Young leaves, shoots, and flower buds parboiled and eaten; older leaves a tea adulterant; source of a manna (FAC).
• Andeans suggest the plant can whiten the teeth (ROE).
• Andeans take bark tea for fever, enterosis, and malaria, and bathe rheumatism therewith (ROE).
• Asian Indians suggest the catkins as antipyretic (SKJ), the bark as anthelmintic (DEP).
• Cherokee Indians take bark tea for alopecia, diarrhea, fever, and hoarseness (DEM).
• Chinese treat boils around the mouth with root ashes in mustard oil (LMP).
• Chinese use infusion (bark, twigs, and/or leaves) for fever, gonorrhea, jaundice, and rheumatism (LMP).
• Tippery British ash the inflorescence in ointments for burns (AAH).
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