Castor ricinus communis l euphorbiaceae

Notes (Castor):

And the LORD God prepared a gourd, and made it to come up over Jonah, that it might be a shadow over his head, to deliver him from his grief. So Jonah was exceeding glad of the gourd.

And the LORD God appointed a plant, and made it come up over Jonah, that it might be a shade over his head, to save him from his discomfort. So Jonah was exceedingly glad because of the plant.

Accordingly Jehovah God appointed a bottle-gourd plant, that it should come up over Jonah, in order to become a shade over his head, to deliver him from his calamitous state. And Jonah began to rejoice greatly over the bottle gourd plant.

Name Scab Typhus Plants

FIGURE 1.89 Castor (Ricinus communis).

Ricinus Communis Plant

We may never know which version of Jonah 4:6 is botanically more accurate. Castor can become a big shade tree; bottle gourds trained on a trellis can cast shade. Zohary thinks that castor is most likely. The huge leaves of this plant are excellently adapted for producing ample shade when growing alongside a bower, booth, or hut or overhanging a bench. Castor bean is cultivated for the seeds, which yield a fast-drying, non-yellowing oil, used mainly in industry and medicines. Consistent with the classical writers, including Strabo, Pliny, and Theophrastrus, Copley et al. (2005) found castor oil among the lighting oils used in archaeological lamps from Egypt, along with animal, flaxseed, radish (or some crucifer), and sesame oils (X15912234). The oil was extensively used also by Hebrews, as one of the five oils sanctioned by rabbinical tradition. Oil used in coating fabrics and other protective coverings, in the manufacture of high-grade lubricants, transparent typewriter and printing inks, in textile dying (when converted into sulfonated Castor Oil or TurRed Oil, for dying cotton fabrics with alizarine), in leather preservation, and in the production of Rilson, a polyamide nylon-type fiber. Dehydrated oil is an excellent drying agent that compares favorably with tung oil and is used in paints and varnishes. Hydrogenated oil is utilized in the manufacture of waxes, polishes, carbon paper, candles, and crayons. Blown oil is used for grinding lacquer paste colors; and when hydrogenated and sulfonated, it is used for the preparation of ointments. South Africans mix castor oil with kerosene as a culicide; the oil prevents tabanid flies from attacking camels. Castor oil pomace, the residue after crushing, is used as a high-nitrogen fertilizer. The pomace is said to induce asthma among individuals who inhale it. Although it is highly toxic due to the ricin, a method of detoxicating the meal has now been found, so that it can safely be fed to livestock. Stems are made into paper and wallboard. Moldenke and Moldenke remarked that neither the ancient Hebrews nor modern inhabitants of Palestine and Syria use it for medicine (BIB). Egyptians speak of kaka as the plant source of the kiki oil, mentioned by Herodotus as used for lighting. Castor has been found in 6000-year old Egyptian tombs. Zohary states that "The Talmud sometimes refers to kikayon as a plant yielding the castor oil long known in medicine" (ZOH). It has even worked its way into Vodou, associated with the deities Yemanja and Omolu (Abal-uaie) in the Afro-Brazilian Candomble religion, wherein the seed oil is used as a purgative (VOD). Wish my mother had read the warning — "not to be administered to children under 12 years" — and I might still like orange juice; too early in life, my mother assumed that castor oil, cut with orange juice, was a panacea. So to this day, I often imagine the taste of castor oil with my orange juice. Judi duCel-lier, my secretary for three decades, once took some castor bean seeds home to poison some moles. Judi's grandson chewed on one of those seeds, but was given ipecac immediately after Judi called me for advice that frightening Sunday morning.

Common Names (Castor):

Aa Ma (Newari; NPM); Aaril (Nepal; NPM); Akhilwane (Ber.; BOU); Alama (Nepal; SUW); Amanakkam-chedi (Tam.; NAD); Amanakku (Tam.; NAD; WOI); Amidamu (Tel.; NAD); Amudam (Tel.; NAD); Amudamuchettu (Tel.; WOI); Ander (Nepal; SUW); Andela (Nepal; SUW); Andi (Danu-war; Mooshar; NPM); Arand (Pun.; NAD); Aranda (Beng.; NAD); Arash (Arab.; GHA); Arend (Nepal; NPM); Arer (Nepal; NPM); Areth (Chepang; NPM); Ater (Chepang; NPM); Audla (Kan.; NAD); Ava-nakku (Mal.; WOI); Avend (Nepal; SUW); Awrioun (Arab.; BOU); Ayrunkukri (Sin.; NAD); Bazanjir (Afg; KAB); Bedanjir (Iran; NAD); Bheranda (Beng.; WOI); Bherenda (Beng.; NAD); Bi Ma (Pin.; AH2); Bi Ma Gen (Pin.; AH2); Bi Ma Ye (Pin.; AH2); Bi Ma You (Pin.; AH2); Bi Ma Zi (Pin.; AH2; DAA); Bois de Carapat (Fwi.; AVP); Buzanjir (Afg; KAB); Carapate (Guad.; AVP; TRA); Carrapa (Sp.; AVP); Carrapateira (Mad.; Por.; AVP); Castor (Eng.; Scn.; AH2; AVP; VOD); Castor Bean (Eng.; CR2; VOD); Castor Oil Plant (Eng.; AVP); Catapuzia Maggiore (It.; AVP); Causirro (Bol.; Chiri-guano; DLZ); Cawapat (Dom.; TRA); Chittamanakku (Tam.; NAD); Chittmani (Tam.; NAD); Coch (Ma.; JFM); Daldo (Rai; NPM); Dandarobi (Tamang; NPM); Dan-khra (Tibet; NPM); Dar-ta (Tibet; NPM); Diveli (Bom.; Guj.; NAD); Diveligo (Guj.; WOI); Djarak Malkarone; (Arab.; AVP); Endaru (Sin.; NAD); Endi (Hindi; NAD); E-ra (Tibet; NPM); Eramudapu (Tel.; NAD); Eranda (Ayu.; Sanskrit; AH2; NAD); Erandi (Hindi; Mar.; WOI); Erandthailam (Tel.; NAD); Erendi (Guj.; Mah.; NAD); Eri

(Assam; NAD); Feni (Ber.; BOU); Feuille Grain (Haiti; AVP); Feuille Mascriti (Haiti; AVP); Figo do Inferno (Por.; AVP); Gab (Uriya; NAD); Gandharva Hastah (Sanskrit; NAD); Girgilla (Peru; SOU); Gourd (Eng.; BIB); Haralu (Kan.; WOI); Hedera (Heb.; ZOH); Herani (Sin.; NAD); Higuera del Diablo (Ma.; Sp.; JFM); Higuera Infernal (Mex.; Pan.; AVP; MPG); Higuerilla (Sp.; AVP; EGG); Higuerilla de la Tierra (Ma.; JFM); Higuerilla Mexicana (Ma.; JFM); Higuerillo (Ecu.; Sp.; AVP; BEJ); Higue-rita (Sp.; AVP); Higuero (Sal.; AVP); Huile Mascriti (Haiti; AVP); Huiso Mero (Peru; Shipibo/Conibo; EGG); Iguerilla (Ma.; JFM); Indeyo (Raute; NPM); Jambalin (Nic.; IED); Kaka (Arab.; Egypt; ZOH); Kesusi (Burma; NAD); Kharvah (Tur.; AVP); Kharwah (Arab.; GHA); Kherwa' (Arab.; BOU); Khirva (Arab.; NAD); Khirwah (Arab.; GHA); Khurwa'a (Arab.; GHA); Kikayon (Heb.; ZOH); Koch (Ma.; JFM); Kolukanti (Heb.; ZOH); Kottai Muthu (Tam.; WOI); Krank (Ber.; BOU); Krapata (Ma.; JFM); Kukat (Chepang; NPM); Lidis (Chepang; NPM); Lirraiq (Ber.; BOU); Macoroco (Bol.; DLZ); Mad-hishe Aril (Majhi; NPM); Mamona (Por.; AVP; RAR); Mamoneira (Por.; AVP); Mascriti (Haiti; AVP); Masketi (Haiti; TRA); Maskriti (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Masquiti (Ma.; JFM); Mbaicibo (Chiriguano; DLZ); Miniakjarah (Mal.; NAD); Oil Nut Tree (Jam.; AVP); Ourioura (Ber.; BOU); Palma Christi (Col.; Eng.; Fr.; Haiti; Mart.; Ocn.; AH2; AVP; BOU; MPG; TRA); Panchangulam (Sanskrit; NAD); Piojo del Diablo (Peru; EGG); Purgeer-Konr (Den.; AVP); Racznik (Pol.; AVP); Relajar (Col.; IED; MPG); Reyar (Tharu; NPM); Ricin (Fr.; AVP; BOU); Ricino (It.; Pan.; Por.; Sp.; AVP; EGG; MPG); Risen (Creole; Haiti; VOD); Ri'zinus (Ger.; AVP); Sabadillo (Sal.; AVP); Sadabherenda (Beng.; NAD); Shemouga (Arab.; BOU); Soubagabanan (Sudan; AVP); Ta-Ma-Tze (China; AVP); Tapaniquich (Chiq-uitano; DLZ); Tartago (Ven. AVP); Tartaku (Aym.; Bol.; DLZ); Thaturi (Tamang; NPM); Udu Kaju (Akha; EB40:38); Unapalan (Ulwa; ULW); Undertroed (Swe.; AVP); Vatari (Sanskrit; NAD); Verenda (Beng.; NAD); Wanderbaum (Dutch; AVP); Wunderbaum (Ger.; AVP); Yanyan (Gurung; NPM); Zait (Arab.; GHA); Zourma (Sudan; AVP).

Activities (Castor):

Allergenic (1; BOU); Analgesic (f; BOU); Anodyne (f1; APA; BOU; CRC); Antiabsorptive (f; PH2); Antiamebic (f; MPG); Anticholestatic (1; HH2); Anticoagulant (1; RCP7(3)); Anticonvulsant (f; MPG); Antidiabetic (1; HH2); Antidote (f; CRC); Antiedemic (f; BOU); Antifertility (1; X12748988); Antifilarial (1; MPG); AntiHIV (f; APA); Antiinflammaory (f; BOU); Antilactagogue (f; DEP); Antileukemic (1; APA); Antiseptic (1; HH2; PH2; TRA); Antispermagenic (1; X12748988); Antitumor (1; TRA); Antitussive (f; DAA); Antiviral (1; AAB; PHR); Aperient (f; CRC); Atticide (1; X15382509); Bactericide (1; CRC; HH2; TRA); Candidicide (1; HH2); Cathartic (f1; APA; CRC); Collyrium (f; GHA); Contraceptive (1; HH2; PH2); Culicide (f; BIB); Cyanogenic (f; CRC); Diaphoretic (f; JFM); Discutient (f; CRC; DAA); Diuretic (f; TRA); Embryotoxic (1; MPG); Emetic (f1; BOU; CRC; FAD); Emmenagogue (f; BOU; KAB; KAP); Emollient (f1; AAB; APA; BOU; PNC); Expectorant (f; CRC; DAA); Febrifuge (f; ULW); Fungicide (1; HH2; X15382509); Hepatoprotective (1; HH2); Hypoglycemic (f; MPG); Hypotensive (1; HH2); Immunostimulant (f; HH2); Insecticide (1; CRC; X14667057); Lactagogue (f12; AAB; BIB; CRC; FAD; NMH; NPM); Larvicide (f; CRC); Laxative (f12; CRC; FAD; PH2); Lipolytic (1; X11535138); Lymphocytogenic (f; HH2); Ovicide (1; X14667057); Parturient (f; FAD); Peristaltic (1; VVG); Piscicide (f; SUW); Poison (1; CRC); Purgative (f12; BOU; CRC; EGG; FAD; SUW; VVG); Pyrogenic (1; HH2); Ribosome Inactivator (1; X12447536); Secretagogue (1; PH2); Secretomotor (1; TRA); Spermicide (f; TRA); Tonic (f; CRC; JFM); Vermifuge (f; BIB).

Indications (Castor):

Abscess (f; APA; BOU; CRC; PHR; PH2); Adenopathy (f; DAA; JLH); Amenorrhea (f; BOU; DEP; KAP); Anasarca (f; BIB; CRC); Arthrosis (f; BOU; CRC; HH2; JFM; PH2); Asthma (f; AHL; BOU; CRC; TRA); Bacteria (1; HH2); Bite (f; CRC); Bleeding (f; DAA; HH2); Blenorrhea (f; EGG); Blister (f; GHA); Boil (f; BOU; JFM; PHR; SUW; VVG); Bruise (f; DLZ; EGG); Bunion (f; BIB); Burn (f; CRC; NPM); Cancer (f1; BOU; DAD; HH2; MPG); Cancer, breast (f; JLH); Cancer, colon (f; JLH); Cancer, stomach (f; JLH); Candida (1; HH2); Carbuncle (f; CRC; PH2); Caries (f; NPM; WOI);

Catarrh (f; AHL; BIB; CRC); Chancre (f; BIB; CRC); Childbirth (f; AAB; CRC; DAA; JFM; VOD); Cholera (f; CRC); Cold (f; CRC; JFM); Colic (f; BOU; CRC; JFM; NAD; VOD); Congestion (f; AAB); Conjunctivosis (f; GHA; NAD); Constipation (f1; APA; PH2; ULW); Convulsion (f; CRC); Corn (f; CRC); Cramps (f; JFM); Craw-craw (f; CRC); Cyst (f; APA); Cystosis (f; BOU); Dandruff (f; FAD); Deafness (f; CRC; DAA); Delirium (f; BIB; CRC); Dermatosis (f; BOU; CRC; EGG; FAD; JFM; PH2; VOD; EB40:38); Diabetes (f; HH2); Diarrhea (f; BIB); Dislocation (f; VOD); Dropsy (f; CRC); Dyslac-tea (f; BIB; EGG); Dyspepsia (f; PH2); Dystonia (1; DAD); Dysuria (f; EGG; NAD); Eczema (f; MPG); Edema (f; JFM); Elephantiasis (f; BIB); Enterosis (f; BOU; CRC; HH2; JFM; PH2); Epilepsy (f; BIB; BOU; CRC; UPW); Erysipelas (f; BIB; CRC; JFM); Escherichia (1; HH2); Fever (f; AAB; CRC; DAV; EGG; HH2; NPM; ULW); Flu (f; CRC); Fracture (f; BEJ); Fungus (1; HH2); Furuncle (f; PH2); Ganglion (f; TRA) Gastrosis (f; BOU); Gingivosis (f; JFM); Gonorrhea (f; HH2; VOD); Gout (f; CRC; DAA; NPM); Guinea worm (f; CRC); Halitosis (f; GHA); Headache (f; BOU; CRC; EGG; JFM; PH2; SUW; VOD); Hematoma (f; VOD); Hemorrhoid (f; EGG; FAD; JFM); Hepatosis (f; NPM); Hernia (f; DLZ); HIV (1; DAD); Hypothermia (f; BOU); Induration (f; CRC); Infection (1; TRA); Inflammation (f; BOU; CRC; EGG; PH2); Ischia (f; HH2); Itch (f; AAB; FAD; VOD); Jaundice (f; BOU; NPM); Leprosy (f; BIB; BOU; IED); Leukemia (1; MPG); Lichen (f; MAD); Lumbago (f; BOU; HH2; KAP); Mastosis (f; BOU); Measles (f; AAB); Migraine (f; PHR); Mole (f; CRC); Myalgia (f; CRC; DAV); Mycosis (1; HH2); Nephrosis (f; BOU); Neuralgia (f; EGG); Neurosis (f; BIB; BOU; CRC; NPM); Ophthalmia (f; BOU; PNC); Osteomyelitis (f; BIB; CRC); Otitis (f; HH2; PHR; PH2); Pain (f; GHA; JFM; NPM; PH2; VOD); Palsy (f; CRC; DAA); Paralysis (f; PH2); Parasite (f; BOU; EGG); Parotitis (f; MPG); Peritonitis (f; DLZ); Pharyngosis (f; BOU); Pleurodynia (f; DEP; NAD); Pneumonia (f; SKJ); Proctosis (f; DAA); Prolapse (f; CRC; DAA); Prostatosis (f; JFM); Rash (f; BIB; CRC); Rheumatism (f; BIB; CRC; JFM; KAP; NPM; VOD); Ringworm (f; BIB; FAD; NPM); Salmonella (1; TRA); Scabies (f; NPM); Scald (f; CRC); Sciatica (f; BOU; DEP; NAD); Scrofula (f; CRC); Seborrhea (f; BIB; CRC); Schistosomiasis (f; UPW); Sciatica (f; KAP); Shigella (1; TRA); Sinusitis (f; AAB); Sore (f; APA; FAD; VVG); Sore Throat (f; PH2); Splenosis (f; EGG; VOD); Sprain (f; BEJ); Staphylococcus (1; HH2; TRA); Sting (f; CRC; SUW); Stomachache (f; CRC; IED; VVG); Stomatosis (f;? Strabismus (f; CRC; DAA); Sunstroke (f; KAB); Swelling (f; BIB; BOU; CRC; DAA; JFM; KAP; VOD); Tapeworm (1; JFM); Thrombosis (1; RCP7(3)); Toothache (f; CRC; DAA; JFM; KAP); Tuberculosis (f; BIB; CRC); Tumor (f; CRC; JFM); Tympanitis (f; DEP); Typhus (f; MAD); Ulcer (f; BIB); Urethrosis (f; CRC; DAA; NAD); Uterosis (f; CRC; DAA); Vaginosis (f; AAB); Venereal Disease (f; BOU; CRC; DAA; JFM; VOD); Vertigo (f; BOU); Virus (1; MPG); Wart (f; APA; CRC); Whitlow (f; CRC); Worm (f1; BOU; CRC; PH2; TRA; VOD); Wound (f; BOU; CRC; DAA; NPM; VVG); Yeast (1; HH2).

Dosages (Castor):

15-60 ml oil (APA); 5-28 ml castor oil (KAP). 9-15 g leaf paste (KAP). 3-6 g root paste (KAP). Five 2-g or ten 1-g capsules (PHR); 5-20 ml oil (PNC).

• Algerians use castor oil with rabbit blood as a contraceptive (BIB).

Ayurvedics use the root for ascites, asthma, bronchitis, eructation, fever, inflammation, leprosy, and diseases of the head, glands, and rectum; the leaves for burns, dyslactea, earache, nightblindness, strangury, and worms; flowers for anal troubles, glandular tumors, and vaginalgia; fruit for hepatosis, pain, splenosis, and tumors; seed and/or oil for amenorrhea, asthma, ascites, backache, boils, convulsions, dropsy, elephantiasis, fever, hepatosis, inflammation, leprosy, lumbago, pain, paralysis, piles, rheumatism, ringworm, tumors, and typhoid; the root bark for skin ailments (KAB).

• Bahamans crush and boil the seed to get the oil, which is taken for colds and as a child's and new mother's tonic (JFM).

• Brazilians bathe hemorrhoids with the leaf decoction (JFM).

• Caribbeans use castor oil in a purgative tea after childbirth (VOD).

• Cubans suggest the root decoction as diuretic in prostatitis (JFM).

• Dominicans apply crushed seed to dislocation and hematomas (VOD).

• Dominicans use heated leaves for massaging the spleen, and for internal pain (VOD).

• Egyptian farmers poultice fresh leaves onto boils (BIB).

• Ghanans grind a cleaned root into a paste inserted in the nose for headache (UPW).

• Gurungs sometimes apply leaf juice to burns, taking it for diarrhea and dysentery (NPM).

• Haitians apply boiled leaves to swellings and wounds (VOD).

• Haitians use the seed oil as hair tonic, purgative and vermifuge, rubbing on burns, dermatosis, itch, and rheumatism, taking orally for respiratory ailments (VOD).

• Hausa in Africa use the root extract as a mouthwash for toothache (UPW).

• Lebanese use leaves and crushed beans as a topical dressing, not internally as a purgative (HJP).

• Mexicans place scalded leaves on the breasts of nursing mothers to increase milk (JFM).

• Nepalese smash cotyledons and paste onto gout and scabies (NPM).

• Nigerians burn the stem with Calotropis for chancre (BIB).

• Peruvians suggest the crushed leaves on the face or forehead for neuralgia (EGG).

• Peruvians use leaves heated in olive oil to relieve hemorrhoids (SOU).

• South Africans use the root for toothache (BIB).

• Terai of Nepal take one cotyledon a day following menstruation for birth control (NPM).

• TRAMIL (Traditional Medicine in the Islands) Caribbeans use the oil (topically or orally) for asthma, bronchoses, burns, earache, gangliosis, rheumatism, toothache, etc. (TRA).

• Zulus administer the leaves for stomachache, orally or rectally (BIB).

• In Guiana, the leaves are applied to the breast to augment the secretion of milk (BIB).

Downsides (Castor):

Class 2b, 2d. Contraindicated in intestinal obstruction and abdominal pain of unknown origin, appendicitis, inflammatory bowel disease; do not use for more than 8 to 10 days (AHP, PHR). No health hazards or side effects are known with proper administration of designated therapeutic dosages of castor oil (PH2). Overdoses can cause colic, drastic diarrhea, gastralgia and gastrosis, queasiness, and vomiting (PHR). The seeds contain 2.8 to 3% toxic substances, requiring 2.5 to 20 seeds to kill a man (chewing a single seed may be fatal to a child), 4 to kill a rabbit, 5 a sheep, 6 an ox, 6 a horse, 7 a pig, 11 a dog, but 80 for a cock or duck. The principal toxin is the albumin, ricin (DAD). Although some recommend in pregnancy, others say no. Midwives sometimes use the oil to induce labor (AHP, 1997). Refined oil contraindications: intestinal obstruction, unexplained stomachache; adverse effects include the following: frequent use produces electrolyte losses (interaction with cardiac glycosides), also gastric irritation, and allergic skin reactions. Should not be used for prolonged periods of time (AEH). Not for children under 12 years old (PHR). May induce dermatosis as well as cure it (FAD).

Natural History (Castor):

Castor bean is both self- and cross-pollinated by wind, varying from 5 to 36%, depending on the weather conditions. Pollen sheds readily between 26 and 29°C, with a relative humidity of 60%. For single cross-hybrid seed production, strains giving a 1:1 ratio or pistillate and heterozygous monoecious plants are used, the latter being rogued 1 to 5 days before flowering begins. Three-way cross-hybrids can also be used. For open pollinated types, roguing of all off-types is done after the last cultivation, and for pure seed production isolation necessity depends on the wind velocity. For hybrid and open pollinated types in the United States, stands are isolated 300 to 720 m; but in areas of less wind velocity, less distance may be sufficient. Fungi known to attack Castor bean plants include Alternaria compacta, A. ricini, A. tenuis, A. tenuissima, Aspergillus itaconi-cus, A. niger, A. quercinus, Botrydiplodia manilensis, B. ricinicola, B. theobromae, Botryotinia ricini, Botrysphaeria ribis, Botrytis cinerea (Gary mold), Cephalosporium curtipes, Cercospora canescens, C. coffeae, C. ricinella, Cercosporella ricinella (Leaf spot), Cladosporium herbarum, Clitocybe tabescens, Colletotrichum bakeri, C. erumpens, C. ricini, Corticium solani, Didymella ricini, Diplodia natalensis, D. organicola, D. ricinella, D. ricini, Discosporella phaeochlorina, Epicoccum nigrum, Erysiphe cichoracearum, Fusarium moniliforme, F. orthoceras, F. oxyspo-rum, F. sambucinum, F. semitectum, Gibberella pulicarus, Glomerella cingulata, G. ricini, Hap-losporella manilensis, Lecanidion atratum, Leveillula lanata, L. taurica, Macrophomina phaseoli, Macrophoma phaseoli, Ph. ricini, Macrosporium cavarae, M. ricini, Melampsora euphorbiae, M. ricini, Melampsorella ricini, Mecrostroma minimum, Mucor fragilis, Mycosporella ricinicola, M. tulasnei, Myrothecium roridum, Oidiopsis taurica, Peniophora cinerea, Phoma macropyrena, Ph. ricini, Phomopsis ricini, Ph. ricinella, Phyllosticta bosensis, Ph. ricini, Phymatotrichum omnivo-rum (Root rot), Physalospora abdita, Ph. propinqua, Ph. rhodina, Ph. ricini, Ph. obtusa, Phytoph-thora cactorum, Ph. cinnamomi, Ph. palmivora, Ph. parasitica, Pleospora herbarum, Pythium aphanidermatum, P. debaryanum, P. gracile, P. intermedium, P. proliferum, P. ultimum, P. vexans, Rhabdospora ricini, Rhizoctonia solani, Schiffnerula ricini, Schizophyllum commune, Sclerotinia fuckeliana, S. minor, S. ricini, S. sclerotiorum, Scierotium rolfsii, and sphaceloma ricini. The following bacteria also cause diseases: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bacterium lathyri, B. ricini, Pseudomonas solanacearum, Xanthomonas ricini, and X. ricinicola. Striga lutea parasitizes the plants. Nematodes isolated from Castor bean include Aphelenchoides asterocaudatus, A. bicaudatus, A. subtenuis, Helicotylenchus cavenssi, H. pseudorobustus, H. schachtii, Meloidogyne arenaria and var. thamesi, M. hapla, M. incognita, M. incognita acrita, M. javanica, M. thamesi, Merlinius brevidens, Pratylenchus brachyurus, P. neglectus, P. pratensis, P. scribner, P. vulnus, P. zeae, Radopholus similes, Scutellonema clathricaudatum, Tricephalobus longicaudatus, and Tylencho-rhychus mashhoodi (Golden, 1984). Several insects are pests. In India, the Capsule borer (Dichocr-ocis punctiferalis) bores into young and ripening capsules; and Castor semiloopers (Achoea janata) are the worst pests. In Tanganyika damage by capsid and myrid bugs are a limiting factor causing immature fruit to drop. Green stinkbugs, leaf-hoppers, leaf-miners, and grasshoppers are pests that feed on the leaves. Most insects can be controlled by insecticides. Because some of the varieties are quite tall, wind storms are a potential hazard to a crop (HOE).

Extracts (Castor):

Ricin, the deadly poison, can be attached to monoclonal antibodies that only attack cancer cells, a technique reportedly tried in 1000 cancer patients (DAD). The AIDS virus can infect an immune cell by locking onto its cell receptor protein CD4. By genetically attaching the ricin to genetically engineered CD4 proteins, one obtains CD4-ricin, which will lock onto the external viruses of infected cells, 1000 times more often than onto healthy cells, possibly killing enough infected cells to prevent the spread of the disease symptoms. Like the botulism toxin, ricin can be used to kill overstimulated nerve endings in patients with dystonias (DAD). Ricinoleic acid has served in contraceptive jellies (DAD). Bigi et al. (2004) reported activity of extracts (their fatty acids in particular) and ricinine against the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa and the symbiotic fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus (X15382509).

Synonyms:

Rosa armata Stev. ex Besser; Rosa caucasica Pall.; Rosa frondosa Stev. ex Spreng; Rosa glauca Schot. ex Besser; Rosa lutetiana Lem.; Rosa taurica M. Bieb. fide HH3

Pistillateness Castor

Notes (Dog Rose):

And as many fountains flowing with milk and honey, and seven mighty mountains, whereupon there grow roses and lilies, whereby I will fill thy children with joy.

11 Esdras 2:19 (KJV)

And the same number of springs flowing with milk and honey, and seven mighty mountains on which roses and lilies grow; by these I will fill your children with joy.

11 Esdras 2:19 (RSV)

A search of just the KJV turned up 42 sources, in which roses were cited (some as the past tense of rise). Most were in Genesis (21 matches), Judges (16), 1 Maccabees (Apocrypha) (10), Exodus (10), and Acts (9). However, there are almost as many interpretations of the word "rose." In my earlier Bible book (BIB), I cited Moldenke and Moldenke noting that crowning oneself with rosebud at a feast is a purely Greek custom borrowed by the Romans. But clearly, rose gardens were and are important in Israeli culture. A century or so later, Egyptians were growing roses under glass to send to Rome for banquets. Zohary suggests that there were cultivated roses already in biblical times in the Holy Land. But the Hebrew word vered is mentioned only in postbiblical times — for example, several times in the Talmud. "No gardens and orchards should be established in Jerusalem, with the exception of rose gardens that have existed there since the Early Prophets" While rose in the Bible may mean many species (e.g., Cistus, Hibiscus, Nerium, Rosa), it is concluded that they meant Rosa in several biblical quotations. It is nice that our national capital has its "rose garden." Would that powerful faith-based individuals insist on a second garden, even closer to the White House, of our wholesome biblical medicinal plants, often competitive with the unwholesome pharmaceuticals that fewer and fewer of us can afford. Zohary lists only two species of Rosa in the Flora of Palestine (FP2), but later mentions that four species are native to Israel (ZOH).

• — Inflorescences few-flowered; styles free; flowers mostly pink; fruit 1 to 2 cm long, scarlet, finally turning blackish crimson — Rosa canina

• — Inflorescences many-flowered; styles united into a column; flowers white; fruit circa 1cm long, brick red — Rosa phoenicia

Zohary seems to favor Rosa phoenicia (Phoenician Rose (Eng.; ZOH); Vered (Hebrew; ZOH)) as most likely in 1982 (ZOH). So did I in 1983 (BIB). But, in the intervening years, I encountered no new information on that species, so I will discuss the much better Rosa canina as a very similar species also present in the Holy Land and with a much bigger medicinal repertoire. Much of the German literature refers to cynosbati, alluding to the fruits and seeds of Rosa canina, or a fungus thereon (see EFS). While AH2 selected dog rose as the standardized common name, they also boldface rose hips, saying it is an acceptable, and even preferable, Standardized Common Name (AH2).

Common Names (Dog Rose):

Achdirt (Ber.; BOU); Agabanzo (Sp.; EFS); Azenzou (Ber.; BOU); Bedegar (Fr.; EFS); Bou Soufa (Arab.; BOU); Brier Rose (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2); Canker Flower (Eng.; BOU); Csipkebogyo Cynor-rhodon (Fr.; EFS); Dog Brier (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2); Dog Rose (Eng.; Scn.; AH2; CR2); Eglantier (Fr.; BOU); Eglantine (Fr.; BOU); Escaramujo (Sp.; Chile; EFS); Galabardera (Sp.; EFS); Hagdorn (Ger.; HH3); Hagebuttenstrauch (Ger.; EFS); Hagrose (Ger.; HH3); Hekenrose (Ger.; EFS); Heprose (Eng.; BOU); Hip Rose (Eng.; EFS); Hondsros (Dutch; EFS); Hundrose (Ger.; MAD); Hybener (Den.; EFS); Kusbumu (Tur.; EFS); Monholinos (Sp.; EFS); Nab el Kalb (Arab.; BOU); Nesri (Arab.; BOU); Nisrin (Arab.; BOU); Pepins de Rosier Sauvage (Fr.; HH3); Rosa Brava (Por.; GEP); Rosa Canina (It.; HH3); Rosa de Cao (Por.; EFS); Rosa di Macchia (It.; EFS); Rosa Selvatica (It.; EFS; HH3); Rosa Silvestre (Sp.; EFS); Rosal Silvestre (Spain; VAD); Rose des Haies (Fr.; HH3); Rose Hips (Eng.; Ocn.; AH2; CR2); Rose Sauvage (Fr.; BOU); Rosenschwamm (Ger.; EFS); Rozen-bottelstruik (Dutch; EFS); Rosier des Chiens (Fr.; BOU); Rosier Sauvage (Fr.; BOU); Schlafapfel (Ger.; EFS); Semance de Cynorrhodon (Fr.; HH3); Silva Macha (Por.; EFS); Tafrha (Ber.; BOU); Tigourma (Ber.; BOU); Ward Barri (Arab.; Syria; BOU; HJP); Ward es Seni (Arab.; BOU; HJP);

Ward es Siyag (Arab.; BOU; HJP); Ward ez Zeroub (Arab.; BOU); Wild Brier (Eng.; EFS); Wildrose (Ger.; HH3); Zarza Rosa (Sp.; EFS); Zaunrose (Ger.; HH3).

Activities (Dog Rose):

Analgesic (12; X15330493); Antiarthritic (12; X15330493); Antidiarrheic (f; PNC); Antiinflammatory (12; X12880322; X15330493); Anti-MDR (1; X14734860); Antimycobacterial (1; PR14:303); Antioxidant (1; HH3); Antiradicular (1; HH3); Antiscorbutic (f1; BOU); Antiseptic (f; PED); Antispasmodic (f; PED); Antitubercular (1; PR14:303); Antiulcer (f1; X12902057); Astringent (f12; APA; BOU; KOM; WAM); Bactericide (1; PR14:303); Beta-Lactamase Inhibitor (1; X14734860); Cicatrizant (f1; VAD); Demulcent (f1; WAM); Diuretic (f1; APA; BOU; HH3; PED; PHR; PH2); Gastroprotective (f1; X12902057); Hypoglycemic (1; HH3); Laxative (f1; APA; PHR; PH2); Lipoxygenase Inhibitor (1; HH3); Nervine (f1; WAM); Tonic (f; VAD); Vermifuge (f; HH3; MAD).

Indications (Dog Rose):

Albuminuria (f; MAD); Arteriopathy (f; VAD); Arthrosis (f12; PHR; X15330493); Asthenia (f; VAD); Bacteria (1; PR14:303; X14734860); Bleeding (f; HH3; PH2); Blepharosis (f; VAD); Burn (f; MAD); Cancer (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, genital (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, kidney (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, mouth (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, throat (f1; FNF; JLH); Cancer, uterus (f1; FNF; JLH); Capillary Fragility (f1; PED; VAD); Carcinoma (f; JLH); Catarrh (f; HJP; MAD); Chills (f; PHR); Cold (f; APA; PHR; PH2; VAD; JMF5:137); Conjunctivosis (f; VAD); Consumption (f; JEB79:57); Cough (f1; HJP; WAM); Cystosis (f; VAD); Dermatosis (f; VAD); Diarrhea (f1; BOU; PED; WAM); Dropsy (f; PHR); Dyspepsia (f; PH2; VAD); Dysuria (f; EFS; MAD; PHR; VAD); Edema (f; PH2; VAD); Enterosis (f; MAD; PH2); Exanthema (f; MAD); Flu (f; APA; PHR; PH2; VAD); Gallstone (f; MAD; PH2); Gastrosis (f; PED); Gonorrhea (f; MAD); Gout (f; PHR; PH2; VAD); Headache (f; APA; MAD); Hematoptysis (f; JEB79:57); Hemorrhoid (f; VAD); Hepatosis (f; JLH); High Blood Pressure (f; VAD); Hyperacidity (f; PH2); Hyperuricemia (f; VAD); Induration (f; JLH); Infection (1; PED; PHR; PH2; PR14:303; X14734860); Inflammation (f12; JLH; X15330493); Ischia (f; HH3); Kidney stone (f; MAD; PH2); Leukorrhea (f; PH2); Nausea (f1; WAM); Nephrosis (f; HJP; JLH; PH2); Nervousness (1; WAM); Obesity (f; VAD); Oliguria (f; VAD); Ophthalmia (f; JLH; VAD); Osteoarthrosis (12; X15330493); Pain (12; X15330493); Periodontosis (f; VAD); Rheumatism (f12; HH3; PHR; PH2; X15330493); Scar (1; HH3); Sciatica (f; PHR); Sore (f; APA; VAD); Sore Throat (f1; APA; WAM); Splenosis (f; JLH); Staphylococcus (1; X14734860); Stomatosis (f; APA; JLH); Stone (f1; PH2; VAD); Stress (f; PED); Swelling (f; VAD); Thirst (f; APA); Tuberculosis (1; JEB79:57; PR14:303); Tumor (f; JLH); Ulcer (f1; X12902057); Urethrosis (f; PH2; VAD); Uterosis (f; JLH); Varicosity (f; VAD); Wart (f; JLH); Worm (1; HH3); Wrinkle (1; HH3); Wound (f; VAD).

Dosages (Dog Rose):

Fruits are edible and vitamin rich. Seeds roasted as coffee substitute. Leaves used as tea substitute. Petals used to make candies, sandwiches, teas, added to honey, liqueurs, vinegars (EFS; FAC). 0.75-3 tsp chopped fruit/cup water/1-3 x/day (APA, JAD, WIC); 2-5 g in infusion (HH3). 1-2 g dry fruit/cup water (PHR); 1/4-1/2 cup fresh fruit (PED); 6-12 g dry fruit (PED); 9 g dry fruit/cup boiling water (PED). 2 g (PH2). 1 tsp leaf or flower per cup water; 3-4 cups/day (VAD).

• Chileans use the plant for kidney cancers (JLH).

• Lebanese Gypsies use fruits for catarrh, nephritis, and reproductive organs (HJP).

• Lebanese use young leaves in healthful teas (HJP).

• Turks use the fruits for ulcers, and they proved out in rats (X12902057).

• Ukranians use floral/foliar tea for cough (HJP).

Downsides (Dog Rose):

Class 1 (AHP, 1997). No health hazards or contraindications reported with proper administration of suggested therapeutic dosages (PH2). None known for the fruits (PHR; WAM).

Extracts (Dog Rose):

Danish scientists (Rein et al., 2004) showed that powdered fruits (Hyben Vital) reduced joint pain and improved well-being in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial with osteoarthritis. No major side effects occurred. Hyben Vital reduces symptoms of osteoarthritis (X15330493). Shiota et al. (2004) showed that tellimagrandin potentiated the activity of beta-lactams against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (X14734860). Gurbuz et al. (2003) found 100% anti-ulcerogenic activity for the fruits in rats, comparable to misoprostol at 0.4 mg/kg (X12902057).

madder (rubia tinctorium l.) X RUBIACEAE

Notes (Madder):

And after Abimelech there arose to defend Israel Tola the son of Puah, the son of Dodo, a man of Issachar; and he dwelt in Shamir in mount Ephraim.

Judges 10:1 (KJV)

Strange that if madder was important in the Holy Land in biblical times that it would not have gotten honorable mention as a plant in the Good Book. But it is mentioned only three times in the Bible, and then only as a proper name, as above. Zohary says it was important as a dye, and cultivated in all the Near East countries, in separate plots or intercropped with olive. Although early on, more used as a dye, it later assumed some medicinal and symbolic virtues as well, mentioned by such early greats as Pliny and Dioscorides (ZOH). Although important to early Greeks and Romans, it is not mentioned by the Sanskrit.

Common Names (Madder):

Alizari (Arab.; Ger.; BOU; KAB); Aroubian (Ber., BOU); Bacho (India; Pun.; DEP; EFS; KAB); Boyacikoku (Tur.; EFS); Dyer's Madder (Eng.; BOU; CR2); Erythrodanon (Greek; DEP; KAB); European Madder (Eng.; WOI); Farberrote (Ger.; EFS); Farberwete (Ger.; KAB); Fauwa (Arab.; Yemen; GHA); Fowwa (Arab.; BOU); Fuah (Heb.; ZOH); Fuwwa (Arab.; ZOH); Fuwwah (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Fuwwah es Sabbaghin (Arab.; Syria; HJP); Fuwwat as Sabbaghin (Arab.; BOU); Garance (Fr.; BOU; EFS; KAB); Garance des Teinturiers (Fr.; BOU; KAB); Garence (Fr.; KAB); Granza (Cat.; Sp.; EFS; KAB); Grapp (Ger.; KAB); Jen Ku Tan (China; EFS); Krap (Rus.; KAB); Krapp (Dutch; Ger.; EFS; KAB); Krapprod (Den.; EFS); Madder (Eng.; Scn.; AH2; BOU; CR2); Manyounth (India; EFS); Manyunth (Bom.; Sind; DEP; KAB; NAD); Marena (Rus.; KAB); Mari-ona (Rus.; DEP; KAB); Mee (Dutch; DEP); Meekrap (Dutch; EFS; KAB); Oroug Sabbaghin (Arab.; BOU); Ourouq Homor (Arab.; BOU); Parson (Syria?; JLH); Patachina (Rom.; KAB); Potha (Syria?; JLH); Puah (Heb.; ZOH); Puvah (Heb.; ZOH); Red Purgative (Eng.; Leb.; HJP); Robbia (It.; DEP; EFS); Rodan (Afg.; Iran; DEP; KAB); Rodang (Afg.; Iran; DEP; KAB); Rodea (Rom.; KAB); Roiba (Rom.; KAB); Rubia (It.; Sp.; EFS; KAB); Tarioubia (Ber., BOU); Taroubent (Ber., BOU); Taroubia (Ber., BOU); Tefthrion (Greek; KAB); Yin Khoot Tan (China; EFS).

Activities (Madder):

Abortifacient (f; BOU; HJP); Antigenotoxic (1; JAF51:3334); Antimutagenic (1; JAF51:3334; X10792014); Antiseptic (1; X15752641); Antispasmodic (f; GAZ); Aphrodisiac (f; BOU); Astringent

(f; WOI); Carcinogenic (1; FNF; GAZ; X1370725); Chemopreventive (1; JAF51:3334); Contraceptive (f; HJP); Depurative (f; BOU); Digestive (f; WOI); Diuretic (f; BOU; EFS; GAZ; HHB; WOI); Emmenagogue (f; BOU; EFS; HJP; KAB); Expectorant (f; BOU); Fungicide (1; X15752641); Geno-toxic (1; X1370725); Hydragogue (f; HJP); Hypotensive (f; BOU); Litholytic (f; GAZ; PH2; WOI); Mutagenic (1; GAZ; PH2; X11301857); Orexigenic (f; BOU); Poison (1; PH2); Purgative (f; HJP); Tonic (f; BOU; EFS; HHB); Vermifuge (f; BOU); Vulnerary (f; BOU).

Indications (Madder):

Amenorrhea (f; HHB; MAD); Anemia (f; BOU; HHB; MAD); Anorexia (f; BOU); Arthrosis (f; HHB; WOI); Bladderstone (f; HHB); Bruise (f; BOU; MAD); Calculus (f; WOI); Cancer (f; JLH); Cancer, bladder (f; JLH); Cancer, kidney (f; JLH); Cancer, liver (f; JLH); Cancer, skin (f; JLH); Cancer, stomach (f; JLH); Cancer, uterus (f; JLH); Childbirth (f; GHA); Chlorosis (f; MAD); Cho-lecystosis (f; KAB; WOI); Constipation (f; HJP); Cystosis (f; HHB); Decubitis (f; WOI); Dermatosis (f; JLH); Diarrhea (f; BOU; HHB); Dropsy (f; JLH); Dysentery (f; MAD); Dysmenorrhea (f; GHA; KAB; MAD; PNC); Dysuria (f; PNC); Enterosis (f; MAD); Enuresis (f; MAD); Fungus (1; X15752641); Gastrosis (f; JLH; MAD); Gout (f; MAD); Gravel (f; HJP); Hepatosis (f; HHB; MAD; PNC); High Blood Pressure (f; BOU); Induration (f; JLH); Infection (1; X15752641); Jaundice (f; HJP; MAD; ZOH); Kidney stone (f; HJP; PH2); Lichen (f; MAD); Malaria (f; MAD); Mycosis (1; X15752641); Nephrosis (f; JLH; HHB); Neurosis (f; NAD); Puerperium (f; GHA); Pyelonephrosis (f; MAD); Scab (f; MAD); Sciatica (f; BOU); Scrofula (f; MAD); Sore (f; HHB); Splenosis (f; HHB; JLH; KAB; MAD); Stone (f; HHB; WOI); Synovia (f; MAD); Tuberculosis (f; HHB; MAD); Utero-sis (f; JLH); Water Retention (f; WOI); Worm (f; BOU); Wound (f; BOU; HHB).

Dosages (Madder):

Do not take (JAD; PH2). 30 grains root, 3-4 x/day (FEL). 1 g powdered root/3 x/day (MAD).

• Algerians use as emmenagogue, hydragogue, litholytic, as a poultice, and as an abortifa-cient and contraceptive (HJP).

• Asian Indians report its use for cholecocystosis, hepatosis, jaundice, splenosis (KAB).

• Asian Indians say it works on the nervous and uterine systems (NAD; SKJ).

• Lebanese immigrants in New York refer to it as the red purgative (HJP).

• Russians consider this an important litholytic herb (WOI).

• Syrians use the plant for indurations of the liver and spleen (JLH).

• Yemeni women use crushed roots in a tonic tea after childbirth (GHA).

• Yemeni women use roots with berries of Morus and Salvadora for irregular menstruation (GHA).

Downsides (Madder):

The court is still out on whether or not alizarin, lucidin, and purpurin from Rubia tinctorum exert a disintegrating effect on the surface of bladder and kidney stones containing calcium. Because extracts of the root are mutagenic and contain genotoxic and tumorigenic compounds, it is not to be recommended (De Smet, 1993). Drug should not be administered (PH2).

Natural History (Madder):

Plant, perhaps dangerously, used as fodder. Camels are said to be fond of it. Bones of animals ingesting the plant may turn red, as do claws and beaks of birds.

biblical bramble (rubus sanctus schreb.) +++ rosaceae

Synonyms:

Rubus sanguineus Friv. Notes (Biblical Bramble):

For every tree is known by his own fruit. For of thorns men do not gather figs, nor of a bramble bush gather they grapes.

Finding almost nothing on Rubus sanctus or its synonym R. sanguineus, including common names, I, poetically licentious at times, have now denominated it the biblical bramble. Zohary called it the true bramble, but with lower case, perhaps to distinguish it from many other thorny plants, common in Israel, as in other arid areas. PubMed yielded one useful title on chemistry. Hussein, Ayoub, and Nawwar (2003) isolated two new natural caffeoyl esters (3,6-di-O-caffeoyl-(alpha/beta)-glucose and 1-O-caffeoyl-beta-xylose) and a new natural tannin (2,3-O-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-4,6-O-san-guisorboyl-(alpha/beta)-glucose) (X12895538). And there was one useful title on medicine. Turkish scientists (Erdemoglu, Kupeli, and Yesilada, 2003) demonstrated antinociceptive activities for aerial parts and roots (X14522443). With no more than that to offer, I instead aggregate my CRC (Edition 2) accounts of activities of other species of the Rubus genus, namely blackberries and raspberries below (Other Rubus).

Common Names (Biblical Bramble):

Biblical Bramble (Eng.; JAD); Bramble (Eng.; ZOH); Bramble Bush (Eng.; KJV); Sina (Heb.; ZOH); Sinaia (Heb.; ZOH); Sinim (Heb.; ZOH); Thorn (Eng.; BIB); True Bramble (Eng.; ZOH); Tzinim (Heb.; ZOH); Tzininim (Heb.; ZOH).

Activities (Other Rubus):

Anticancer (1; JNU); Anticholinesterase (1; CAN); Antidote (f; DEM); Antiinflammatory (1; APA; FAD); Antioxidant (1; JNU; JAF50:2926); Antiproliferative (1; JAF50:2926); Antiradicular (1; X1332092); Antiseptic (f1; PED); Antispasmodic (1; APA; CAN; PED); Antitumor (f; APA); Antiviral (1; CAN); Apoptotic (f; JNU); Astringent (f1; CAN; CEB; FAD; PH2); Bactericide (1; MAD); Chemopreventive (1; FNF; X11799774; X11181460); Choleretic (f; KOM); Depurative (f; APA; KOM; PH2); Detoxicant (1; JNU); Diaphoretic (f; KOM; MAD); Diuretic (f; DEM; EFS; KOM); Febrifuge (f; EFS); Fungicide (f; MAD); Hemostat (1; APA); Hypocholesterolemic (1; JNU); Myostimulant (1; CAN); NO Inhibitor (1; JAF50:850); Postparturient (f; CAN); Purgative (f; PH2); Stimulant (f; DEM; PED); Tonic (f; APA; DEM; EFS); Uterorelaxant (1; APA; FAD; PNC); Utero-tonic (1; APA; FAD); Xanthine-oxidase Inhibitor (1; X1332092).

Indications (Other Rubus):

Angina (f; MAD); Appendicitis (f; MAD); Bacteria (1; MAD); Biliousness (f; DEM); Bleeding (f1; APA; DEM; FEL; MAD); Boil (f; DEM); Bronchosis (f; CEB; MAD); Cancer (1; JLH; JNU; X11799774); Cancer, colon (1; JLH); Cancer, mouth (1; JLH); Cancer, stomach (1; JLH); Cancer, throat (1; JLH); Canker (f; APA; MIC); Cardiopathy (f; PHR; PH2); Cataract (f; DEM); Catarrh (f; DEM); Childbirth (f; CEB; DEM; FEL; PH2); Cholera (f; CEB; FEL); Cold (f1; DEM; MAD; SKY); Condyloma (f; JLH); Conjunctivosis (f1; APA; CAN; CEB; DEM; FNF); Constipation (f; DEM); Cough (f; APA; CEB; DEM; MAD); Cramps (1; FAD); Dementia (1; JNU); Dentition (f; DEM); Dermatosis (f; APA; KOM; MAD); Diabetes (f; KOM; MAD); Diarrhea (f12; APA; DEM; FAD;

MIC; PH2; SKY); Dropsy (f; APA; MAD; PH2); Dysentery (f1; DEM; FAD); Dysmenorrhea (f1; APA; CEB; DEM; FAD; MAD); Dysuria (f; DEM); Enterosis (1; APA; JLH; KOM; MAD; PH2); Exanthema (f; MAD); Fever (f; DEM; FEL; MAD); Fever (f; CEB; EFS; KOM); Fever Blister (f; APA); Flu (1; KOM; PED); Fungus (1; MAD); Gastrosis (f1; APA; DEM; JLH; KOM; PH2); Gleet (f; FEL); Gonorrhea (f; CEB; DEM); Gravel (f; CEB); Headache (f; DEM); Heartburn (f; DEM); Hematemesis (1; DEM; FNF); Hematuria (f; DEM); Hemoptysis (f; CEB); Hemorrhage (f1; APA; DEM; FNF); Hemorrhoid (1; APA); High Blood Pressure (f; DEM); High Cholesterol (1; JNU); Infection (f1; DEM; MAD); Inflammation (f1; APA; FAD; JLH); Lethargy (f; DEM); Leukorrhea (f; FEL; MAD); Low Blood Pressure (f; DEM); Maculitis (1; FNF); Measles (f; DEM); Metrorrhagia (f1; APA; MAD); Miscarriage (f; DEM); Morning Sickness (f; APA); Mycosis (1; MAD); Nausea (f; DEM; PED); Nephrosis (f; DEM; MAD); Ophthalmia (f 1; CEB; DEM; FNF; JNU); Parturition (1; FAD; PED); Pharyngosis (f12; APA; PHR; PH2); Phthisis (f; CEB); Pregnancy (f; APA; SKY); Proctosis (f; FEL); Prolapse (f; FEL); Prostatosis (f; APA); Pulmonosis (f; CEB; DEM; KOM); Res-pirosis (f; PHR; PH2); Rheumatism (f; DEM); Scab (f; MAD); Scabies (f; MAD); Sore (f1; DEM); Sore Throat (f12; APA; CEB; KOM; MIC; PH2; SKY); Stomach (f; MIC); Stomachache (f; DEM); Stomatosis (f12; APA; JLH; MAD; PHR; PH2; KOM; MIC); Stone (f; MAD); Swelling (f; APA); Tonsilosis (f1; FAD; MAD); Toothache (f; DEM); Tuberculosis (1; DEM; FNF; MAD); Ulcers (f; APA); Uterosis (f; CEB; FEL); Venereal Disease (f; CEB; DEM); Vomiting (f; DEM; FEL); Wart (f; JLH); Water Retention (f; DEM); Wound (f1; APA).

Dosages (Other Rubus):

Berries widely consumed and marketed. Leaves often used as tea substitute. 1-2 tsp crushed leaf/ cup water, to 6 x/day (APA); one to three 384-mg capsules 3 x/day (APA); two 4-8 g dry leaf, or in tea, 3 x/day (CAN); 4-8 ml liquid extract (1:1 in 25% ethanol) 3 x/day (CAN; SKY); 1/4-1/2 cup fresh leaf (PED); 6-12 g dry leaf (PED); 9 g dry leaf:45 ml alcohol/45 ml water (PED); 1.5 g finely cut leaf (PHR); 2-10 ml liquid leaf extract (PNC); 1-2 tsp crushed leaf/cup water, up to 6 x/day (SKY; WIC).

Downsides (Other Rubus):

Class 1 (AHP, 1997). Apparently speaking of the leaves, "Should not be used during pregnancy, and, if taken during labor, should only be done under medical supervision." Still, raspberry leaf is "widely recommended to be taken during pregnancy to help facilitate easier parturition." "Unsuitable to use as an herbal remedy to treat eye infections such as conjunctivitis" (Newall et al., 1996).

Natural History (Other Rubus):

The insect-pollinated, bisexual flower produces the blackberry. Bumblebees (Bombus) are probably their most effective pollinators. Smaller solitary bees often gather pollen and aid fertilization. Despite formidable thorns, browsing mammals nip the prickly canes, and numerous fruit eaters raid the thickets. Berries are a staple in season to many birds, (bluebird, cardinal, catbird, chickadees, crow, flicker, grosbeak, grouse, jay, magpie, mockingbird, oriole, pheasant, robin, solitaire, tanager, thrasher, thrush, titmice, towhee, waxwing, woodpecker) and mammals (bear, beaver, chipmunk, deer, elk, fox, hare, marmot, mice, moose, rat, sheep, skunk, squirrel). Rubus twigs are relished by cottontail rabbits and white-tailed deer. Rabbits clip off the stems at an oblique angle; a ragged end indicates deer browsing. Land turtles relish low-hanging fruits (eastern box turtle, wood turtle, and Blanding's turtle) (EAS; MZN). Bright orange spots on leaf undersides, together with bunched or dwarfed shoots, indicate orange rust (Gymnoconia peckiana), a club fungus, is probably its most serious disease. Gall-making insects, mostly tiny wasps (Diastrophus) and gnats (Lasioptera), create characteristic swellings on stems and leaves. Curled, distorted leaves may indicate blackberry psyllids (Trioza ripuntata), common yellow-brown sucking insects also known as jumping plant lice. Caterpillars of the large ruby tiger moth (Phragmatobia assimilans) feed on blackberry. The blackberry looper caterpillar (Chlorochlamys chloroleucaria) forages on the fruits. A fly-catching wasp (Hypocrabro stirpicolus) tunnels into blackberry stems, constructing cells for eggs and stored flies. Zipper-like scars on stems are egg scars of the black-horned tree cricket (Oecanthus nigricor-nis) (EAS).

Extracts (Other Rubus):

Aqueous extracts anticholinesterase, myostimulant; uterotonic; fruit extracts with antiviral activity (CAN). Extract appears to relax uterus only in pregnant rats and humans, inactive on non-pregnant uterus (PNC). Anthocyanins and polyphenols in berries of several Ribes, Rubus, and Vaccinium spp. have in vitro antiradical activity on chemically generated superoxide radicals. The extracts also inhibit xanthine oxidase. All crude extracts active toward chemically generated superoxide radicals. The tannins in the leaves make leaf tea competitive with green tea for cancer and cardiopathy. I suspect that the wild strains of Rubus sanctus would be even better endowed with the anticancer and cardioprotective polyphenols than the cultivated blackberries and raspberries.

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