Real Masculinity and Manhood

Core: How To Connect With Your Masculine Energy

Most men feel stuck in life, empty, and unhappy despite having a lot of wealth, good job, fame, and several conquests with the opposite sex. These men experience these problems because they lack the mature masculine energy. In fact, this is the reason why most men who seem to have it all sometimes decide to take their own life. Fortunately, someone has decided to provide a solution. David Tian is a Ph.D. holder in psychology. In his course known as the CORE, he reveals various ways any man can reach the ultimate masculinity and achieve true joy, happiness, and live a more fulfilling life. The Core comes with 8 video seminars, downloadable meditative audio exercises, PDF slides, worksheets, and 3 free bonuses. Currently, you can be able to purchase this course at a discount price.

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Masculinity Femininity Androgyny and Sex Roles

Women and men dif fer in a few dimensions assertiveness, tender -mindedness, and anxiety, as well as in aggression, sexuality , and depression. But do these dif ferences mean that there is such a thing as a masculine or feminine personality This section explores the conceptions of masculinity and femininity and how the treatment of these topics has changed over time. Starting in the 1930s, personality researchers began to notice that men and women differed in their responses to a number of personality items on lar ge inventories. For example, when asked whether they preferred to take baths or showers, women indicated that they preferred baths, whereas men indicated that they preferred showers. Based on these sex dif ferences, researchers assumed that the dif ferences could be described by a single personality dimension, with masculinity at one end and femininity at the other end. A person who scored high on masculinity was assumed to score low on femininity, and vice versa....

How this book is organized

Since half of the children diagnosed with leukemia are boys, and half girls, I did not adopt the common convention of using only masculine personal pronouns. Because I do not like using he she, I have alternated personal pronouns within chapters. This may seem awkward as you read, but it prevents half of the parents from feeling that the text does not apply to their child.

Envy or blame of others increasing feelings of being bad unlovable

Is stamped by the earlier patterned responses. Fantasies of love and longing that attach to the opposite-sex parent, with competition for his or her exclusive, romantically tinged love, is loosely called the positive oedipal complex competition for the same-sex parent, the negative oedipal complex. If children, fearing that they are already damaged or too aggressive, retreat from these attempts at competition or experience this competition in a manner distorted by preexisting fears and doubts, there will be a lasting impact on their developing sense of masculine or feminine identity. Self-experience is contaminated with what Kilborne (2002) termed oedipal shame, a conviction that the individual is deeply and essentially flawed, with accompanying fantasies of being too small, powerless, and weak. Such individuals feel too exposed to openly or successfully compete for love, admiration, or recognition (Kilborne 2002). Attempts to disappear, to deny or to hide one's damage, result because...

New Longitudinal Data

The gender stereotyped items that were used for these analyses included 5 feminine (e.g., dolls, cooking and baking) and 8 masculine (e.g., trucks and car washing) concrete objects and activities.5 For the gender knowledge measure, the child was presented with individual cards that had the items written on them. After the statement was read aloud, the child was asked to drop the card into one of five boxes representing only males, more males than females, equal numbers of males and females, more females than males, or only females. For the masculine items, a child was given a correct score if she or he placed the card in either the only males (score 5) or more males than females box (score 4). The reverse scoring system was used for the feminine items (e.g., only females 5). A child's total gender knowledge score was calculated as the number of items correct out of the 13 items. Children's preferences were assessed by presenting 24 black and white ink drawings of the objects and...

Jews Diet and Disease

The Talmud even asks whether very fat men, such as Rabbis Ishamel ben Yose and Eleazar ben Simeon (end of the second century) could ever reproduce because of their huge bellies. But Jewish attitudes toward such obesity were clearly defined by the model of the lack of self-control. Not yet a sin, it was a sign of the lack of self-discipline appropriate for a real man, a real scholar and could be punished (Kottek 1997).

Independent Decision Making

In the interviews, however, the importance of decision making as a criterion for adulthood was not restricted to the formation of beliefs and values, but applied to a variety of aspects of life. An adult is not only someone who has decided on a set of guiding beliefs and values, but also someone who has the maturity of character to make sensible, independent decisions about any issues that come up in the course of daily life. To this 22-year-old woman, it was self-evident I mean, that's what being an adult is, thinking for yourself and making the right decisions and taking care of yourself. A 24-year-old man described the crossing of the threshold from boyhood to manhood in these individualistic decisionmaking terms All of a sudden, you've just got to decide, 'Okay, I'm a man. I'm going to do this how I want to. It's going to be my life, and this is how I'm going to run it.' Responses such as this echo the idea of decision of character that was such an important criterion for the...

Schwarzenegger Arnold I947 Noted body builder actor and politician

S chwarzenegger's scope of influence extends outside the obsessive muscle-building sport in which he made his initial mark. He is also a successful entrepreneur, actor, and politician. His lifestyle and discipline has made him the model of fitness enthusiasts for over thirty years (1979). Unlike the strongmen of earlier years who epitomized health through exercise, Schwarzenegger has become an ideal of the modern perception of masculinity, one of those individuals that have, advance billing as leaders, dominators, controllers in short, masters of the universe (Klein 1993 9). In the past, masculinity, as defined by exercise, was not as much a symbol of success as it was a symbol of health. For most of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the ideal masculine male was defined in terms of his strength and fitness, rather than his size. For example, for most of the early twentieth century, Charles Atlas was the ideal male form. Unlike the past characterizations of masculinity...

FAQ 4 What if I dont want to get bulky or look like a bodybuilder

This fear of getting too big usually comes from seeing pictures of professional bodybuilders in the magazines. Almost 100 of professional bodybuilders take steroids and other anabolic drugs to get abnormally large muscle mass. If you've ever seen pictures of female bodybuilders with massive, masculine-looking muscles (and faces), the odds are good that they were using steroids, male hormones, or other muscle enhancing drugs.

Triangles And The Oedipus Complex

Triangulation may be used to punish a disappointing or errant lover, or to even out the score. A husband may believe he has forgiven his wife after she confesses a prior affair, only to feel himself drawn into a love affair of his own shortly thereafter. Triangulation may also be used to re-establish a sense of gender adequacy when one's femininity or masculinity has been damaged by a competitive defeat, either erotic or non-erotic. For example, a man who has received a shattering blow at work may be more than usually vulnerable to the ministrations of his adoring secretary. Alternately, triangulation may be used to alter not one's own self-image, but one's image in a lover's eyes, with one lover hoping to pique the other's interest and coax fading love back to full intensity through the agency of jealousy. Triangulation may even be used as a self-punishment. A lover who is radiantly happy in love may experience guilt at his great good fortune, and he too may embark on a triangular...

One of Freuds Famous Students Carl Gustav Jung

One of Jung's most famous ideas concerned the presence in each person of a collective unconscious, which complemented the personal unconscious. The personal unconscious grew out of the person' s own unique experiences, very much like Freud's version of the unconscious. The collective unconscious, on the other hand, was thought to be much more prehistoric, the inherited unconscious content that is passed on from previous generations and contains the collected primordial images common across the human species. This repository of core human feelings and experience is represented in the common symbols that turn up in myths and stories across vastly different cultures. He called these archetypes, expressions or images of basic human needs and instincts that we are all born with. Newborns, for example, all react to their mothers in a similar way because they are born with an archetype of the good mother in their collective unconscious. Most cultures share a fear of the dark because we have...

The Development of Sex and Gender

Social learning theory, developed by Albert Bandura, emphasizes the importance of children's imitation of the behavior of others (models). The theory posits that boys learn how to behave as boys from observing and imitating masculine behaviors, especially from their fathers, and girls learn from imitating females, especially their mothers. When children imitate same-sex behaviors, they are rewarded, but imitating the other sex may carry the threat of punishment. Although the research indicates that most parents value the same behaviors for their sons and daughters, some rewards or punishments are given on the basis of gender typing, particularly during play. This is even more true for boys than for girls, with fathers being the most punitive if, for example, they observe their sons playing with Barbie dolls or sporting red fingernail polish.

The Search for Androgyny

In the early 1970s, with the rise of the feminist movement, researchers began to challenge the assumption of a single masculinity-femininity dimension. These new researchers, instead, started with the premise that masculinity and femininity are independent dimensions. Thus, one can be high on both masculinity and femininity , or low on both dimensions. Or one can be stereotypically masculine high on masculinity, low on femininity . Or one can be stereotypically feminine high on femininity, low on masculinity . This shift represented a fundamental change in thinking about masculinity, femininity, and sex roles. Two major personality instruments were published in 1974 to assess people using this new conception of sex roles (Bem, 1974 Spence, Helmreich, & Stapp, 1974). The masculinity dimension contained items reflecting assertiveness, boldness dominance, self-sufficienc , and instrumentality . Those who agreed with personality trait terms connoting these qualities scored high on...

Experiments in voluntary death Ketamine research study

Other participants came out with statements such as 'I thought I was dead'. 'I didn't exist any more as me , but I actually was a small part of a cosmic system', or 'I spoke a universal language, which regulates the entire earth and the planets', or 'I enjoyed a state of absolute freedom while melting down with the universe in its totality'. Some said that the experience made them understand the meaning of the Tao, where the yin (feminine, dark and passive) alternates with the yang (masculine, light and active). Eleven (30 per cent) did not report these kinds of experiences.

Fissure in the Field

Most of the empirical research in contemporary personality addresses the ways in which individuals and groups dif fer. For example, the extensive research literature on extraversion and introversion, on anxiety and neuroticism, and on self-esteem all focuses on the ways in which people dif fer from one another. The extensive research on masculinity, femininity, and androgyny deals with the psychological ways in which men and women dif fer, as well as the ways in which they acquire sex-typed social roles and behavior patterns. Research on cultures shows that one major dimension of difference concerns the degree to which individuals endorse a collectivistic or an individualistic attitude, with Eastern cultures tending to be more collectivistic and Western cultures more individualistic.

Brillat Savarin Jean Anthelme 17551826

The key was looking and being looked at as too fat or too thin. For men, the potbelly became a major indicator of the potential for illness for the observers of masculine obesity in the late nineteenth century. Indeed, of the 163,567 overweight men in the U.S.A. and Canada identified between 1870 and 1899 (for insurance purposes), abdominal obesity (the waist being of greater circumference than the chest) was present in about i3 percent (Kahn and Williamson 1994). This was taken as an absolute sign of increased morbidity and mortality. The projected deaths of these individuals were almost one-third less than their actual death rate. Omental fat in the

Personnel Selection Choosing the Right Person for the

The 16 Personality Factor (16 PF) questionnaire, described in Chapter 3, is also being used in vocational advising and selection. The 16 PF profile that best matches police o ficers is one that empha sizes boldness and self-confidence, qualities that facilitate one s abilities to direct or control others and to achieve goals (Krug, 1981). A heightened need for adventure and a strong need to influence other are linked with the enjoyment of careers that provide challenge and opportunities to take char ge. The police of ficer personality profile low on the need for support from others, which suggests a very self-assured personality. All of these personality characteristics appear to combine into a masculine profile. Nevertheless, the profile that matches the poli prototype occurs equally often among normal men and women in U.S. samples (Krug, 1981). Psychologically , men and women appear about equally equipped with the personality traits that most match the police of ficer prototype

The Effect of Gender Labels on Exploration Preferences and Performance Exploration

In addition to considering the interaction of age and type of label, the gender labeling effects on performance also seem to depend on sex. Specifically, two performance studies found an effect for boys only (Gold & Berger, 1978 Stein et al., 1971). Interestingly, the Stein et al. (1971) study was different than each of the other performance studies described in that it examined indexes of motivation (i.e., time spent on each task) rather than actual performance. The analyses revealed that only boys spent significantly longer on the same-sex test when compared to the other tests (i.e., opposite-sex and neutral). An examination of sex-role preference scores though revealed that girls with high masculine preferences worked significantly longer on the masculine test than on the feminine test, whereas low-masculine preference girls worked an equal amount of time on each task. For boys, sex-role preference was not related to the time they spent on the tasks. These results suggest that...

Karen Homey and a Feminist Interpretation of Psychoanalysis

Horney stressed the point that, although biology determines sex, cultural norms are used to determine what is acceptable for a typical male and female in that culture. Partly because of Horney , today we use the terms masculine and feminine to refer to traits or roles typically associated with being male or female in a particular culture, and we refer to dif ferences in such culturally ascribed roles and traits as gender differences, not sex differences. This distinction, so important to modern feminism, can be traced back to Karen Horney . It is unfortunate that Horney died in 1952 and did not see the progress made by the women' s movement, of which she can truly be counted as an early leader .

Hay William Howard MD 18661940 Creator of the Hay Diet in 1911 the original inspiration for food combining

In his interest to improve national health and decrease mortality, Hay became more interested in natural medicine. He resolved, to take such things as he believed were intended by nature as foods for men after he cured himself of Bright's disease (now known as nephritis, or kidney disease) (Hay 1933 13). He also lost weight by changing his diet, and at the end of three months he was able to run long distances without distress. His weight decreased from 225 lbs. to 175 lbs years seem to fall away from him, and he felt younger and stronger than before for many years (Hay 1934 14). He accomplished this all by eating foods in their natural, unprocessed state and not eating to excess Proportion the amounts to the real desire at the time do not try to eat the whole because it is offered a mistake that is often made by those following suggested diets (Hay 1934 158). In addition, he believed that exercise is needed to keep us clean inside, and to enjoy all these periods as only one can do who...

Socialization and Social Roles

Learning Theory Gender

Socialization theory, the notion that boys and girls become different because boys are reinforced by parents, teachers, and the media for being masculine, and girls for being feminine, is probably the most widely held theory of sex dif ferences in personality The theory can be summarized as follows Boys are given baseball bats and trucks. Girls are given dolls. Boys are praised for engaging in rough-and-tumble play. Girls are praised for being cute and obedient. In Bandura's (1977) social learning theory, a variant of socialization theory , boys and girls also learn by observing the behaviors of others, called models, of their own sex. Boys watch their fathers, male teachers, and male peers. Girls watch their mothers, female teachers, and female peer models. Boys see their fathers work. Girls see their mothers cook. Over time, even in the absence of direct reinforcement, these models provide a guide to behaviors that are masculine or feminine. One potential dif ficulty, however ,...

What Affects Childrens and Adolescents Adjustment to Stepfamilies

Step Familys

Cive consequently, boys may appreciate new stepfathers as alternative supportive parents and masculine role models. In stepfamilies that include the child's biological father and a stepmother, the stepmother may be seen as an intruder in the previously close father-child relationship. Girls may have trouble adjusting to the new stepmother, particularly because most girls maintain a close relationship with their noncustodial mother, but girls generally adjust to the new stepmother and benefit from the new relationship.

Self Schemata Possible Selves Ought Selves and Undesired Selves

The self-concept is like a network of information in memory , which or ganizes and provides coherence to the ways in which we experience the self (Markus, 1983). The self-concept also guides how each person processes information about him- or herself (Markus & Nurius, 1986). For example, people more easily process information that is consistent with their self-concepts if you see yourself as highly masculine, then you will quickly agree with statements such as the following I am assertive and I am strong. The term self-schema (schema is singular schemata is plural) refers to the specific knowledge structure, or cognitive representation, of the self-concept. Self schemata are the networks of associated building blocks of the self-concept. For example, a person might have a schema about what it means to be masculine, and this schema might include such attributes as assertiveness, strength, and independence. A person with a masculine self-schema would then apply this to understanding...

Sex Linked Preferences

The evidence is mixed concerning the development of children's sex-typed preferences for concrete toys and activities. Similar to the issue with assessing stereotype knowledge, the results seem to depend on the type of measure employed (see Aubry et al., 1999). For example, when asking children to make conscious choices based on verbal questions, children show sex-typed preferences as early as 3 years with well-established preferences by age 5 (Carter & Levy, 1988 Coker, 1984 Martin & Little, 1990 Perry, White, & Perry, 1984). On behavioral measures in which children's free play is observed to assess the amount of time they play with masculine and feminine toys, sex-typed preferences have been found in the second year (Weinraub, Clemens, Sockloff, Ethridge, Gracely, & Myers, 1984 Campbell et al., 2002). It is not clear, however, whether these types of behavioral measures are actually examining children's sex-typed preferences. For example, children may initially pick up and explore...

Hie Social and Cultural Domain

Calculation of Effect Size How Lar ge Are the Sex Dif ferences 526 Minimalists and Maximalists 527 Sex Differences in Personality 528 Temperament in Children 528 Five-Factor Model 529 Basic Emotions Frequency and Intensity 533 Other Dimensions of Personality 534 Masculinity, Femininity, Androgyny, and Sex Roles 537 The Search for Androgyny 538 Gender Stereotypes 542

But everyone else can have a baby

We used to think that men with an infertility problem feel vulnerable and weak because the infertility reduces their masculinity. Although this may have been true in the past, recent research shows that most men today don't equate fertility with masculinity, so this stereotype no longer holds. In a study conducted in Australia, 112 men who'd been diagnosed as infertile five years previously filled out questionnaires about what had happened in terms of their infertility since they were diagnosed. Almost all of them (96 per cent) had gone through some form of infertility treatment with their partner and most had become fathers (87 per cent), either as a result of the treatment or after conceiving spontaneously or adopting a child. The men were asked to indicate whether they agreed with a number of statements about parenthood, and their responses, shown at right, challenge the stereotypes that men believe that fertility is linked to masculinity and that having children is less important...

Category Labels versus Ability Labels Effects

A second reverse hypothesis can be gleaned from examining the AL studies. Specifically, we propose that older children are more likely to be influenced by AL when compared to younger children. For example, the two studies that used AL with children younger than 9 either did not find any effects (Herzog et al., 1982) or found effects for boys only (Gold & Berger, 1978). In contrast, 3 out of the 4 AL studies with older children (Davies, 1986, 1989 Hargreaves et al., 1985) found significant results for both girls and boys, and one study found effects for boys and the girls with high masculine preferences (Stein et al., 1971). Taken together, our two hypotheses suggest that there are developmental differences with respect to how vulnerable children are to different types of gender stereotypes. Next, we review some relevant research that lends some support for these ideas.

Other Times Marriage and More

The transition to adulthood in early American society was similar in some ways to that of early modern English society. Rotundo (1993) takes up the historical trail where Ben-Amos (1994) left off, focusing on males and tracing the development of conceptions of manhood in the American middle class from the seventeenth century to the present. In Rotundo's account, the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in colonial New England were characterized by communities that were small, tightly-knit, and strongly based in religion. In this phase of what Rotundo terms communal manhood, the focus of the transition to adulthood was on assuming adult role responsibilities in work and marriage. The role of head of the household was seen as especially important, with the man as provider and protector of wife and children (a striking correspondence to Gilmore's (1990) description of the requirements of manhood in traditional cultures). Women prepared for complementary adult role responsibilities as...

Dieting and Eating Disorders

Until the end of the nineteenth century, concerns about obesity centered on men's bodies, and men generated the bulk of dietary advice literature (Gilman 2004 4-5). Even in the early twentieth century when women received the most biting commentary on their weight, attention to male standards continued, and both men's and women's magazines featured slim male models (Sterns 1997 98-9). In fact, during World War I, there was widespread cultural anxiety about the fitness of men's bodies as emblematic of the health of the nation overall. In the first two decades of the century, scientists and physicians sought to create a powerful, gutsy nation through transforming men's physical bodies (Carden-Coyne 2005). In the 1950s, diet books written particularly for men began to emerge, and they developed an immediate and huge following. This literature, however, rejected the aesthetic concerns most often associated with women and promoted weight loss, instead, as a means of improving one's...

Sexual and Reproductive Health

Sexuality includes the adoption of certain gender roles (55). Society's definition of masculinity traditionally identifies the male as strong, practical, and the main bread winner in a family. The corresponding role for a woman traditionally identifies her as a wife, homemaker, attentive mother, and, more recently, an income provider. Arthritis may interfere with an individual's capacity to meet these expectations. Men with JIA are less sexually active and have greater difficulty establishing a permanent partnership than both healthy males and women with JIA (52). Poor body image, low self-esteem, social isolation, and fears of being unable to support a family or to fill the social role expected from a male in a relationship may all have contributed to this finding.

Military Drug And Alcohol Abuse In The United States Drug and

Daily ration to sailors and soldiers. Within the predominantly male U.S. military population, heavy drinking and being able to ''hold one's liquor'' have served as tests ''of suitability for the demanding masculine military role'' (Bryant, 1974). A common stereotype has been to characterize hard-fighting soldiers as hard-drinking soldiers. Alcoholic beverages have been available to military personnel at reduced prices at military outlets and until recently during ''happy hours'' at clubs on military installations (Bryant, 1974 Wertsch, 1991). In addition, alcohol has been used in the military to reward hard work, to ease interpersonal tensions, and to promote unit cohesion and camaraderie (Ingraham, 1984).

Treatment sideeffects and their psychological impact

Hedestig et al. 14 conducted interviews with patient with untreated LPCa and analysed the interview transcripts using in-depth qualitative narrative analysis. Their findings revealed that men perceived their disease as life-threatening, experienced uncertainty, fear and worry about their cancer progression, and a repressed sense of manhood due to sexual dysfunctions.

Themes or Foreshadowed Problems

Recent work on 'gender identity' has been vast, and includes Walkerdine's work (for example Walkerdine 1990b) and Hollway's (1984, 1989) discussed earlier, and also studies aiming to develop insights into the construction of a 'masculine identity' (e.g. Metcalfe and Humphries 1985, Connell 1987, Segal 1990). I consider here the points that are relevant to mathematics anxiety. First, these studies confirm the view that men are often less willing - or less able - to express their feelings openly than women (e.g. Tolson 1977). Second and more generally, given that a man, or a woman, can be positioned in other ways, for example in social class terms, they may be subject to contradictory positionings this itself may tend to generate anxiety, because of simultaneous positionings of power and powerlessness (Henriques et al. 1984 225), or intrapsychic conflict more generally (Hunt 1989) see later.

Main uses in food processing and perfumery

Geranium oil and concoctions using geranium oil components have long been used in making artificial rose oil or 'rose extenders'. Rhodinol ex Geranium is used with hydroxycitronellol, linalool, geraniol, dimethyl benzyl carbide, cinnamic alcohol, phenyl ethyl alcohol, geranyl and linalyl esters in modern perfumery and cosmetic products. Geranium oil is frequently used in masculine fragrances often in conjunction with lavender in, for example, Moustache (Rochas), also classical foug re blends. Geranium also appears in women's fragrances, such as Ivoire and Balmain, as well as featuring in classical chypres such as Cabochard, Gres, and the original chypre, Coty. Giorgio, Armani, is a combination of mandarin and geranium (Wells and Lis-Balchin, 2002).

Summary of Quality of Friendships Qualitative Data

This lack of trust likely affects adolescents' ability to trust each other (Epstein & Karweit, 1983). Increases in distrust over time, particularly distrust of same-sex peers, may also be due to the increased likelihood of having actually experienced a betrayal by a friend and by the compulsory heterosexuality (see Tolman, 2002) that weighs down on girls and boys particularly during middle and late adolescence, often leading them to betray their same-sex friends. Adolescents, particularly the boys, found it increasingly difficult to find and maintain same-sex friendships as they grew older which is likely due, at least in part, to gender expectations regarding what it means to be a man or woman and the embedded homophobia in mainstream messages regarding masculinity and femininity (Chu, 2004 McAnGhaill, 1996 Raymond, 1994). Nevertheless, these feelings of distrust, for the most part, did not preclude close, trusting friendships from flourishing. Indeed, although...

Case Example

Therapist You were trying to tell me about what it was like for you in the OR, feeling anxious, which you interpret as being weak. When I asked to hear more, it was very uncomfortable for you. You don't like anyone seeing you that way, and you didn't want to have to talk more and feel more about it So you attacked me instead. In your eyes, I become the weak, foolish one, the one who is dithering and not knowing how to do this right. You become the masculine, critical person, the one who is able to take over. For that instant, you can stop worrying about feeling weak or about to be attacked You've just proven how masculine and on top of things you are.

Biological Theories

In recent years, gender development researchers have called for an increased recognition of the integrative role of biological factors in the production of sex differences (e.g., Alexander, 2003 Kenrick & Luce, 2000 Maccoby, 2000, 2002b Ruble & Martin, 1998 Zucker, 2001). Biological approaches to gender development have focused on issues ranging from the role of genes and hormones to the effects of evolution on sex differences in behavior. For example, research on the effects of hormones is generally based on the view that sex differentiated exposure to prenatal and or postnatal hormones can cause behavioral and ability differences in males and females (see Collaer & Hines, 1995, and Berenbaum, 2002). One program of research that has shown promising results in this area has involved the investigation of girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Individuals with CAH have a genetic condition that results in the overproduction of androgenic steroids during prenatal development. In...

Concluding Remarks

There were originally 16 (8 masculine and 8 feminine) concrete items that were used in the stereotyped measures. However, 3 feminine items (i.e., make a drawing, writing on a typewriter, sitting at the cash desk of a store) were dropped because they were not clearly rated as feminine by the participants. In addition to these concrete items, the original stereotype measure included 22 gender stereotyped personality attributes of children and adults, which were not addressed in the present analyses. 10. It is important to note that instead of labeling novel toys, Liebert et al. (1971) mostly used familiar, masculine sex-typed toys for their gender labeling procedure (e.g., robot, dart gun, ball and bat, guitar). While they still found that both boys and girls significantly preferred toys that were labeled for their own sex, the children's prior preferences for specific toys seemed to complicate the analyses. Therefore, the results of this study are not included in the following analysis...

Women And Romance

Life's central romance, at least for many women, is the quest for an ideal love relationship. It is the only quest readily available to most women except for motherhood, and this generally (though of course not always) awaits pair bonding. The rewards of this feminine quest are elegantly stated by Rachel Brownstein in her book Becoming a Heroine The marriage plot most novels depend on is about finding validation of one's uniqueness and importance by being singled out among all other women by a man. The man's love is proof of the girl's value, and payment for it. Her search for perfect love through an incoherent, hostile wilderness of days is the plot that endows the aimless life with aim. Brownstein, like many others, emphasizes the crucial distinction between the female search for feminine identity through intimacy and the male search for masculine identity through achievement. (The woman finds her identity through the self-in-relationship.) Radway describes the typical heroine as...

Men And Power

Cinderella and the Prince, Penelope and Odysseus She must be good and patient, sometimes no more than meltingly beautiful, but He must quest. His road to love is through actively establishing his masculine worth, thereupon being enabled to claim his prize. Sex roles may have changed to some degree, but the quintessential love plots appear to have considerable durability. For men, the typical adventurous journey recounted in fairy tale and epic is prelude to and embodiment of the amorous quest the male must establish his masculine identity before he is internally free to love. In the archetypal adventure, the hero, alone, sets out somewhat innocently, unaware of the immense tests he will inevitably face. The hero, like the lover, is often looking for something lost magic sword or holy grail (his full phallic strength perhaps) he is bent on defeating a threatening dragon or confronting other grave dangers (to self or country, king or maiden). The danger he faces is externalized. It is...

Hormonal Theories

There is some evidence that hormonal influences on sex di ferences begin in utero. The hormonal bath that the developing fetus is exposed to, for example, might affect both the or ganization of the brain and consequently the gendered interests and activities of the individual. Some of the best evidence for this comes from a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), in which the female fetus has an over-active adrenal gland. This results in the female being hormonally masculinized. Young girls with CAH show a marked preference for male toys, such as Lincoln logs and trucks (Berenbaum & Snyder, 1995). As adults, CAH females show superiority in traditionally masculine cognitive skills, such as spatial rotation ability and throwing accuracy, as well as preferring traditionally masculine occupations (Kimura, 2002). These findings suggest that fetal exposure to hormones can have lasting e fects on gender -linked interests and abilities, although further research is needed in...


By the middle of the nineteenth century, aboulia had become a sign of a disease of the will, but it is a disease more of men than of women. It affects the strength of men and the beauty of women disproportionately, according to Brillat-Savarin. This is the new illness that is ascribed to the obese and it is in the promise of execution, of being able to act, that the fat man now shows his masculinity.


Bodybuilding includes weight training and increasing caloric intake in order to build muscle mass. Many people compete in bodybuilding competitions, and they are judged on the physical appearance of their muscles. It began as a sport only for men in the i890s. The first popular bodybuilder was Eugene Sandow (i867-i925), who organized the first bodybuilding contest on September i4, i90i in London. Sandow and an entire following generation saw bodybuilding as both aesthetic enhancement and body strengthening. What they created was a new masculine ideal The shaped body rather than

Klinefelter Syndrome

Clinical features include small testes, tall stature, breast development, reduced hormonal levels, and sterility. Mosaics, or individuals with mixed cell lines, may be fertile. Behavioral features include depressed verbal intelligence, reduced activity, increased stress, and feelings of reduced masculinity. Families may be advised to seek hormonal therapy and counseling for these children.


In a longitudinal study of women from Mills College in the San Francisco bay area, Helson and Wink (1992) examined changes in personality between the early forties and early fifties. They used the California Psychological Inventory at both time periods. The most dramatic change occurred on the femininity scale (now called the femininity masculinity scale). High scorers on femininity tend to be described by observers as dependent, emotional, feminine, gentle, high-strung, mild, nervous, sensitive, sentimental, submissive, sympathetic, and worrying (Gough, 1996). Low scorers (i.e., those who score in the masculine direction), in contrast, tend to be described as aggressive, assertive, boastful, confident, determined, forceful, independent masculine, self-confident, strong, and tough. In terms of acts performed (recall th Act Frequency Approach from Chapter 3), as reported by the spouses of these women,


Historically, psychologists have viewed femininity and masculinity as opposite poles of a continuum. The more feminine a person was, the less masculine that person could be. In the late 1990s, psychologists, including Sandra Bem, have asserted that femininity and masculinity are independent personality dimensions. Individuals, female or male, who exhibit high levels of both feminine and masculine personality traits are said to demonstrate androgyny. People who have many masculine but few feminine traits are termed masculine those with many feminine but few masculine characteristics are feminine. People who show few masculine and feminine traits are designated as undifferentiated. Numerous studies indicate that androgynous persons are better adjusted psychologically, more popular, and have higher self-esteem than are masculine, feminine, or undifferentiated persons. In other research, individuals high in masculinity appear as well off as androgynous persons. These results suggest that...


In many patients with prostate cancer, androgen deprivation therapy is administered over prolonged periods of time. The benefits of long-term AS in patients with advanced disease are well established, nevertheless, because this therapy has potential long-term side effects strategies should be applied that manage or prevent long-term complications 50 . One such strategy is IAS, in which patients receive regular cycles of AS, the duration of which is usually determined by PSA levels 51 . Canadian prostate cancer researchers have led the field of androgen withdrawal therapy for many years, from Nobel prize winner (Halifax born) Charles Huggins in 1940 to Nicholas Bruchovsky's Vancouver team's preclinical and clinical work on intermittent therapy in the early 1990s 52 . The basic premise of IAS is that periods (or cycles) on androgen deprivation for cancer control are followed by periods off therapy for testosterone recovery and improvements in quality of life parameters (such as libido,...

Figure 133

Studies on brain-damaged patients support some of the theoretical assumptions of Levelt et al. (1999a). According to their theory, the lemma contains syntactic information. Brain-damaged patients who can access the relevant lemma but who cannot carry out the subsequent stages of morphological and phonological encoding should possess syntactic information about words they cannot produce. Badecker, Miozzo, and Zanuttini (1995) studied an Italian patient with anomia (an inability to name objects). This patient found it virtually impossible to name pictures, but he was almost perfect at deciding whether the correct word was masculine or feminine (a syntactic feature).