Boxwood buxus sempervirens l buxaceae

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Buxus wallichiana Baillon fide DEP Notes (Boxwood):

I will set in the desert the fir tree, and the pine, and the box tree together.

Isaiah 41:19 (KJV)

As in my out-of-print 1985 book, I have cited here those uses usually attributed to the European box (Buxus sempervirens) because the biblical box (Buxus longifolia) is reported to have similar properties. Balfour does not even distinguish them, referring to the box of Isaiah as "the Buxus sempervirens" of botanists (BIB). Indeed, some authors consider this only a variant of the European box, Buxus sempervirens. Zohary fails to list either (ZOH). The wood, hard and taking a fine polish, is valued wherever a hardwood is needed, for carvings, combs, mathematical instruments, spoons, and turnery, etc. Cultivated by the Romans for the hard wood, inlaid with ivory for cabinet work and jeweled caskets. The wood was also used for tablets that were covered with wax and used for writing. It was said to be used both as a substitute for hops and as a green manure for hops. Boiled with lye it was supposed to tint the hair auburn. It is prized in the Holy Land as an ornamental evergreen. Leaves sometimes used to adulterate uva-ursi (BIB).

Common Names (Boxwood):

'Athaq (Arab.; BOU); Azazzer (Ber.; BOU); Bakas (Arab.; KAB); Baqs (Arab.; BOU); Beuqs (Ber.; BOU); Bois Bénit (Fr.; KAB); 'Boix (Cat.; BOU); Boj (Sp.; EFS); Boje (Sp.; EFS); Bojeo (Sp.; EFS);

FIGURE 1.16 Boxwood (Buxus sempervirens).

Bosso (It.; EFS); Bossolo (It.; EFS); Boxboom (Dutch; KAB); Boxwood (Eng.; Scn.; AH2; CR2; USN); Buchsbaum (Ger.; EFS); Buco (Por.; HH2); Buis (Fr.; BOU); Buis Commun (Fr.; KAB); Buis Toujours Vert (Fr.; BOU; EFS); Buje (Sp.; HH2); Bujo (Sp.; HH2); Buksus (Rus.; KAB); Bush Tree (Eng.; KAB); Busso (It.; KAB); Buxbom (Swe.; KAB); Buxo (It.; Por.; EFS; KAB); Bwes Beni (Belgium; JLH); Chikri (India; Kas.; Pun.; DEP; EFS; KAB; WOI); Cimisu (Rom.; KAB); Cimsu (Rom.; KAB); Common Box Tree (Eng.; BOU; EFS); Common Boxwood (Eng.; USN); Dudgeon (Eng.; GMH); Duolgeon (Eng.; KAB); Dwarf Box (Eng.; KAB); European Box (Eng.; USN); Evergreen Box (Eng.; KAB); Huang Yang Mu (China; EFS); Ibiqis (Ber.; BOU); Merisor Turcesc (Rom.; KAB); Mortella (It.; KAB); Ozanne (Fr.; KAB); Palm (Dutch; KAB); Palmboom (Dutch; KAB); Palm-boompje (Dutch; EFS); Pampri (India; EFS); Papar (Pun.; KAB); Papri (Jaunsar; Pun.; KAB); Papur (Pun.; KAB); Poppar (Him.; Pun.; KAB); Pyxos (Greek; KAB); Samshit (Rus.; KAB); Sansadu

(Jaunsar; KAB); Shamshad (Arab.; Him.; Iran; Pun.; Urdu; BOU; KAB; WOI); Shanda Laghune (Afg.; DEP; KAB); Shumaj (Pun.; DEP; KAB); Simsir (Tur.; EFS); Turkish Boxwood (Eng.; USN).

Activities (Boxwood):

Allergenic (1; HH2); Alterative (f; CRC); Analgesic (f; KAB); Antiacetylcholinesterase (1; X15036468); Antibutylcholinesterase (1; X15036468); Anticholinesterase (1; X15036468); Antioxidant (f; X15143441); Antiseptic (1; X11926538); Antitumor (f; CRC); Astringent (f; KAB); Bactericide (1; PH2; X11926538); Cardiotonic (f; KAB); Cathartic (f; BIB; CRC); Cerebrotonic (f; KAB); Chola-gogue (f; CRC; EFS); Cytotoxic (1; HH2; PH2); Depurative (f; CRC; PHR); Dermatitigenic (1; HH2); Diaphoretic (f; BIB; CRC; DEP; PH2); Diuretic (f; EFS; CRC); Emetic (f; BIB; CRC); Febrifuge (f; CRC; DEP; EFS); Hepatotonic (f; KAB); Herbicide (1; X11926538); Hypotensive (1; HH2; PH2; X1720559); Laxative (f; CRC; EFS; HHB); Narcotic (f; BIB; CRC; EFS); Phytotoxic (1; X10346940); Propecic (f1; EFS; HH2); Purgative (f; DEP; KAB); Sedative (f; BIB; CRC; EFS); Sudorific (f; CRC; EFS); Teratogenic (f; HH2); Tonic (f; EFS); Toxic (f; EFS); Vermifuge (f; CRC; EFS).

Indications (Boxwood):

Alopecia (f1; BIB; EFS; PH2); Bacteria (1; PH2; X11926538); Bite (f; GMH); Bot (f; GMH); Cancer (f; HHB; JLH); Constipation (f; PH2); Dermatosis (f; HHB; PH2); Epilepsy (f; BIB; CRC; GMH; HHB); Fever (f; CRC; DEP; EFS; KAB); Gout (f; CRC; HHB; PH2); Headache (f; KAB); Hemorrhoids (f; BIB; CRC); Hepatosis (f; KAB); Infection (1; X11926538); Insomnia (f; EFS); Leprosy (f; CRC); Malaria (f; CRC; EFS; HHB; PH2); Pain (f; KAB); Paralysis (1; PH2); Pneumonia (f; PH2); Proctosis (f; KAB); Prolapse (f; KAB); Pulmonosis (f; HH2); Rash (f; PH2); Rheumatism (f; BIB; BOU; CRC; HHB; PH2); Stomatosis (f; KAB); Syphilis (f; BOU; CRC); Tetanus (1; PH2); Toothache (f; BIB; CRC; HH2); Tuberculosis (1; PH2); Venereal Disease (f; BIB; BOU; CRC); Worm (f; CRC; EFS).

Dosages (Boxwood):

I do not find anything in my usual edible plant books, but at least four sources suggest that the leaves and bark are used as a substitute for tea in Gahrwal (WO2). One drachm powdered leaves as purgative (GMH), 10 to 20 g powdered leaves as vermifuge (GMH); 1 to 2 oz wood in decoction as sudorific (GMH).

• Belgians use the wood oil for cancers (JLH).

• Unani consider the seeds astringent, cardiotonic, cerebrotonic, hepatotonic, the leaves good for headache, pain, and prolapsed anus (KAB).

Downsides (Boxwood):

Class 3 (AHP). No health hazards known with proper therapeutic dosages (PH2). The FDA Poisonous Plant Database yielded 62 abstracts as of November 2004. Narcotic and sedative in full doses, emeto-cathartic, possibly fatally so, and convulsant in overdoses (BIB). Leaves have caused fatalities in grazing animals. Toxic symptoms include collapse, convulsions, cramps, dermatosis, diarrhea, nausea, paralysis, shakes, vertigo, vomiting, and possibly death due to asphyxiation (CRC; PH2). The lethal dose of the alkaloid mix called "Buxin" is 800 mg per dog, or 100 mg/kg body weight, which speculatively estimated to humans would be 5 to 10 g/kg (HH2).

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