Oral tradition suggests that Washington's troops survived in midwinter with the inner bark of slippery elm (JAD). Facciola states that native Americans cooked it with buffalo fat, giving flavor and preventing rancidity (sounds like deep fried "elmbark chips" instead of potato chips); Kiowa Indians brewed it into a nutritive tea. Used as a meal for breading fish. Also used to fortify health beverages like smoothies (DEM; FAC), 1-3 tsp powdered herb/cup water/1-3 x/day (APA); two 340-mg capsules as needed (APA); 4 g powdered bark in 500 ml decoction, 3 x/day (CAN); 5 ml liquid extract (1:1 in 60% ethanol) 3 x/day (CAN); 4-16 ml 1:8 powdered bark decoction 3 x/day (CAN; HHB); 3 Tbsp inner bark/cup water (FAD); 1 oz powdered bark/pint water (FEL); 0.5-2 g powdered bark/cup, 2-3 x/day; two 340-500-mg capsules as needed (JAD); 1/4-1/2 cup fresh bark (PED); 2-4 tsp dry bark (PED); 3 tsp dry bark/4 cups boiling water (PED); 1-2 g bark in tea 3-4 x/day (SKY); 5 ml tincture 3 x/day (SKY).
• Lebanese use the bark of U. campestris as we use slippery elm to make a slimy beverage, with pungent plants, for colds, dermatosis, dysentery, lungs, and throat (HJP).
• North Africans consider the bark of U. campestris as astringent, diuretic, emollient, resolvent, stimulant, and sudorific (BOU).
• Spaniards use bark of U. carpinifolia rather like we use slippery elm, internally for diarrhea and externally for blepharitis, corneal ulcers, dermatosis, erythema, inflammation, itch, periodontosis, pharyngitis, pruritis, sores, and vaginitis (VAD).
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