Deveined leaves eaten as veggies; young shoots boiled and eaten (TAN); heads boiled and eaten like artichoke; oilseeds roasted as coffee substitute; roots also eaten like salsify (FAC; MCK); stalks, like those of most thistles, are edible and nutritious, but have caused fatalities in cattle (BIB). Seeds serve as famine food for humans (BIB), actually sold to me like sunflower seed in Pakistan. Seeds scorched as coffee substitute, seed oil used for food or lubrication, which might also serve as a famine food for humans. 1 tsp (3-5 g) mashed seed/cup water, 3-4 x/day, 1/2 hour before meals (APA; HH3); 1 g seed HHB. 3.5-15 g seed/day (HH3). 4-9 ml/day fluid extract (1:1) (KOM); 12-15 g whole or powdered seed; an equivalent to 200-400 mg silymarin, the collective name for silybinin, silydianin, and silychristin (KOM; SHT); 4-9 g/day seed (MAB); one or two 535-mg capsules 3 x/day; StX 420-840 mg silymarin/day (NH); one to two 540-mg capsules (StX with 175 mg certified potency seed extract with at least 80% silymarin, synergically combined in a base of turmeric and artichoke) 3 x/day, with water (NH); 2-3 tsp fresh leaf (sic) (PED); 1-3 g dry leaf (sic) (PED); 175 mg 80% silymarin StX (PED); 420 mg silymarin/day (PNC); 200-400 mg silymarin (SHT), 200-600 mg silymarin/day for Syndrome X (SYN).
• Basque use seed decoction as antiinflammatory, antineoplastic, aperient, digestive, diuretic, hemostat, hypotensive and venotonic (NP9(2):6).
• Germans use as demulcent in catarrh and pleurisy, for jaundice and biliary disorders (GMH).
• Lebanese consider the flower infusion alterative, refrigerant, and tonic (HJP).
• Lebanese boil leaves in vinegar for skin ailments and tonics (HJP).
• Lebanese use astringent vulnerary root for hemorrhoids and worms (HJP).
• Lebanese use seed infusion for stones of gallbladder and liver, and as a hydragogue, lac-togogue, litholytic, stimulant, and tonic (HJP).
• Turkish use ground-roasted seed decoction for shortness of breath in bronchosis (EB49:406).
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The human body And Todays chemical infested world. Here is a news flash You are not allergic to pollen, pet dander, or whatever it is that makes your body revolt Rather, your body just can not handle that one thing, what ever it is, anymore, due to the massive barrage of toxic chemicals you and everyone else are ingesting every single day.