And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened breads; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it.
The children of Israel may have learned to eat bitter herbs from the Egyptians. Ancient Egyptians used to place healthy green herbs on the table, mixed with mustard, and then dunk their healthy whole-grain bread in the mixture, like my dad and I used to dunk cornbread in turnip green broth. Moldenke and Moldenke believed that Cichorium endivia, Cichorium intybus, Lactuca sativa, Nasturtium officinale, Rumex acetosella, and Taraxacum officinale were among the green herbs of the Bible. By contrast, local Israeli botanist Michael Zohary lists none of these in his Plants of the Bible (ZOH), and only the watercress is listed as occurring in the Flora of Palestine. Zohary figures instead that chicory and the poppy-leaved Reichardia (which looks like dandelion) as more promising candidates. Regarding bitter herbs, Zohary says, "Many plants, especially those belonging to the Mustard and Daisy families, are frequently collected and used as potherbs and salad plants" (ZOH).
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