Chemical and Medical Abbreviations

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Most of the miscellaneous abbreviations relate to chemistry, medicines, and dosages, but there are some other abbreviations used in a similar table in Duke et al. (2002a).

ADD = Attention deficit disorder

AHPA = American Herbal Products Association

ALA = Alpha-linolenic acid

APA = American Pharmaceutical Association

BO = Body odor

BPC = British Pharmacopoeia

BPH = Benign prostatic hypertrophy

CDC = Centers for Disease Control cf. = Compare with

CNS = Central nervous system

COPD = Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder

COX = Cyclooxygenase

COX-I = Cyclooxygenase-inhibitor (sometimes, more specifically COX-1 or COX-2-inhibitor)

cv = Cultivar

CVI = Chronic venous insufficiency

ED = Erectile dysfunction

ED50 = Effective dose at which 50% of subjects are "cured," "effected," "affected," or


EO = Essential oil

ERT = Estrogen replacement therapy etc. = Et cetera f = Folklore, not yet substantiated (following parentheses in "Activities" and

"Indications" sections)

GI = Gastrointestinal

GLA = Gamma-linolenic acid

GMO = Genetically modified organism

GRAS = Generally recognized as safe h (as an abandoned score for an activity or indication) = Homeopathic

H2O2 = Hydrogen peroxide

HCN = Hydrocyanic acid hmn = Human

HPS = Hepatopulmonary syndrome

IBD = Inflammatory bowel disease

IBS = Irritable bowel syndrome

IC = Inhibitory concentration

IKKbeta = IkappaB-kinase-beta iNOS = Inducible nitric oxide synthase ipr = Intraperitoneal ivn = Intravenous l = Liter






orl oz

rbt scu




Lethal dose at which 50% of experimental population is killed

Lowest reported lethal dose

Monoamine oxidase inhibitor

Minimum bactericidal concentration

Multi drug resistant


Has been used by different sources differently = Minimum Inhibiting Concentration or Mean Inhibiting Concentration


Minimum lethal dose; mean lethal dose Millimolar

Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus Mouse

National Cancer Institute Nitric oxide


Oligomeric procyanidins

Oxygen radical absorbance capacity



Premenstrual syndrome Parts per million Prostate-specific antigen Rabbit

Subcutaneous Stephen Foster

Sexual hormone binding globulin Systemic lupus erythematosus Superoxide dismutase Tablespoon

Traditional Chinese medicine




Urinary tract infection



Solitary X in the title line of the herb following the scientific name means "don't take it without advice from an expert." Think of it as a skull-and-crossbones; X followed by serial number = PMID (PubMed ID number) Zero moisture basis

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Truth About Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Truth About Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable Bowel Syndrome, also known as IBS, is a condition in which the bowel does not function as it should. If you are one that has been diagnosed with IBS, then there is a real need to find the help to relieve the symptoms you are facing.

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