

Jeremiah 6:20 (NWT)

Back before I read Zohary's book, my other reading had led me to conclude that the sweet cane of Isaiah was probably our sugarcane of today. But Zohary is inclined to believe that the sweet cane was more probably an aromatic grass of the genus Cymbopogon, or maybe even calamus, and seems to have ruled out the sugarcane and the vetiver. The sweet sugarcane is rather heavy to be carried from afar and Cymbopogons, Calamus, and today even Vetiver are more precious ounce for ounce than sugarcane. Still I leave sugarcane here, knowing it can be grown in Israel, as it can be in almost all tropical and subtropical countries. I have also cited many abstracts from Cuba, where sugarcane reigns supreme. I see a parallel between these good Cuban scientists trying to find more uses for King Cane, like our good United States scientists are always looking for more uses for King Soybean. The residue, bagasse, used in building materials, insulation against temperatures and sound, resins in phonograph records, mulch and litter, plastics, paper making, and in industrial chemicals, and now from Cuba, polycosanol and D-003. As the cost of fossil fuels increases, it may assume importance as an energy source. Sugarcane alcohol seems as promising as corn-based ethanol, as the price of petroleum spirals upward. Yet I do not hear of any efforts in Cuba to convert to an ethanol fuel economy.

Common Names (Sugarcane):

Adhipatra (Sanskrit; KAB); Afunu (Ada; KAB); Agbo (Cagayan; KAB); Ahleu (Korbo; KAB); Ahwe-renkakraba (Fanti; KAB); Ahwereu (Twi; KAB); Ak (Beng.; KAB); Akali (Nepal; KAB); Akh (San..; KAB); Aku (Uriya; KAB); Ampeou (Cam.; KAB); Ampon (Cam.; KAB); Angarigai (Tam.; KAB); Ankhu (Majhi; NPM); Aos (Mar.; KAB); Ariva (Nc.; KAB); Arolam (Nc.; KAB); Arrake (Sokoto; KAB); Arukanupulakranuga (Tel.; KAB); Asibattiragam (Tam.; KAB); Asipatra (Sanskrit; KAB); Bhurirasa (Sanskrit; KAB); Bich (Sunwar; NPM); Bogleng (Ewe; Krebi; KAB); Boglengbiri (Krebi; KAB); Boglengfe (Krebi; KAB); Boglengyibor (Krebi; KAB); Boiepe (Nc.; KAB); Boinlioua (Nc.; KAB); Bu Ram (Tibet; NPM); Caña (Peru; Sp.; EGG); Caña de Azucar (Peru; Sp.; EGG); Cana de Asucar (Por.; AVP); Cana Doce (Por.; AVP); Cana Dolsa (Cat.; KAB); Canamelle (Fr.; KAB); Canchi (China; EFS); Canna (Brazil; KAB); Canna de Assucar (Por.; Brazil; AVP; KAB); Canna de Zucchero (It.; AVP); Canna Doce (Por.; KAB); Cannamelle (Fr.; It.; AVP; KAB); Canne (Haiti, Reunion; AHL; AVP; KAB); Canne a Sucre (Fr.; Haiti; AHL; AVP; EFS); Canne de Batavia (Fr.; KAB); Canne de la Chine (Fr.; KAB); Canne d'Haiti (Fr.; KAB); Canne Indigene (Fr.; AHL); Canne Pays (Fr.; AHL); Canya de Azucar (Dr.; Sp. AHL; EFS; IED); Canya Dulce (Sp.; EFS); Canya Miel (Sp.; EFS; KAB); Canyaduzales (Sp.; AVP); Canyuzales (Sp.; AVP); Chaku (Nepal; KAB); Cheraku (Tel.; KAB); Cher-akubhedamu (Tel.; KAB); Darbheshu (Mal.; KAB); Delenole (Nc.; KAB); Dilou (Nc.; KAB); Dir-ghachhada (Sanskrit; KAB); Dogangueni (Nc.; KAB); Echtes Zuckerrohr (Ger.; TAN); Fary (Hova; Madagascar; KAB); Fisika (Sakalave; KAB); Fofungu (Awina; Ewe; KAB); Gadenadeboui (Nc.; KAB); Gana (Urdu; KAB); Ganda (Dec.; Hindi; KAB); Gandida (Sanskrit; KAB); Ganna (India; Nwp.; Pun.; EFS; KAN); Ghenru (Parbuttiah; KAB); Gol (Bom.; KAB); Goreate (Nc.; KAB); Gudada (Sanskrit; KAB); Gudadaru (Sanskrit; KAB); Gudakashta (Sanskrit; KAB); Gudamula (Sanskrit; KAB); Gudatrina (Sanskrit; KAB); Gura (Sanskrit; EFS); Gurdanda (Mun.; KAB); Gudodaru (Uriya; KAB); Gurkatauri (Mun.; KAB); Gurkosear (Mun.; KAB); Gursing (Sherpa; NPM); Ik (Beng.; Hindi; Nwp.; KAB); Ikhari (Nwp.; KAB); Ikhyu (Uriya; KAB); Ikku (Tam.; KAB); Ikshu (Kan.; Mal.; Sanskrit; San.; AH2; EFS; KAB); Ikshudanda (Kan.; KAB); Ikshupu (Tel.; KAB); Ikshura (Sanskrit; KAB); Impuco (Antis; EGG; RAR; SOU); Ingolu (Kan.; KAB); Inju (Tel.; KAB); Itica (Cocama; EGG; SAR); Jate (Nc.; KAB); Ka Ra (Tibet; NPM; TIB); Kabbo (Mar.; KAB); Kabbu (Kan.; KAB); Kabopolenouen (Nc.; KAB); Kajuli (Beng.; KAB); Kalai (Tam.; KAB); Kamand (Pun.; Sin.; KAB); Kan che (China; EFS; KAB); Kannal (Tam.; KAB); Kansia (Japan; KAB); Kantara (Kan.; Sanskrit; KAB); Kantaraka (Kan.; Sanskrit KAB); Kantarakam (Mal.; KAB); Kantaramu (Tel.; KAB); Kan-thirikhu (Nwp.; KAB); Kanupulacheraku (Tel.; KAB); Karambu (Ceylon; KAB); Karansariki (Hausa; KAB); Karimpu (Mal.; KAB); Karkotaka (Sanskrit; KAB); Karumbu (Tam.; Tulu; KAB); Kasabisha-kar (Arab.; KAB); Kasibshakar (Arab.; KAB); Katari (Behar; KAB); Ketari (Behar; KAB); Keyan

(Burma; KAB); Khadgapatraka (Sanskrit; KAB); Khand (Pun.; KAB); Khum (Magar; NPM); Khun-jhi (Tharu; NPM); Khusiyar (Behar; KAB); Kiaboue (Nc.; KAB); Kinemaite (Nc.; KAB); Kondim-oua (Nc.; KAB); Koubala (Nc.; KAB); Koshakara (Sanskrit; KAB); Kulluar (Beng.; KAB); Kumad (Hindi; KAB); Kushiar (Beng.; KAB); Kyan (Burma; KAB); Lavucheraku (Tel.; KAB); Madhura (Kan.; KAB); Madhutrina (Sanskrit; KAB); Madhutrinam (Mal.; KAB); Madhuyashti (Sanskrit; KAB); Madudirunam (Tam.; KAB); Maharasa (Nc.; KAB); Majonana (Culina; RAR); Marakabbu (Kan.; KAB); Mebouangue (Nc.; KAB); Mengou (Nc.; KAB); Mia (Annam; Ic.; KAB); Mia co ke (Tonkin; KAB); Mia lau (Tonkin; KAB); Mia ly (Tonkin; KAB); Migao (Nc.; KAB); Misk'i wiru (Aym.; Bol.; DLZ); Misqui Huiro (Peru; EGG; SOU); Moene (Nc.; KAB); Moindiene (Nc.; KAB); Moueouete (Nc.; KAB); Mrityupushpu (Sanskrit; KAB); Nai (Iran; EFS); Naamura (Uvosha; EGG); Naisakar (Guj.; KAB); Naishakar (Hindi; Iran; KAB); Ngala (Nc.; KAB); Niemba (Nc.; KAB); Noble Sugarcane (Eng.; USN); Nyaamura (Uvosha; SOU); Oen mangia (Nc.; KAB); Oen ou poudendate (Nc.; KAB); Ouali (Nc.; KAB); Ouane (Nc.; KAB); Ouassab (Arab.; EFS); Oudiepe-ait (Nc.; KAB); Ouene (Nc.; KAB); Ouenebail (Nc.; KAB); Paat (Peru; EGG; SOU); Pagad (Aguaruna; RAR); Pagat (Aguaruna; Huambisa; SOU); Paiambou (Nc.; KAB); Paieme (Nc.; KAB); Pam (Lepcha; NPM); Paruvayoni (Tam.; KAB); Paunda (Pun.; KAB); Payodhara (Sanskrit; KAB); Pidiak (Nc.; KAB); Pie canne (Haiti; AVP); Pobone (Nc.; KAB); Pochoasiri (Piro; EGG; SOU); Pochwacsuru (Piro; RAR); Poilote (Nc.; KAB); Pottikamupucheraku (Tel.; KAB); Punarikhu (Nwp.; KAB); Pundaram (Tam.; KAB); Pundra (Kan.; KAB); Pundraka (Sanskrit; KAB); Puri (Beng.; KAB); Qasab al Sukkar (Arab.; GHA); Qasabussakar (Arab.; KAB); Quilaba (Vis.; KAB); Rake (Hausa; KAB); Rasadali (Kan.; KAB); Rasala (Kan.; Sanskrit; KAB); Rasalu (Sanskrit; KAB); Rastale (Kan.; KAB); Rikhu (Hindi; Kum.; Nwp.; KAB); Roseau a sucre (Fr.; KAB); Sabi (Conibo; Shipibo; EGG; RAR; SOU); Sacchar (Nepal; SUW); Sahachar (Nepal; SUW); Saharnyi trastnik (Rus.; KAB); Sastra (Sanskrit; KAB); Sato Kibi (Japan; TAN; USN); Schimate (Nc.; KAB); Seker kamizi (Tur.; EFS); Senoorr (Amuesha; SOU); Senorr (Yanesha; EGG); Serdi (Bom.; Guj.; KAB); Sha T'ang (China; KAB); Sharhara (Sanskrit; EFS); Shakarsurkh (Pun.; KAB); Sheng (Ga; KAB); Sheradi (Guj.; KAB); Sherdi (Guj.; KAB); Shih mi (China; KAB); Soo (Limbu; NPM); Sotalong (Limbu; NPM); Sthiabanghi (Nc.; KAB); Sucre de canne (Fr.; EFS); Sukumasaka (Sanskrit; KAB); Sugarcane (Eng.; Scn.; AH2; AVP; USN); Suikerriet (Dutch; EFS; KAB); Sukker (Den.; EFS); Taa vata (Amahuaca; RAR); Tacamaree (Brazil; KAB); Tacuane (Chiriguano; DLZ); Tangalite (Nc.; KAB); Tanigarbu (Kan.; KAB); Tebu (Java; KAB); Tebu gula (Malaya; EFS); Tellacheraku (Tel.; KAB); Thsiogan (Nc.; KAB); Tilibi (Nc.; KAB); Tiyyamranu (Tel.; KAB); Trestie de zahar (Rom.; KAB); Trinadhiya (Sanskrit; KAB); Trinaraja (Kan.; KAB); Tshiambo (Nc.; KAB); Tu (Newari; KAB; NPM); Tubo (Tag.; KAB); Tunta (Tel.; KAB); Uduwa (Rai; NPM); Uinkh (Mooshar; NPM); Uk (Beng.; Hindi; Nepal; Sin.; KAB); Ukgas (Sin.; KAB); Ukh (Behar; Hindi; KAB); Ukhari (Nwp.; KAB); Ukhi (Behar; KAB); Ukhu (Danuwar; Nepal; Tamang; NPM; SUW); Ukkiragandam (Tam.; KAB); Ukkiragandi (Tam.; KAB); Unkh (Bkojpuri; NPM); Uns (Guj.; KAB); Uny (Kon. KAB); Us (Bom.; Decca; Mar.; KAB); Usa (Mar.; KAB); Uss (Kon. KAB); Usyu (Gurung; NPM); Usyup (Tamang; NPM); Vamsukamu (Tel.; KAB); Vansha (Sanskrit; KAB); Velam (Tam.; KAB); Vellakarimpu (Mal.; KAB); Vengarumbu (Tam.; KAB); Viha (Brazi Zucchero (It.; EFS); Vipularasa (Sanskrit; KAB); Vrishya (Sanskrit; KAB); Xai (Cashibo; EGG; RAR; SOU); Zuckerrohr (Ger.; AVP; EFS; KAB).

Activities (Sugarcane):

Analgesic (f; X12709906); Anthelmintic (f; KAB); Antiaggregant (1; X15272645); Antiallergic (1; X15729619); Antidote (arsenic) (f; KAB); Antidote (copper) (f; KAB); Antiinflammatory (1; X15729619; X12709906); Antioxidant (1; X14756190); Antiplatelet (1; X15272645); Antiseptic (f; EFS); Antivinous (f; BIB); Aphrodisiac (f; BIB; SUW); Bactericide (f; BIB); Cardiotonic (f; BIB; EFS); Demulcent (f; EFS; SUW); Depurative (f; TIB); Diuretic (f; AHL; BIB; GHA; SUW); Emollient (f; KAB); Febrifuge (f; BIB); Hepatoprotective (1; (X14756190); Hypocholesterolemic (1; X15272645); Immunostimulant (1; X14975361); Laxative (f; AHL; BIB); Osteoprotective (1;

X15357627); Pectoral (f; BIB; KAB); Piscicide (f; BIB); Radioprotective (1; X14975361); Refrigerant (f; AHL; EFS); Stomachic (f; BIB).

Indications (Sugarcane):

Allergy (1; X15729619); Anemia (f; KAB); Arthrosis (f; BIB); Backache (f; JFM); Biliousness (f; KAB); Blenorrhagia (f; DLZ); Boil (f; BIB); Calculus (f; DLZ; KAB); Cancer (f; JLH); Cancer, breast (f; JLH); Cancer, mouth (f; JLH); Cancer, rectum (f; JLH); Cancer, stomach (f; JLH); Cancer, tonsil (f; JLH); Cancer, uterus (f; JLH); Cardiopathy (1; X15272645); Catarrh (f; BIB); Cold (f; DLZ; JFM); Colic (f; DLZ); Constipation (f; AHL); Cough (f; DLZ; GHA); Cystosis (f; DLZ); Decubitis (f; BIB); Delirium (f; KAB); Dermatosis (f1; JFM; X15729619); Diarrhea (f; JFM; KAB); Dysentery (f; JFM); Dysuria (f; JFM); Enterosis (f; KAB); Erysipelas (f; KAB); Fatigue (f; KAB); Fever (f; TIB); Fungus (f; JFM); Frambesia (f; BIB); Gastrosis (f; JLH); Gingivosis (f; BIB); Hemorrhoid (f; BIB); Hepatosis (f; DLZ); Hiccup (f; BIB); High Cholesterol (1; X15272645); Infection (f; EGG; SAR); Inflammation (f1; JFM; X15729619); Jaundice (f; EGG); Laryngosis (f; BIB); Leprosy (f; KAB); Mastosis (f; JLH); Mucososis (f; KAB); Mycosis (f; JFM); Nephrosis (f; BIB; DLZ; EGG); Neurosis (f; DLZ); Opacity (f; BIB); Ophthalmia (f; GHA; SAR); Osteoporosis (1; X15357627); Pain (f1; EGG; X12709906); Pertussis (f; BIB); Proctosis (f; JLH); Ringworm (f; JFM); Smallpox (f; BIB); Sore (f; KAB); Sore Throat (f; BIB); Splenosis (f; BIB); Splinter (f; JFM); Stomatosis (f; JLH); Thirst (f; KAB); Thrombosis (1; X15272645); Uterosis (f; JLH); Wound (f; BIB; EGG).

• Arabians use cane juice as antitussive, diuretic, and ophthalmic (GHA).

• Cubans drink expressed juice as diuretic; formerly sucked roasted cane for diarrhea and dysentery (JFM).

• Curacaons make decoction of dry fallen leaves for dysuria (JFM).

• Mexicans take juice from roasted stems for colds (JFM).

• Peruvians drink fermented cane juice for liver pains (EGG).

• Peruvians put powdered sugar on wounds to prevent infection (EGG).

• Peruvians take roasted cane against jaundice and kidney pain (EGG).

• Various cultures suggest molasses for cancer of the breast, mouth, rectum, stomach, tonsils, and uterus (JLH).

• Yumbos apply a few drops of warm sap to infected eyes (SAR).

• Mashed root with vinegar poulticed onto backache (JFM).

• Ash of epidermis applied with vinegar to ringworm (JFM).

Natural History (Sugarcane):

Sugarcane is susceptible to the following viruses: cucumber mosaic, maize leaf fleck, sugarcane mosaic, tulip breaking, wheat streak mosaic, chlorotic streak, and sereh. The following fungi have been reported from sugarcane: Allantospora radicicola, Alternaria sp., Apiospora camtospora, Arthrobotrys suberba, Aspergillus sp., A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. herbariorum, A. nidulans, A. niger, A. penicillioides, A. repens, A. sydowii, A. terreus, a form of A. flavus designated as A. parasiticus on mealybugs infesting cane, Asterostroma cervicolor, Ceratostomella adiposum, C. paradoxa, Cerco-spora koepkei, C. vaginae, Chytridium sp., Cladosporium herbarum, Clathrus columnatus, Colletot-richum falcatum, C. graminicola, C. lineola, Corticium sasakii, Curvularia sp., Cytospora sacchari, Endoconidiophora adiposa, E. paradoxa, Eriosphaeria sacchari, Fusarium spp., Gibberella fujiku-roi, Gloeocercospora sorghi, Gnomonia iliau, Graphium sacchari, Helminthosporium sacchari, H. stenospilum, Himantia stellifera, Hormiactella sacchari, Hypocrea gelatinosa, Ithyphallus rubicun-dis, Leptosphaeria sacchari, Ligniera vascularum, Lophodermium sacchari, Macrophoma sacchari,

Marasmius sacchari, M. stenophyllus, Melanconium sacchari, Microdiplodia melaspora, Myco-sphaerella sacchari, M. striatiformans, Myriogenospora aciculisporae, Nectria spp., Neurospora sitophila, Nigrospora oryzae, Odontia saccharicola, Olpidium sacchari, Papularia sphaerosperma, P. vinosa, Periconia sacchari, Phyllosticta sorghina, Physalospora rhodina, P. tucumanensis, Phy-tophthora erythroseptica, Plectospira gemmifera, Polyporus spp., P. occidentalis, P. sanguineus, P. tulipiferus, Poria ambigua, Psilocybe atomatoides, Pythium spp., P. arrhenomanes, P. graminicola, P. aphanidermatum, P. artotrogus, P. debaryanum, P. dissotocum, P. helicoides, P. irregulare, P. mamillatum, P. monospermum, P. periilum, P. rostratum, P. splendens, P. ultimum, P. vexans, Rhi-zoctonia ferruginea, R. pallida, R. solani, Rosellinia paraguayensis, R. pulveracea, Saccharomyces zopfii, Schizophyllum commune, Scirrhia 1ophodermioides, Sclerotium rolfsii, Trichoderma lignorum, Tubercularia saccharicola, Vermicularia graminicola, Xylaria apiculata, Nectria flavociliata, and N. laurentiana. The following nematodes have been reported on sugarcane: Anguina spermophaga, Helicotylenchus sp. Heterodera spp., Hoplolaimus sp., Meloidogyne sp., Pratylenchus spp., P. praten-sis, Rotylenchus spp., R. similes, Scutellonema spp., Trichodorus christie,and Tylenchorhynchus spp. (Golden, 1984). Bacteria include Bacillus megatherium, B. mesentericus, Xanthomonas albilineans, X. rubrilineans, X. rubrisubalbicans, and X. vasculorum (Agriculture Handbook No. 165).

Extracts (Sugarcane):

Cuban researchers (Ledone et al. 2005) showed that a mixture of fatty acids from sugarcane (mostly palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids) showed antiinflammatory activity in test models for allergy, suggesting utility in allergic and inflammatory dermatosis (X15729619). Other Cuban scientists, Noa et al. (2004), looking at by-products of the sugarcane industry (like United States scientists look at soy by products) are working with a cholesterol-lowering mix called D-003. D-003 also prevents bone loss and bone resorption in ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats. Compared with a sham group, prednisolone significantly reduced trabecular bone volume, while D-003 significantly and dose-dependently prevented the induced reduction of TBV. "D-003 could be useful for managing corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis" (X15357627). Gamez et al. (2004), working with beagles, reported antiplatelet and hypocholesterolemic effects. At 200 and 400 mg/kg, D-003 significantly reduced total cholesterol, inhibited platelet aggregation, and increased bleeding time, compared to controls administered D-003 for 9 months to beagles induced no signs of toxicity (X15272645).

glasswort (salicornia europea l.) ++ chenopodiaceae

Synonyms:

Salicornia europaea var. herbacea L.; Salicornia herbacea (L.) L.; Salicornia virginica L. Notes (Glasswort):

But who may abide the day of his coming? and who shall stand when he appeareth? for he is like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap.

Malachi 3:2 (KJV)

But who can endure the day of his coming, and who can stand when he appears? "For he is like a refiner's fire and like fullers' soap."

Malachi 3:2 (RSV)

But who will be putting up with the day of his coming, and who will be the one standing when he appears? "For he is like the fire of a refiner and like the lye of laundrymen."

Malachi 3:2 (NWT)

FIGURE 1.95 Glasswort (Salicornia europea). Source: BIB.

According to Grieve, "there are references in the Bible to the use of Glasswort for soap and for glass" (GMH). The potash, or alkaline salts used in biblical "sope-making," were derived from the ashes of glassworts and other halophytic species. The potash was then mixed with olive oil.

Hartwell lists this and other species of glasswort called kelpwort and samphire as folk remedies for tumors and superfluous flesh. As "herba salicorniae herbaceae," it is used medicinally in Palestine (BIB). Zohary lists no Salicornias in his Plants of the Bible (ZOH) but does list this species in his Flora of Palestine (FP1) as an edible medicinal species, a pioneer species in saline puddles drying up.

Common Names (Glasswort):

Akkeishi So (Japan; TAN); Chicken-claws (Eng.; USN); Common Glasswort (Eng.; USN); Glasswort (Eng.; BIB; TAN); Lye (Eng.; NWT); Marsh Samphire (Eng.; TAN; USN); Saltwort (Eng.; TAN); Soap (Eng.; BIB; KJV; RSV); Sope (Eng.; BIB); Yan Jiao Cao (China; USN).

Activities (Glasswort):

Antiscorbutic (1; EFS; FNF); Depurative (f; EFS); Digestive (1; EFS); Tonic (f; EFS). Indications (Glasswort):

Cancer (f; JLH); Dropsy (f; EB28:315); Scurvy (1; EFS).

Dosages (Glasswort):

Plant (leaves, stems and seed) is edible but ashes are more often used like lye in making soap (TAN; UPH).

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