Solanum sanctum L.
The way of the slothful man is as an hedge of thorns: but the way of the righteous is made plain.
Proverbs 15:19 (KJV)
The way of a sluggard is overgrown with thorns, but the path of the upright is a level highway.
Proverbs 15:19 (RSV)
The way of the lazy one is like a brier hedge, but the path of the upright ones is a way cast up.
Proverbs 15:19 (NWT)
This is one of the few places where the NWT was the shorter of the triad I often cover (NWT; KJV; RSV). I rather doubt that the words brier and thorn are divinely distinct so I will not question these trivial differences. Zohary comments that the Hebrew hedek appears only twice in the Bible (Proverbs 15:19 and Micah 7:4-5), and in either case is associated with a thorny hedge. In Arabic, hadaq refers specifically to Solanum incanum. Respecting his opinion, I have cited the Proverbs passage in its three versions above. Unlike the vine of Sodom, this S. incanum is reported in the Flora of Palestine, mostly in tropical areas of the lower Jordan Valley and the Dead Sea region (ZOH). UPW says this one species is an aggregate of more than 50 that have been recognized species, many individually recognized by African farmers. They even speculate that it came to Africa from Asia via Egypt 400 to 500 years B.c. A component of some arrow poisons and love philtres. Ethiopians use the fruits as a condiment in certain beverages. Leaves not used as a potherb. A glyco-alkaloid content up to 4.81% is found in some races, particularly the one cultivated by the Paniya tribe of Iritty, North Kerala. Bushmen use the fruit juice in arrow poison. Root and seed contain a rennet-like enzyme (BIB).
Common Names (Bitter-Apple):
'Ain al Baqar (Arab.; GHA); Akumba (Upper Volta; UPW); Angulai (Tigrinia; KAB); Angulle (Tigrinia; KAB); 'Arsam (Arab.; GHA); 'Arsan (Arab.; GHA); Atoropo (Ghana; UPW); Ba Koyo
(Guinea; UPW); Bitter Apple (Eng.; S. Afr.; KAB); Bitterappel (S. Afr.; ZUL); Bitter Tomato (Eng.; UPW); Brien (Eng.; RSV; ZOH); Culuta (Guinea-Bissau; UPW); Data (Liberia; UPW); Djang (Cem-eroons; UPW); Eggplant (Eng.; UPW); Fambora (Sen.; UPW); Garden Egg (Eng.; UPW); Gifappel (S. Afr.; ZUL); Gray Nightshade (Eng.; ZOH); Grysbitterappel (S. Afr.; ZUL); Hadak (Arab.; GHA; ZOH); Haw Moy (Niger; UPW); Hedek (Heb.; ZOH); Helkem (Dho.; GHA); Ikan (?; FAC); Kaurat-rim (Brahui; KAB); Koro Kaneil (Mali; UPW); Kujakataku (Gambia; UPW); Mazg (Arab.; GHA); 'Mazj (Oman; GHA); Meringam (?; FAC); Morola (Pedi; KAB); Nuqum (Yemen; GHA); Palestine Nightshade (Eng.; FAC); Tarku (Nig.; UPW); Thola (Suto; KAB); Thorn (Eng.; RSV; ZOH); Thorn Apple (Eng.; S. Afr.; ZUL); Ungulleh (Tigrinia; KAB); Yalo (Sierra Leone; UPW); Nscn.
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