Longevity Health and Wellness Protocol

Younger Tomorrow Reversing 20 Years Of Aging

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Health and Longevity

How long people live and how healthy or sickly they become during their years of life are exceptionally important developmental outcomes. It may come as a surprise to you that your personality actually predicts how long you are likely to live. The most important traits conducive to living a long life are high conscientiousness, positive emotionality (extroversion), and low levels of hostility (Danner et al., 2001 Friedman et al., 1995 Miller et al., 1996). There are several paths through which these personality traits affect longevity (Ozer & Benet-Martinez, 2006). First, conscientious individuals engage in more health-promoting practices, such as maintaining a good diet and getting regular exercise they also avoid unhealthy practices such as smoking and becoming a couch potato. Conscientious children in elementary school, for example, end up smoking less and drinking less alcohol when they are adults fully 40 years later (Hampson, Goldberg, Vogt, & Dubanoski, 2006)....


A year later, Trichopoulou et al (2003) also reported a positive association between longevity and the Mediterranean diet, with their study showing that the benefits are significant in people aged 55 years and older. More recently, a 2004 review of five cohort studies further confirmed these findings and concluded that there is now sufficient evidence to show that diet does indeed influence longevity and that the optimal diet for the prevention of both coronary heart disease and cancer is likely to extensively overlap with the traditional Mediterranean diet (Trichopoulou & Critselis 2004). Although it is uncertain which specific components in the Mediterranean diet are most important for its protective health benefits, olive oil, fish, plant foods and moderate wine consumption are likely candidates.

Background For Parts I And Ii

Compared to normal cells, cancer cells have lost touch with their neighboring cells, their community purpose, and even largely with one another. They are a race of self-serving, easily adaptable cells, whose proliferation continues with the slightest provocation. They use more than their fair share of resources, live longer than their fair share of time, and produce more than their share of offspring. In short, they exhibit the two deadly characteristics of cancer uncontrolled proliferation and uncontrolled spread.

Understanding Gum Disease

With increased awareness of periodontal disease and a greater selection of dental hygiene products available, why is gum disease the most commonly diagnosed health problem among today's American adult population, affecting approximately 40 million people Since this disease of the mouth has a destructive nature, it is important that you follow the guidelines described in this book to help begin the healing process. People have been losing their teeth as part of the aging process however, with routine cleanings and good home care, we can all keep our natural teeth. If you exercise preventive care, it is not unreasonable to expect your teeth and gums to last a lifetime.

Isdn Versus Classical Chinese Acupuncture And Triggerpoint Medicine

Traditional Chinese acupuncture was the major medical modality at the time of its ancient beginnings, and since then it has been gradually replaced in Chinese societies by herbal medicine, although it has persisted as a minor modality. Modern Chinese acupuncture is now quite different from what it was originally, just as modern needles are different from those that were used in the past. The human body and its diseases today are different from those of as little as 200 years ago life expectancy is longer, and the spectrum of diseases is different. In the 1940s, the American medical doctor Janet Travell developed trigger-point medicine without

What does Oxidant Stress Cause

Oxidant stress, through its effects on key biological sites and structures, is implicated in chronic noncommunicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, cancer, cataract, dementia, and stroke (Figure 4). Oxidant stress is also thought to be a key player in the aging process itself. A cause-and-effect relationship between oxidant stress and aging and disease has not been confirmed, however, and it is very unlikely that oxidant stress is the sole cause of aging and chronic degenerative disease. Nonetheless, there is evidence that oxidant stress contributes substantially to age-related physiological decline and pathological changes. Consequently, if it is accepted that oxidant stress is associated with aging and degenerative disease, then opposing oxidant stress by increasing antiox-idant defense offers a potentially effective means of delaying the deleterious effects of aging, decreasing the risk of chronic disease, and achieving functional longevity. For this reason, there has...

Cardiovascular Disease

Post myocardial infarction A dose of 4 g day l-carnitine over 12 months improved quality of life and increased life expectancy in patients who had suffered a Ml, according to a controlled study (Davini et al 1992). This included an improvement in heart rate, systolic arterial pressure, a decrease in anginal attacks, and improve

The importance of the early diagnosis of the prostate cancer

In general, radical prostatectomy (RP) is a curative and appropriated therapy for any patient whose tumour is clinically confined to the prostate, has a life expectancy of 10 years or more, and has no serious co-morbid conditions that would contraindicate surgery. Other factors affecting treatment decisions include patient factors, such as (i) Current symptoms (International Prostate Symptom Score, urinary flow rate), (ii) Current age (preference under the age of 70 years), (iii) Concurrent illnesses may determine suitability or not for surgery, (iv) Patient preference (psychological factors including patients ideas, concerns and expectations). Tumor cancer factors, such as (a) Grade of tumour (the aggressiveness determines the risk of relapse), (b) Stage of tumour (determines radical of palliative approach), (c) Chance of response to treatment, (d) Chance of recurrence, and (e) Possibility of second curative treatment modalities if the first treatment fails must be also considered 6,...

Issues Of Diversity Culture And The Needs Of Older People With Learning Disabilities

The life expectancy of adults with learning disabilities has increased, to be very much in line with their contemporaries (Bigby, in Grant et al. 2005). Their individual needs are directly related to their life experiences, just as they would be for anyone else. However, in exploring this, it becomes evident that life experiences of people with learning disabilities may differ from those of older people within the general population. This will influence their needs and the role that you will undertake in supporting them.

Concomitant prostate cancer screening in the patient preparing for an APR

Consistent with extracapsular extension of prostate cancer (clinical stage T3, Gleason 4+4 8 adenocarcinoma of the prostate) managed with androgen deprivation therapy. Concomitant prostate cancer screening for patients planning an APR should be a multi-disciplinary decision between the General Surgeons and Urologist in the male patient older than 50 years of age with clinical stage T1 or T2 rectal cancer and a life expectancy of more than 10 years.

Carcinogenicity Tests Animal Bioassays

The basic approach for carcinogenicity testing involves administering the test material to two suitable animal species for a considerable proportion of their natural lifespan. Because of their small size and relatively short life expectancy, the rat and mouse are the species of choice, although the hamster is occasionally used. In the US, inbred strains of animals are widely used (the F344 rat and the B6C3F1 hybrid mouse), although out-bred strains are commonly used in Europe. To examine the carcinogenic potential of food components, the test substance is usually given in the diet, although in some circumstances administration may be in the drinking water or by gavage. The study continues until a certain proportion in one or other of the treatment groups has died or has been killed in a moribund state. As a minimum, 50 animals are allocated at random to each of the experimental groups, allowing a statistically significant carcinogenic effect to be detected if five animals in a test...

Historical Cultivation And Usage

Garcinia kola is an evergreen tree that grows wild in the wet and moist zones of Nigeria, Ghana, and the Republic of Congo. The tree is now planted in farms to serve as a shade tree in cocoa plantations however, it has been difficult to obtain information regarding the history of GK cultivation, and this may be because the GK seed is a lesser known plant food in western parts of Nigeria despite having local commercial importance. It is traditionally used during ceremonial displays and as a gift to nobles, because it is believed to influence longevity, and has been used in the treatment of ailments since ancient times.

Substance Abuse And Cancer Treatment

On the other hand, preexisting abuse of these same substances complicates cancer treatment. A history of substance abuse may shorten a cancer patient s life expectancy and undermine the effectiveness of palliative care. Ongoing substance abuse disrupts the patient s relationships with physicians and other caregivers. As of 2000, the National Cancer Institute has issued guidelines for the clinical management of cancer patients with substance abuse histories. These guidelines include evaluation and treatment of comorbid psychiatric disorders, evaluation of the patient's tolerance of drugs, and monitoring of hospital inpatients.

Five LEGO Models Representing different Views on the Future of EIS

Today we completed our future version of an EIS system in five minutes assembled however from the individually produced future EIS systems in the group . Now I would like to present the future EIS system. The name of the system is Elephant. An elephant is a symbol of luck and longevity, so our system will survive from generation to generation.

Children With Special Health Care Needs

Children with special health care needs include those with chronic illnesses (i.e., asthma, sickle cell anemia, diabetes), physical disabilities (i.e., cerebral palsy, spina bifida), and developmental emotional disabilities (i.e., autism, Down syndrome). As advances in health care have allowed medically fragile and or disabled children to live longer, attention has focused on understanding their unique ''developmental'' needs. The impact of an illness or disability on a child's cognitive, social, and emotional development varies over time as the child's developmental level changes. In addition, the implications of the illness disability are different depending upon the child's developmental level at its onset and the limitations of the disorder at each level of development. Professionals who work with children with special health needs must keep the above in mind, and must also understand the effects (both negative and positive) of the illness disability on the family system, and how...

Mechanisms Of Action

All of the various effects of EGb 761 cannot be attributed to a single mechanism of action or to a single molecule in the extract. The free-radical scavenging effect, for example, is due to flavonoids (21) but also to ginkgolides (22), the PAF-inhibiting effect (23) as well as the inhibition of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (24) to ginkgolides, the protection against apoptosis and beta-amyloid toxicity to flavonoids (25), the increased longevity, at least in the worm C. elegans, to flavonoid action (20), and the upregulation of the cytochrome c oxidase gene to the biobalide (26).

An Adaptive Effect

This drug thus seems to exert an adaptive effect that is, it is sensitive to the physiological or pathological situation in which the organism finds itself (45). This may explain why it increases longevity. We note in this regard that the effects of EGb 761, which seem to differ from those of other drugs, resemble to some extent those of calorie restriction. The latter also extend life span and protect neurons against cerebral aging (46), undoubtedly by general ho-meostatic adaptation of the organism. By regulating energy expenditures (and modifying gene expression), calorie restriction preserves metabolic potential and limits free-radical production, itself associated with oxygen metabolism. The comparison is nonetheless incomplete, since EGb 761 intake is not accompanied by a reduction in the size of the organism, but it looks promising, especially because calorie restriction could be not very well adapted to human condition. Recent data suggest that biomarkers of calorie...

Prostate cancer incidence will increase in future

Prostate cancer is already most frequently diagnosed cancer among men in the developed world. As a cause of death among males, it is second in the USA and third in Europe. Large increase in prostate cancer incidence in recent years is not only due to availability of PSA (biochemical marker, which is useful for screening purposes) and due to better awareness of doctors and population at large, but in large part also due to changes in population pyramid and increased life expectancy. As breast cancer, which is most common in females over 60 years of age, also prostate cancer is cancer of older people. For example, in Slovenia (which may be in health related issues regarded somewhere in-between developed western and less advanced other parts of the world), incidence of prostate cancer increased 50 from 2000 to 2011 14 . At the same time, population at main risk (males above age 60) increased 28 . Therefore more than half of increase of prostate cancer incidence can not be attributed to,...

Highfat diets cause heart disease

But the most valuable single measure in prolonging the life expectancy of an obese patient with coronary artery disease is weight reduction and if this can be achieved on a high-fat, high-protein diet the benefits will far out-weigh any possible danger from raised blood cholesterol. The sensible thing for such a patient would therefore seem to be weight reduction by dietary means with a good intake of unsaturated fats corn oil, soya bean oil, peanuts, kippers and herrings to depress the blood cholesterol.

Families And Drug Use One major

Although recent reductions in the use of illicit drugs present a somewhat optimistic picture of the future of American families, the overall number of drug casualties is still grim and the consequences are debilitating. Every year, 100,000 Americans die as the result of drug abuse. That number should increase with the spread of AIDS. Alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drug abuse are number-one health problems, especially among the young. Life expectancy has steadily risen over the past seventy-five years in all age groups except that for youth aged fifteen to twenty-four, who now have a higher death rate because of injuries and disappearances related to drug use. Long-term substance abuse is associated with DEPRESSION, hostility, malnutrition, lower social and intellectual skills, broken relationships, mental illness, economic losses, and growing CRIME rates.

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

The majority of them belong to a class of defence molecules called phytoalexins that protect against stress, injury, ultraviolet irradiation, and fungal infection. The most well-known stilbene is resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene, 6), which is produced by a number of unrelated plants, such as grapevines (Vitis vinifera), peanuts (Arachis hypogaea), mulberries (Morus species), and pines (Pinus species) (Roupel et al., 2006). It has been reported to have numerous beneficial properties, such as potent antiinflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-aging, and antiviral activities, as well as cardiovascular and neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, resveratrol has been identified as an effective candidate for cancer chemoprevention due its ability to block each step of the carcinogenesis process (Kundu & Surh, 2008). Nevertheless, recent research has shown that resveratrol undergoes metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1B1 to piceatannol (Potter et...

Family Violence And Substance

There are few reliable estimates of abuse of elderly people by family members (Pillemer & Suitor, 1988). Many cases may go unreported. One survey reported that 1.5 million elderly persons in the United States were abused in 1989, but others estimate that the range could be somewhere between 4 percent to 10 percent of the elderly population (Boudreau, 1993). Low rates of spousal abuse (3.3 ) have been noted for persons over the age of sixty-five, but only 55 percent of this population is married (Strauss & Gelles, 1990). Since women live longer than men, study of the abuse of elderly people by their children or children's spouses focuses mainly on the abuse of mothers. In relationships between adult children and their parents that have become abusive, predisposing factors include health status, dependency status, social isolation, intergenerational transmission of violent behavior, and external stressors. Anecdotal reports indicate that in 30 percent to 45 percent of cases...

Management of cancer anorexiacachexia syndrome with reference to cancerrelated fatigue

The management of CACS is a real challenge. As our understanding of the pathophysiology of this syndrome is clarified, potential new treatments appear. A comprehensive and multidisciplinary management approach is required to control all the factors related to cachexia and fatigue in cancer patients. Physical, psychosocial, and spiritual issues need to be considered, alongside pharmacological interventions and nutritional support. Specific pharmacological interventions for fatigue are not discussed in this chapter (see Chapter 12). Instead the aim is to identify interventions for used in the management of cancer cachexia that may also relieve CRF in this population. The purpose of the treatment is to control specific symptoms, such as asthenia, anorexia, chronic nausea, and pain and so improve QOL, if not life expectancy.

Forming Healthy Communities

Adequate nutrition cannot be achieved without the consumption of sufficient foods containing a wide array of nutrients. Poor health status, whether as a result of insufficient food intake, overconsumption, or nutrition imbalance, threatens longevity and increases health care costs. The challenge is to improve the availability of nutritious foods and the eating habits of the varied population. see also Africans, Diets of African Americans, Diet of Dietary Trends, International Fast Foods.

Conservation of PA14Specific Genes and Their Potential Role in Virulence

In the laboratory, C. elegans is grown on a lawn of E. coli, which serves as its food source. In the C. elegans model pathogenicity system (Tan et al., 1999a), pathogens such as PA14 are used as the sole source of food in place of E. coli, and the longevity of the nematodes is monitored. Remarkably, nematodes feeding on a wide variety of human pathogens exhibit significantly shortened longevity compared to their longevity when feeding on E. coli. We consider shortened C. elegans longevity as an indication of active killing since, in general, shortened longevity on pathogenic bacteria is dependent on live bacteria i.e., dead pathogens do not kill C. elegans. The nematodes are exposed to a maximal dose of pathogen in this assay (the bacteria are already grown to a lawn before the nematodes are added to the assay plate). Therefore, mutations or strain differences that effect the growth rate or overall fitness of the bacterium tend to have less of an impact on the virulence phenotype than...

Lifestyle and Nutrition

The life-expectancy of Russians dropped sharply during the 1990s. Poor nutrition contributed to higher mortality rates, as did high rates of alcoholism. Photograph by Alexander Nemenov. AFP Getty Images. Reproduced by permission. The life-expectancy of Russians dropped sharply during the 1990s. Poor nutrition contributed to higher mortality rates, as did high rates of alcoholism. Photograph by Alexander Nemenov. AFP Getty Images. Reproduced by permission. Some authors believe that economic conditions were the principal determinant of the gap in health status between the East and West. The close relationship between the gross national product per capita and life expectancy is well known, but the inhabitants of Central Europe were less healthy than their wealth predicted. The dramatic changes that occurred after the onset of communism created a toxic psychosocial environment. A loss of personal perspectives, chronic stress, tension, anger, hostility, social isolation, frustration,...

What The Samples Showed

And to dispel a common myth about native peoples, they did live long lives. Price took numerous photos of healthy primitives with heads full of gray hair. While we don't know exactly how old they were since they did not have calendars, they were, by all appearances, well past 60. The Aborigines, for example, had a special society of the elderly. Obviously, if there were no old people among them, they would have had no need for such a group. Stefansson also reported great longevity among the Innu. It is true that death rates at younger ages were higher among some groups, but these mortalities were from the dangerous lifestyle these people lived, not from their diet. When you live in the Arctic Circle, for example, constantly fighting the elements, polar bears, ice flows, and leopard seals, you run the risk of an early death.

Conclusion future directions

Will work given the inherent multiple redundant survival pathways. This is probably more apparent for castration resistant disease. Therefore, one can argue that waiting for metastatic disease or castrate resistant disease to assess a new drug is a defeatist approach, and that an assessment earlier in the disease spectrum to prevent the emergence of resistance is a more proactive and promising approach to improve outcomes in prostate cancer. The conduct of a study in patients with a biochemical relapse after definitive localized therapy provides a major opportunity for drug development. This approach allows the analysis of a drug in isolation and as well as an assessment and effective triage of the numerous new agents that are now available for testing. Also the primary pathology can be interrogated to look for activation of the pathway and provides an opportunity to biologically direct the evaluation of drugs relevant to a given a pathway in an individual's cancer. Ultimately, key...

Functions of Glutathione

Because of its many functions, all cells need adequate glutathione. Interestingly, its levels decrease with age, and the aging process itself may be due partly to low levels of glutathione.9-12 In animal studies, low levels are associated with reduced immune response, increased cancer risk, impaired detoxification of noxious substances, and many other detrimental events.13-17

Transcriptional Regulation In Gene Therapy

In addition, it has to be taken into account that vector improvements will probably increase efficiency and longevity of gene transfer over the next year. As a consequence, the expression levels of proteins with large therapeutic indexes will also need to be controlled. In the long term, therefore, it is not premature to think that regulating therapeutic gene expression will become an indispensable mechanism in broadening the application range of gene therapy and increasing both clinical efficacy and safety of the majority applications.

Indigestion and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs

In fact, the dilemma is more complex than whether potentially life threatening drugs should be used to manage conditions that are uncomfortable but not in themselves life threatening. There is growing evidence that NSAIDs have other incidental benefits. The only study to investigate overall life expectancy with drug use found non-significant trends towards enhanced rather than reduced life expectancy. Aspirin has benefits in preventing cardiovascular disease and probably cancer that seem to far outweigh the hazards of gastrointestinal ulceration. Limited evidence suggests that these benefits may be shared by other NSAIDs.

Presentday Cultivation And Usage

Seeds can be sown immediately after their removal from mature pods. Their natural longevity is 6 months, although they can be stored for up to a year if they are not removed from their pods once removed from their pods, they can be stored for longer in an airtight box. Seeds are sown in raised seedbeds or in polybags, with a spacing of 7.5 cm x 1.5 cm, at the beginning of the hot season, with the micropyle facing downwards, and start to germinate from the seventh day of sowing. Soaking the seeds in hot water (50 C) for 15 minutes before sowing improves the germination percentage, and also vigor. The germination in this species is hypogeal i.e., in normal seedlings the cotyledons remain beneath the germination medium, while the plumage pushes upwards and emerges above.

Mortality of Parkinsons Disease with Levodopa

Rajput (114) compared 10-year survival of 215 patients from the pre-levodopa era and 719 from the post-levodopa era. The survival was significantly greater for the post-levodopa group and particularly for those who initiated therapy at Hoehn and Yahr stage < 2.5. This study suggests that the timing of levodopa therapy is important in relation to survival. Several other studies have supported this conclusion. Diamond et al. (123) examined 359 patients treated between 1968 and 1977. They divided patients into three groups one to three years of PD, four to six years of PD, and seven to nine years of PD. They used observed-to-expected death rate ratios from a similar group in the general population as measures of survival. When the duration of therapy was held constant at 15 years, the ratio was higher for patients with longer duration of disease. When the duration of disease was held constant at 17 years, the patients with longer duration of therapy had a better mortality ratio than...

And Improvement Of Diabetes Treatment

Diabetes, affecting almost 3 of the world's population, is one of the major global health problems. In particular, there is a high incidence among the elderly population. It has been shown that the root of P. ginseng and other ginseng species has antihyperglycemic activity in vitro (23,24) and in vivo (2528). More than 90 of patients with diabetes have type 2 diabetes, which is related to aging and diet. Although type 2 diabetes is more common and has serious complications, even reducing life expectancy by 8-10 years (29), most in vivo animal studies using ginseng have been conducted using type 1 rather than type 2 diabetes models. In this study, we focus on the effects of ginseng on type 2 diabetes.

Measuring Maternal Health

Motion, developed an initiative called Healthy People, which establishes new health objectives for the nation every ten years. The overall goals of Healthy People 2010 are to increase longevity and quality of life and to eliminate health disparities in the population. One aim is to reduce maternal mortality by more than 50 percent, to an overall ratio of 3.3 deaths per 100,000 live births by the year 2010.

Maternal Health and Child Health

Because motherhood has been perceived by society as central to women's identities, there is often a gap in access to and utilization of health services after women complete their childbearing years. Women live longer than men, but suffer from a higher rate of chronic diseases later in life. Some of these chronic conditions are influenced by women's reproductive histories, and the continuum of health-care needs is important throughout the life cycle. As more women have entered the workforce, they have accumulated

Nutritional Management in COPD

Nutritional depletion is an independent risk factor for mortality and hospitalization in patients with COPD. Studies have indicated a hospital stay of approximately 30 days for patients with a body mass index (BMI) of less than 20 compared with 18 days for those with a BMI of less than 30. If a patient with COPD begins to lose weight progressively, the average reported life expectancy is only 2.9 years, and it is considerably less in malnourished patients who have survived an episode of acute respiratory failure during an acute exacerbation of their disease. However, it is not certain whether this implies a casual relationship or whether low weight is a marker for more severely impaired lung function.

Natural Compounds Antioxidant and Antiandrogens in the Prevention of Prostate Cancer In vivo Evidences from Murine

Prostate cancer (PCa)is the most frequent malignant neoplasia in men. The number of cases has continuously increased over the past decades, partly due to the higher life expectancy. Additional factors are the high caloric diet and lack of physical exercise, typically seen in the Western countries. Notably, up to 40 of cancer incidents are preventable by consuming a healthy diet, regular physical activity, and maintenance of optimum body weight, and more than 20 by consuming vegetables and fruits. PCa represents an ideal candidate disease for chemoprevention. It is typically diagnosed in elderly men and even a modest delay in the neoplastic development could result in substantial reduction in the incidence of the clinically detectable disease.In this chapter we will review the history, the development, and the applications of some of the most common animal models of PCa,and we will discuss of the role of animal models in translational research.

The Challenge of Dementia

Although dementia is not exclusive to older people, its prevalence, and particularly the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease, rises with age. Prevalence rates appear to rise exponentially, doubling every 4.5 years beyond age 60 (Wattis & Curran, 2001). Epidemiological studies indicate a dementia prevalence of 1.4 for people aged 65-69 rising to over 20 for people aged 80-85 (Hoffman, Rocca, & Breteler, 1991). Although there is much debate as to the causes of dementia, it is important to note that even in extreme old age, dementia is not a natural part of the ageing process, and that the majority of people at these ages will not suffer from this illness. Nevertheless, dementia is a major and growing challenge to health and social care providers, at national and international levels of governance, as well as to wider society.

Overview of Specific Factors of Aging Influencing Nutritional Requirements

The discussion of nutrient requirements and recommended dietary intakes of nutrients in older persons has proceeded on both the theoretical and empirical level. Since the peak years for human reproduction occur before advanced middle age, and well before older age begins, the forces of selective reproduction cannot exert themselves for Darwinian selection of traits favoring longevity in the evolution for any traits related to longevity per se or physiological sustained function. Hence, there is little evolutionary selection for nutrient requirements to achieve advanced age or for long-term survival. It is more for the preservation of comfort and function for those surviving to advanced age that optimization of nutritional intakes for the elderly would apply, that is for humanitarian and public health importance in the face of the physiological and anatomic changes of senescence.

Ferrari L Cravello M Bonacina F Salmoiraghi and F Magri

Within this context, at systemic level stress includes all the neurohormonal and metabolic responses of the organism to external stressors at cellular level, stress, mostly oxidative stress, may instead be a correlate of the aging process itself. The link between stress and cognitive impairment is probably to be found in the hippocampal changes, a crucial as well as vulnerable brain area involved in mood, cognitive and behavioural control, and in the mean time, a site with a very high density of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors. Therefore, the hippocampal neuronal impairment is responsible for a continuous stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and an increased hypothalamic expression of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and vasopressin. Furthermore, the age-related changes of the adrenocortical secretory pattern could play a role in the pathophysiology of brain aging, fostering the brain exposure to a neurotoxic hormonal...

Costs Of Smoking And Drug Abuse

General approach as their estimate of drinking costs. They found that over their lifetime smokers experienced higher medical costs than they would have if they had never smoked, amounting to an average of 0.38 per pack. Since these costs were for the most part paid by insurance, government programs, or other collective sources, they included them in the external social-cost estimate. Other important external costs were the reduced contributions to the Social Security system and related programs ( 0.65 per pack) resulting from the early termination of the average smoker's career, and the increased cost to group life insurance programs resulting from the reduced life expectancy of smokers ( 0.11 per pack). Interestingly, these external costs were much less than the external benefits conferred by smoking. Because smokers died young, the pension payments were much less than they would have been otherwise ( 1.82 per pack), and the likelihood that they would be housed in a collectively...

Fruits and Vegetables

The deeper the color of fruits and vegetables, the higher the antioxidant activity. Oxygen renegades are the target of antioxidants. When an oxygen molecule loses an electron, it becomes what is called a free radical and begins searching for a replacement. In trying to steal an electron from other healthy cells, free radicals cause damage to healthy cells and create scores of new free radicals. Free radicals cause mutations in DNA, the genetic material in the cells, and not only destroy healthy cells but turn the fats in many cells rancid, which disrupts cell metabolism. After years of these silent assaults in the body, individuals can develop a chronic disease or illnesses ranging from atherosclerosis to cancer, and experience an acceleration in the aging process.

Clinical survive probability of composites

Changes in restorative treatment patterns, the introduction of new and improved restorative materials and techniques, effective preventive programs, enhanced dental care, and growing interest in caries-free teeth have greatly influenced the longevity of dental restorations however, failure of restorations is a major problem in a practice treating primarily permanent teeth. Studies show that 60 of all operative work done is attributed to the replacement of restorations 44 . Composites have improved since their introduction, and their survival rates are improving. Clinical studies to evaluate the latest composite technologies have not been published therefore most of the survival data are on older composite compositions. In summary, longevity of composite restorations depends upon factors involving the materials, the patient, and the dentist. The request for these esthetic, tooth-colored restorations will continue to increase, and patients must be educated about the expected life of...

Tell Me Where is [this Fancy Bred The Cardiac and Cerebral Accounts of the Lateral Cradling Bias

It has been some time since scientists seriously debated the relative merits of 'heart versus head' as the organ of mind. The relative importance of these organs was, of course, an important issue for a number of ancient civilisations (Finger, 1994, pp. 14-15) - and produced a long-standing debate that featured figures as prominent as Democritus, Plato and Aristotle. The debate centred around the relative role of the heart (and to a lesser extent some other viscera) in our emotional lives. In contrast, the head was argued (at least by some) to factor more heavily in the intellectual domain. The issue remained important for several centuries, and its continued longevity is suggested by its (relatively) recent appearance in Shakespeare's quote, together with the existence of phrases such as having a 'broken heart', or hearing a 'heart-warming' story. However, the proposition that there is a cardiac basis of mind has not been seriously entertained for several hundred years. Nevertheless,...

Decision making 7 practical steps

Cervical cancer is staged clinically, not surgically. As it is in younger patients, stage is determined based on evidence of the cancer spreading outside the cervix through an exam, chest X-ray, or kidney scan. Factors, such as the depth of the tumor, the presence or absence of cancer in lymph nodes, or spread (metastasis) to other organs not seen on a chest X-ray are important in determining prognosis, but do not affect the cancer's stage. However, in order to predict the impact of cervical cancer on your life expectancy and quality of life, doctors take into account both the cancer's stage and other evidence of spread outside the cervix, even if it does not alter the stage. 3. know your life expectancy Anticancer treatment should be considered if you are likely to live long enough to experience symptoms or premature death from cervical cancer. If your life expectancy is so short that the cancer will not significantly affect it, there may be no reason to treat your cancer. However,...

Professionalization of Dieting

After completing their degree, about half of all registered dietitians work in clinical settings, private practice, or healthcare facilities. Others work in community and public health settings, academia and research, business, journalism, sports nutrition, and wellness programs. According to the U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics, heightened public interest in nutrition and health has increased the job market in areas such as food manufacturing and advertising where dietitians analyze aspects of foods and report on their nutrition value. The employment of dietitians is expected to grow through the next ten years as disease prevention and nutrition are growing public concerns and as people are continuing to live longer. Specifically, the Department of Labor predicts that employment will increase in nursing homes, residential care facilities, and physician clinics. The growth for dietitians and nutritionists, however, may be sustained by limitation on insurance and...

Pediatric To Adult Health Care Holistic View of Health

As a result of advances in medical technology and dramatic improvements in the delivery of acute health care, the vast majority of children with rheumatic diseases can now expect to survive to adulthood. As life expectancy for persons with rheumatic disease approaches that of the general population, socio-economic factors are increasingly being recognized as important determinants of health (31), and quality-of-life and social integration as meaningful health outcomes (32,33). The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF), introduced by the World Health Organization in 2001, provides a framework for understanding the impact of the social and physical environment on health (34). Unlike mortality statistics, this framework looks at how people live with their disability. The ICF assesses health not solely in terms of body functioning and structure (i.e., impairment) but also in terms of activities, social participation, and the physical environment....

Late Life Depression and Mania

In the elderly it is obvious that the ageing process and neurodegenerative disorders are important risk factors for syndromes of depression and mania. In patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD) 25 also fulfil the criteria for major depressive disorders and in patients with vascular dementia (VAD) the frequency of depression is similarly high. In stroke patients the frequency of depression is almost 50 the year after the stroke attack. If not only depression but also behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) are investigated, the frequency of these symptoms is around 85 . BPSD are often subdivided into subgroups. There are syndromes where overactivity is dominating, others where agitation and psychotic symptoms are dominating. Depression and insomnia are also frequent symptoms in BPSD. The prevalence of mania in demented patients is not well studied, and assumed to be low. However, if mixed mania, disinhibition syndromes and BPSD were investigated, the frequency of...

The biological roles of PARP1

Since PARP-1 activation is strictly proportional to the number of DNA breaks, its activity is strictly proportional to the number of DNA breaks in vivo or in vitro, and it is particularly inactive in the absence of DNA breaks 15, 25, 26 . DNA damage can occur during DNA replication or as consequence of exposure of cells to different types of genotoxic agents (Table 1). One of the earliest cellular events that follow this phenomenon is the poly(ADP-ribo-syl)ation of PARP-1 and an array of DNA binding proteins that are localized predominantly adjacent to the DNA strand breaks, resulting in polymers adjacent to DNA breaks and in the recruitment of additional proteins that are essential in BER SSBR 27, 28 .The covalent poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of nuclear DNA-binding proteins in eukaryotes is a phenomena that contributes to various physiologic and pathophysiologic events associated with DNA strand breakage, repair of DNA damage, and apoptosis 15, 29-32 . Detailed studies have demonstrated...

Returned Products and Lead Removability

Implanted cardiac pacemakers are often referred to as permanent implants. This is a serious misnomer. Pulse generators are battery-operated devices. They have a limited functional longevity and must be replaced when the battery expires. Although this requires a surgical procedure, it is a relatively simple and risk-free operation performed under local anesthesia. The explanted pulse generators are routinely returned to the original manufacturer for analysis. Compliance is so routine and so good that analysis of returned products provides an excellent means of postmarket surveillance for pulse generators. One can accurately track failure rates and analyze returned devices to learn about failure mechanisms. However, the lead presents other difficulties.

Importance for developing effective intervention strategies

Understanding the impact of fatigue on daily living activities is central to providing effective interventions, including both remediation and compensatory strategies (see Chapter 12). Research suggests that remediation strategies such as engagement in planned exercise (Mock et al. 1997) and activities such as gardening and walking (Winningham et al. 1986 Cimprich 1993) may relieve fatigue. Compensatory strategies, such as energy conservation techniques, have been used successfully with patients with diagnoses of chronic fatigue syndrome, chronic obstructive airway disease, and arthritis (Furst et al. 1987 Hubsky and Sears 1992 Welham 1995 Rashbaum and Whyte 1996 Brus et al. 1998). Whilst this approach is being advocated as a technique for managing cancer-related fatigue there is little systematic evaluation of its effectiveness. As patients live longer with cancer and experience ongoing fatigue, efficacious interventions that assist patients in lifestyle changes will become...

Functional benefits of trans fatty acids

Mildly hydrogenated oils are preferred in frying applications because their semi-liquid nature permits convenient handling while their chemical composition, in particular the absence of linolenic acid (18 3), ensures longevity of the frying medium. The extremely steep melting behavior related to high levels of TFA qualifies partially hydrogenated fats as good cocoa butter substitutes and coating fats. Compared with alternative fats with a similar melting range, TFA-containing fats show a solidification behavior that is clearly superior in manufacturing processes under quiescent conditions (the term 'quiescent' indicates the absence of shear during crystallization). A number of other applications require long-term storage at ambient temperatures. Examples are bouillon cubes, cookies and the like. In these applications aspects such as chemical stability, crystallization behavior for manufacturing and melting profile are of key importance. While the first two aspects are self-evident,...

Clinical Vignettes

HIV has an increased prevalence due to the lengthening of life expectancy of infected patients. Using P I x D, and assuming the medications have little effect on incidence, as duration is increased, so is prevalence. (Note that HAART does significantly decrease the transmission of HIV.)

Enhance your Patient Education with Nhlbi Materials

Live Healthier, Live Longer Lowering Cholesterol for the Person With Heart Disease. Gives the patient with coronary heart disease information on how to lower high blood cholesterol through diet, physical activity and weight control to prevent future heart attacks and improve the quality of life. Practical information included on choosing foods lower in saturated fat, total fat, and cholesterol.

Homeostatic Acu Reflex Point System

Acupuncture Point

Of passive ARPs when homeostasis declines or central sensitization increases. As a whole, the sensitiza-tion of human homeostatic ARPs has a predictable pattern with regard to the locations and sequence of sensitization. This is very important in the pathophysiologic processes of the nervous system and has great clinical significance in both preventing and treating diseases and in slowing down the aging process.

Programed and Genetic Theories

Longevity genes It is clear that aging is controlled to some extent by genetic mechanisms. The distinct differences in life span among species are a direct indication of genetic control, at least at the species level. A number of genes have been identified in yeast, nematode worms (Caenorhabditis ele-gans), and fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) that significantly increase the organism's potential maximum life span. The products of these genes act However, the genetics of longevity have not been as revealing in mammalian studies. In mouse systems genes involved with immune response have been implicated in longevity, as has the 'longevity gene p66shc, which is involved in signal transduc-tion pathways that regulate the cellular response to oxidative stress. In humans, a number of mitochon-drial DNA polymorphisms are associated with longevity. Linkage analysis in humans systems has associated certain genes on chromosome 4 with exceptional longevity. Further support for human...

Management of Emotions

Fmri Scan Examples Psychology

A higher mortality rate, a greater likelihood of recurrence of cancer after treatment, and a suppressed immune system. For example, cancer patients who express their negative emotions, and who emotionally fight their disease, sometimes live longer tha patients who accept their situation, inhibit their emotions, and quietly accept their treatment (Levy, 1990, Levy & Heiden, 1990).

How the Arteries Are Damaged by Hostile Type A Behavior

Personality psychologists have been concerned with understanding why some people appear more resistant to stress than others. That is, some people appear to take frustration and disappointment more in stride and to not suf fer the deleterious health consequences often associated with chronic stress. One personality dimension in this regard is optimism, which has a wealth of findings associating it with stress resist ance, good health, competent immune functioning, and longer life expectancy . Psychologists are developing grade school programs to train people to be more optimistic. Some related personality characteristics associated with generally better health prognosis are emotional expressivity and personal disclosure.

Criteria of Vitamin Adequacy and the Stages of Development of Deficiency

Possibly beneficial effects of intakes more than adequate to meet requirements the promotion ofoptimumhealth and life expectancy. There is evidence that relatively high intakes of vitamin E and possibly other antioxidant nutrients (Section 4.6.2) may reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer. High intake of folate during early pregnancy reduces the risk of neural tube defects in the fetus (Section 10.9.4).

Ayervedic Medicine Dr Abel

It is now widely accepted that the use of naturally occurring antioxidants or antimutagens in everyday life will be the most effective procedure for promoting human health. Such compounds include vitamins, trace elements, and a variety of other substances with antioxidant properties. Polyphenols, isoflavones, catechins, and several other components found in higher plants are known to protect against the deleterious effect of reactive oxygen species (4). Hertog and Hollman (5) have suggested that diets rich in phenolic compounds are associated with longer life expectancy. These compounds have also been found to have various health-related properties because of their antioxidant activities. These properties include anticancer, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory activities, effects on capillary fragility, and an ability to inhibit human platelet aggregation (6).

Van Helmont Johannes Baptista 15771644 Early seventeenthcentury Flemish chemist

V an Helmont introduced radical empiricism into medicine in his posthumously published compendium, Ortus medicinae (1648) (van Helmont 1683). He argued, following the teachings of Paracelsus (1493 4-1541), against the notion that the imbalance of the humors caused illness. For him there had to be material reasons. Van Helmont imagined that there might be wild spirits, which could neither be seen nor kept in vessels. He called them chaos (pronounced in Dutch, gas). Everything, when burnt, gave off different gases Gas carbonum from burning charcoal, gas sylvester from fermenting wine and spa water, inflammable gas pinque from organic matter. His physiology was likewise material he believed that each organ had its own spirit, or blas. This view was quite different than Paracelsus' belief that a single archeus or spirit animated the entire body. In retrospect, it is clear that van Helmont used a highly religious vocabulary to frame his materialism, which was informed by the religious...

Musculoskeletal System

Bone mineral content declines with age this aging process is known as 'osteopenia.' (It should be distinguished from the related pathological process in which bone architecture is altered, producing 'osteoporosis.') From the peak in the third and fourth decades, a 30 average decline in bone mineral density occurs through the ninth decade. In women, there is well-characterized acceleration of the rate of bone mineral loss immediately following the menopause. Decreasing levels of anabolic hormones may be associated with musculoskeletal atrophy and decrease in function that is observed in older women. This change in skeletal mineralization with aging is not associated with any apparent change in vitamin D nutriture as reflected in circulating levels of the vitamin.

Laterality and Modularity

Judgment Line Orientation

Women appear to be more likely to develop degenerative dementia than are men. Women also live longer than men and the older a person is the more likely he or she is to get dementia. When corrected for age, however, the incidence of dementia is higher in woman. In degenerative dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease, there is a loss of cortical neurons, and the higher incidence of Alzheimer's disease in women might be related to a decreased reservoir of cortical neurons (de Courten-Myers, 1999). That men have more neurons than do women might suggest that men's brains might be more modular. As described earlier, the modularity or localizationist hypothesis was first put forth by Franz Gall in the latter part of the 18th century and the early part of the 19th century when he suggested that specific portions of the brain mediate specific functions. He also proposed what might now be termed anatomically distributed modular cognitive systems. According to this hypothesis, although the...

Hauser Bengamin Gayelord 18951984 Popular advocate of diet and nutrition

Hauser's diets sought to cure both physical and psychological ailments, change body weight, and promote longevity. He argued very early that health is nature, and disease is unnatural and no disease can exist in a chemicalized blood stream (Hauser 1930 33). Self-cure with foodstuffs, he claimed, especially acidic ones will eliminate sickness and old age (Hauser 1930 38). Hauser's proof of this is the prison and orphanage studies undertaken by Dr. Joseph Goldberger in i9i4, which determined that pellagra was a disease of poor diet rather than an infectious disease. Able to draw on the real science of vitamin deficiency diseases by the 1930s, Hauser cloaked his vegetarian diets in the model of the Goldberger study (Hauser 1934 6-7). beautiful skin. The zigzag diet for weight loss involved a purge of Epsom salt in the morning and senna at night. He was a strong advocate of fortifying meals with natural ingredients, such as dry brewer's yeast, wheat germ, yogurt, powdered skim milk,...

Lessius Leonard 15541623 Flemish Jesuit and theologian

I n 1613, Lessius wrote his account of his struggles with dieting, the Hygiasticon. This text simply repeated much of the diet reformer Cornaro's life as his own nevertheless, it was widely translated from the Latin and often cited by those arguing for a sober lifestyle, which would assure longevity. It is still in print today. Augustine, that we must all control our desire to feast and banquet (Lessius 1742 85). We can do this is by imagining food as disgusting and bad smelling, for if we do not we shall certainly die, as almost all diseases come from taking more food into the body than nature requires (Lessius 1742 103). Lessius continues by amplifying the arguments of Cornaro about longevity and diet, as well as echoing the theological and moral underpinnings of his text. Nonagenarians or Actual Centenarians Who Were Distinguished in Art, Science, Literature, or Philanthropy. Also, Brief Notices of Some Individuals Remarkable Chiefly for Their Longevity, London Chapman & Hall....

CRF knockout mice CRF KO

Effects of CRF absence on organ development and longevity Glucocorticoid deficiency in this model has dire consequences for neonates. Progeny of homozygous mating die within the first 12-24 h postnatally, due to lung dysplasia. Prenatal administration of glucocorticoids to homozygous mothers is required for fetal lung maturation and postnatal survival of homozygous offspring (Muglia et al., 1995). Thus, this model has allowed for extensive examination of glucocorticoid influence on fetal lung differentiation and maturation (Muglia et al., 1999). Interestingly, glucocorticoid treatment is not necessary beyond the fetal period. CRF KO mice exhibit normal longevity and fertility despite low circulating glucocorticoids (Muglia et al., 1995). In contrast to previous thought, this finding suggests that the many changes associated with adrenal insufficiency such as low body weight, fatigue, and decreased fertility may not be related directly to the lack of glucocorticoids.

Epidemiology and Variations in Care of Spine Disease

In contrast to degenerative spine disease, there are approximately 11,000 new cases of acute spinal cord injuries per year or 4 per 100,000 persons. The estimated prevalence of persons living with spinal cord injuries is between 300,000 and 500,000 cases. An increased prevalence during the past decade has been mainly attributed to enhanced longevity of spine-injured patients. Increased survivorship, as well as improvements in neurological outcome, has been attributed to enhanced medical, surgical, and prehospital care. Spinal cord

Nonwestern Medical Systems Traditional Chinese Medicine

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has existed for thousands of years, long before Western medicine. Rather than following the disease model of Western medicine, TCM focuses on a symptom approach such that a person with PD who has mostly tremor would be evaluated and treated differently than another person whose symptoms were mostly gait and balance difficulty with no tremor. The specific symptoms of the individual signal a deficiency in the body fluids blood that is unable to properly nourish the energy flow or chi or Qi of the entire organism. There are three main symptom approaches under TCM (5). The first is Qi and blood deficiency, which is believed to arise from anger, emotional stress, frustration, and resentment. The second is phlegm-fire-agitating wind (yang), which is the result of poor diet, in particular eating greasy, fried, sweet, sugary foods and alcohol. The third is kidney and liver (yin) deficiency, which results from a lack of rest and overwork as well as part of...

Regulating Safety of Food Additives and Preservatives

The legendary longevity of some packaged foods such as Twinkies, is attributable in part to food additives that stabilize ingredients and prevent spoilage. Additives also enhance the nutrition, flavor, and consistency of foods. Photograph by Orlin Wagner. AP Wide World Photos. Reproduced by permission. The legendary longevity of some packaged foods such as Twinkies, is attributable in part to food additives that stabilize ingredients and prevent spoilage. Additives also enhance the nutrition, flavor, and consistency of foods. Photograph by Orlin Wagner. AP Wide World Photos. Reproduced by permission.

Hay William Howard MD 18661940 Creator of the Hay Diet in 1911 the original inspiration for food combining

Urally occurring foods already combined starches and protein and that the diet actually encouraged weight loss only by encouraging calorie reduction. To date, no scientific evidence has proven the theory of food combining however, Hay's approach was very much in line with the general notion of food as a means of purifying the body. Like his contemporaries, he saw this purification as a return to the natural as well as a rejection of the mechanistic nature of contemporary life. His was, in this sense, a very American approach to food, for we are becoming a nation of vegetable and fruit-eaters, while the Englishman is still content with his gooey puddings and his afternoon starchy teas (Hay 1933 34). This shift in diet was necessary for America to become great as many Americans are suffering from an individual and national fatigue, which is making us a near second class nation (Hay 1933 65). As the causes of fatigue are the cause of disease, a new diet will eliminate much illness and...

Suicide Homicide And Forensic Issues

Suicide accounts for a significant proportion of premature death among individuals with bipolar disorder 36 . It has been estimated that, on average, a 25-year-old woman with untreated bipolar disorder will lose nine years of life expectancy (due largely to suicide), although with appropriate treatment a 6.5-year increase in life expectancy may be recaptured 37 . Because suicide risk historically has been described as being particularly high during the first few years after the onset of affective symptoms 38-40 , delays in accurate diagnosis and treatment could impact high-risk mortality periods

1997 Naafa Cherry Hill Convention Monica

In the ongoing Harvard Alumni Study . . . Lee and Paffenbarger, Change in Body Weight and Longevity, JAMA 268, 2045-49 (1992). Ralph Paffenbarger's Harvard Alumni Study . . . Paffenbarger et al., Physical Activity, All-Cause Mortality, and Longevity of College Alumni, New Engl J Med 314, 605-13 (1986). But let us take those crude statistics on their face. See the numerous epidemiological studies discussed in Chapter 1 for statistical breakdowns of the effects of overweight and underweight on life expectancy.

Understanding Your Metabolism

Longevity studies have shown the importance of not only eating the right number of calories to support your metabolism but eating low-glycemic nutrient-dense calories to prolong the length, health, and quality of your life. For some this might indeed mean having to cut back on calories. But for most this won't be the case.

Stress Relapse and Disability in Bipolar Disorder

Related to this perspective, it has been reported 3 that suicide attempts in bipolar patients were often linked to stressful life events, but that such life stresses were more often than not the consequence of self-damaging behaviours acted out by patients themselves. As Goldberg and Ernst describe, suicide is the most frequent cause of premature death among bipolar patients. This illustrates the importance of monitoring a patient's stressors in order to increase medication compliance, decrease cycling and improve life expectancy.

Clinical Implications

Normal formation of the dental root is critical to the function and longevity of the dental apparatus. Variable root formation results in numerous developmental variants that can challenge virtually every aspect of dental therapy. The loss of or a decrease in root structure compromises the support of the clinical crown (decreased crown to root ratio) and will likely result in decreased tooth longevity Grossmann and Sadan, 2005 . The diverse morphology of the dental roots, multiple supernumerary roots, accessory canals and difficulty in manipulating canals for cleansing and obturation during conventional root canal therapy continue to provide challenges for endodontic therapy. Marked root dilacerations and divergences can create surgical challenges, too.

Pritikin Nathan 191585 Creator of the Pritikin Diet

In 1976, Pritikin created the Pritikin Longevity Center in Santa Barbara, California, which later moved to Santa Monica. Since this center opened, over 70,000 people In 1985, his son Robert Pritikin took on the task of managing the Pritikin Longevity Center after his father died that year. Robert has kept many of the same aspects of his father's Pritikin Diet. However, over time, he also altered it as market expectations shifted. As with the older program, the new program, articulated in his 1990 book The Pritikin Principle, is based on a science plus fitness model. In it, Robert Pritikin stresses how close the recommendations of the American Heart Association and other health groups have become to the original Pri-tikin Diet (Pritikin 1990 26). Yet, he also notes that his approach is natural weight loss (Pritikin 1990 31). Like his father, Robert Pritikin stresses the importance of foods from plants and the reduced intake of fat the Pritikin diet won't assault your body the way that...

Direct composite restorative materials

Bis Gma Structure

A generalized definition of a composite is a multiphase material that exhibits the properties of both phases where the phases are complimentary, resulting in a material with enhanced properties. The first tooth-colored composite was silicate cement, which was introduced in 1870s. This composite formulation was based on alumino-fluro-silicate glasses and phosphoric acid. The dispersed phase was residual glass particles, and the matrix phase was the aluminum phosphate salt formed from the partial acid dissolution of the glass particles however, these were brittle, required mechanical retention, and had an average longevity of only a few years. of only a few years. The first polymeric tooth-colored composite used in dentistry was based on poly (methylmethacrylate). This material was developed in the 1940s, and consisted of a poly (methylmethacrylate) powder, methyl methacrylate monomer, benzoyl peroxide, and n,n-dimethlyparatoluidine. These materials could be classified as composites,...

Examples of Cohort Studies Based on Brain Science

A major goal of this study is to create a hopeful future by overcoming the difficulties observed in a society with fewer children and an increasing number of elderly persons from the viewpoint of brain science. The specific research topics include R& D (research and development) for anti-aging methods to maintain and improve brain functions in elderly persons, and R& D for intervention methods to develop healthy brain functions in children with learning disabilities.

Clinical management of MIH

Fissure sealants should be applied early after molars eruption and before enamel breakdown. (Kilpatrick, 2009, Lygidakis et al., 2010, Lygidakis, 2010, William et al., 2006a, Crombie et al., 2008) Taking the morphological aspects of MIH affected teeth into account, for first permanent molars, highly viscosity glass ionomer cements can be considered as an alternative material of choice for fissure sealing due to its stable chemical adhesion on the substrate (Welbury et al., 2004) which ensures its clinical longevity even if disappeared macroscopically in the follow-ups. (Frencken & Wolke, 2010)

Nutritional Modification

Figure 2 Biomolecule damage and the aging process. (Reproduced with permission from Barnett YA (1994) Nutrition and the aging process. British Journal of Biomedical Sciences 51 278-287.) down the aging process in humans, should any humans wish to extend their life span at such a cost. Once the mechanisms of effects of caloric restriction on longevity are understood it may be possible to develop drugs that act through these mechanisms directly, mitigating the need for diets that interfere with the quality of life. Molecular Biological Interventions and the Aging Process Accelerated aging syndromes show degenerative characteristics similar to those appearing during normal aging. The mutations leading to these disorders are being identified and their roles in the aging process are being elucidated. Examining differences in the genetic material from normal elderly people and those with progeria should help to give a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms of aging. Identification...

Alcoholic versus viral or idiopathic chronic dilated cardiomyopathy DCM

The most prevalent confusion with the alcoholic heart disease caused by thiamine and nutritional deficiency is with viral or idiopathic chronic DCM. Between 20 and 35 of all cases ofDCM are thought to occur because of excessive ethanol intake 25 , However, in both alcoholic and idiopathic chronic DCM, the clinical picture is similar. In the early stages of both categories of congestive heart failure, the patients often show some response to bedrest, salt restriction, diuretics, and digitalis. Afterwards there is slight-to-moderate cardiac dilatation. Still later the heart becomes markedly enlarged. Once cardiac failure appears, life expectancy can be measured in months or, at the most, a few years. Death is usually from heart failure, uncontrolled arrhythmias, or thromboembolism. In both, the electrocardiogram may show conduction disturbances, nonspecific ST-T abnormalities, and even anterior infarction.

The specific diagnostic problem and the diagnostic methods

In 1990 Kidd pointed out that there are several main specific diagnostic problems for secondary caries, including the difficulty of detecting the wall lesion the relevance of a defective margin(e.g. ditched margin) to the longevity of a restoration and the difficulty of distinguishing secondary from residual caries Kidd, 1990 . It is suggested that only frankly caries lesion at the margin of the restoration constitutes a dependable diagnosis of secondary caries Kidd and Bieghton, 1996 , whereas it is impossible to detect or see the wall lesion until it is so advanced that the overlying tissue collapses to reveal a large hole or the tooth tissue over it becomes grossly discoloured Kidd, 1990 . Consequently, dentists often cannot detect or diagnose a secondary caries when a wall lesion is in progress under a sound surface. increase the longevity of the teeth Fusayama, 1988 Kidd, 2010 Massler, 1967 . However, it is impossible to predict whether these residual lesions will progress. Thus,...

Parasite evasion strategies

Parasites using this strategy try to behave as inconspicuously as possible in the host organism. The host's immune system detects the presence of a dangerous foreign agent through, inter alia, the presence of molecules from damaged tissues and also through the dynamics of a growing concentration of foreign molecules in the population. If the parasite does not damage host tissues and cells, and does not multiply within the host but only produces propagules that are released into the outer environment, the host's immune system may not detect the parasite's presence at all. A number of parasites behave in the host organism in such a restrained way that from the ecological point of view they can rather be considered neutralists or even mutualists. This strategy is used by a number of macroparasites and other parasites, causing chronic or latent (more-or-less symptom-free) diseases. However, many of these parasites have a backup strategy should the condition, and thus also the life...

Prickly Pear Tooth Decay Caries

Gout Flour Oxalic Acid

Although a net loss of calcium from bones occurs as a normal part of the ageing process, and may lead to osteoporosis, there is little evidence that higher intakes of calcium in later life will affect the process. calcium acid phosphate Also known as monocalcium phosphate and acid calcium phosphate or ACP, Ca(H2PO4)2. Used as the

Requirements and High Intakes

A dietary deficiency of aluminum in goats reportedly results in increased abortions, depressed growth, incoordination and weakness in hind legs, and decreased life expectancy. Aluminum deficiency has also been reported to depress growth in chicks. Other biochemical actions that suggest aluminum could possibly act in an essential role include the in vitro findings that it activates the enzyme adenylate cyclase, enhances calmodulin activity, stimulates DNA synthesis in cell cultures, and stimulates osteoblasts to form bone through activating a purative G, protein-coupled cation sensing system. It has been reported that a dietary deficiency of bromide results in depression of growth, fertility, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and life expectancy, and increases in milk fat and spontaneous abortions in goats. Other biological actions that suggest bromine could possibly act in an essential role include the findings that bromide alleviates growth retardation caused by hyperthyroidism in mice and...

Correlates Of Adjustment

To the extent that more advanced disease is accompanied by greater physical morbidity, prognosis is likely to influence QOL. In addition, subjective perception of the severity of one's illness may be particularly important. Magnitude of perceived life threat has also been associated with QOL, where greater life threat is related to traumatic stress symptoms and impaired QOL independent of stage of disease.44 However, a study of 200 AC patients in their final weeks of life demonstrated that the prevalence of depression was three times greater among the 10 of patients who denied awareness of their terminal prognosis and foreshortened life expectancy.45 Perhaps full prognostic awareness is adaptive for some people with AC and detrimental for others, or especially critical in the final months of life, but these moderated relationships have not yet been examined.

Greeks and Middle Easterners Diet of

The Mediterranean diet gained much recognition and worldwide interest in the 1990s as a model for healthful eating habits. The diet is based on the traditional dietary patterns of Crete, a Greek island, and other parts of Greece and southern Italy. The diet has become a popular area of study due to observations made in 1960 of low incidences of chronic disease and high life-expectancy rates attributed to the populations who consumed a traditional Mediterranean diet. This healthful diet model goes far beyond the use of particular ingredients and recipes. It attains its full meaning in the context of climate, geography, customs, and the way of life of Mediterranean peoples.

Sexual Attraction Evolutionary Psychology of

Stability occurs when the adaptive developmental trajectory is achieved despite environmental and genetic perturbations during development. Developmental instability is most often measured as fluctuating asymmetry because fluctuating asymmetry is a highly sensitive measure of developmental disturbance. Fluctuating asymmetry is deviation from perfect bilateral symmetry in normally bilaterally symmetrical traits. These deviations are random in direction, typically small in any one trait, and found in every individual to some degree. Fluctuating asymmetry may be the best measure available of phenotypic and genetic quality of the individual. It reflects the individual's ability to resist environmental (e.g., parasites, low food quantity and quality, environmental toxins) and genetic perturbations during development, or an absence of genes that disrupt development (Meller and Swaddle 1997). Accordingly, low fluctuating asymmetry is associated in a wide range of species with rapid growth...

Emerging Issues in the Twenty First Century

Another neglected group is the elderly. Currently, there are 580 million people older than 60 years (61 in developing countries), and this number is projected to increase to 1 billion by 2020 (71 in developing countries). The majority are women because they live longer than men. Special problems associated with nutrition include osteoporosis and fractures, vulnerability to malnutrition, and degenerative diseases.

Clinical Effects of Inadequate Intake

The lower limit of dietary carbohydrate compatible with life apparently is zero, provided that adequate amounts of protein and fat are consumed. However, the amount of dietary carbohydrate that provides for optimal health in humans is unknown. There are traditional populations that ingested a high fat, high protein diet containing only a minimal amount of carbohydrate for extended periods of time (Masai), and in some cases for a lifetime after infancy (Alaska and Greenland Natives, Inuits, and Pampas indigenous people) (Du Bois, 1928 Heinbecker, 1928). There was no apparent effect on health or longevity. Caucasians eating an essentially carbohydrate-free diet, resembling that of Greenland natives, for a year tolerated the diet quite well (Du Bois, 1928). However, a detailed modern comparison with populations ingesting the majority of food energy as carbohydrate has never been done.

And Other Medical Systems

Another important concept in CAM is vitalism, which refers to the belief that there is a life force that helps to promote health and healing. Associated with this concept is the idea that illness results from imbalance or blockage of an essential flow of energy. Restoring balance is therefore often the goal. Spirituality may be a part of CAM, though many CAM therapies utilize nonreligious forms of spirituality such as meditation and relaxation techniques. Also common to most CAM therapies is the belief that health is not just the absence of illness, but a positive state. Health is a goal to be gained by effort rather than just good luck. In this view, the individual has a responsibility to do the things that achieve balance and promote wellness (for example, meditating or following a specific diet). Conventional medicine is more concerned with the pathology of a particular illness, including its cause and effect. The emphasis is not holistic, since treatments target a particular...

A specific health problem smoking

Perhaps the most important final point to make in this chapter is that health is not simply a physical or biological matter. Psychological factors are heavily involved in it in all of its aspects. Stress, anxiety and emotion, in general, all have their effects on the immune system, health in general and in reactions to disease. Although this makes health a more complex matter than it was once thought to be, it also means that various psychosocial factors can be used in order to bring about positive changes to the health of individuals, from dealing with stress and the control of chronic pain through to increased chances of longevity.

Fletcher Horace 18491919

While Fletcher did not have any experience in medicine, nutrition, or health, his dogma about health and longevity rose in popularity during the Victorian era. It came to be a part of a culture that rejected obesity as a disease of the will and placed control firmly in the hands (or mouth) of the individual I argued that if Nature had given us personal responsibility for

How can I rationalize surgically changing my insides and risking significant complications even death just to lose

An article in the Journal of the American Medical Association (January 8, 2003) reported that marked obesity in a man aged twenty to thirty could reduce his life expectancy by up to thirteen years. An extremely obese woman in this same age range might expect to lose up to eight years compared to her normal-weight friends. These are not small numbers. People who are overweight are more likely to develop obesity-related illnesses such as heart disease, pulmonary hypertension, stroke, diabetes, sleep apnea, and arthritis. And obese people are much more likely than lean people to develop blood clots in the legs and lungs, gallstones, pancreatitis, abdominal hernia, fatty liver, polycystic ovary syndrome, high blood pressure, arthritis, gout, lower back pain, infertility, urinary incontinence, and cataracts.

Dietary Recommendations for Increased Antioxidant Defense

Dietary recommendations that would result in increased antioxidant defense are not inconsistent with accepted recommendations for healthy eating. The recommendation to increase the consumption of plant-based foods and beverages is one that is widely perceived as health promoting, and the consistent and strong epidemiological links between high fruit and vegetable intake and the greater life expectancy seen in various groups worldwide whose diet is high in plant-based foods indicate that more emphasis should be given to this particular dietary recommendation. Vitamin C, vitamin E, various carotenoids, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, phenolic acids, organosul-fur compounds, folic acid, copper, zinc, and selenium are all important for antioxidant defense, and these are found in plant-based foods and beverages such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, teas, herbs, and wines. Dietary strategies for health promotion should be directed towards optimizing the consumption of these items.

Potential Health Effects Of Dietary Antioxidants

Understanding the complex role of diet in chronic diseases is challenging because a typical diet provides more than 25,000 bioactive food constituents, many of which may modify a multitude of processes that are related to these diseases. Because of the complexity of this relationship, it is likely that a comprehensive understanding of the role of these bioactive food components is needed to assess the role of dietary plants in human health and disease development. We suggest that both their numerous individual functions as well as their combined additive or synergistic effects are crucial to their health beneficial effects thus, a food-based research approach is likely to elucidate more health effects than those derived from each individual nutrient. Most bioactive food constituents are derived from plants those so derived are collectively called phytochemicals. The large majority of these phytochemicals are redox active molecules, and therefore defined as antioxidants. It is...

What causes newonset GERD

Hernia Uterus Region

This normal anatomy is required to maintain normal esophageal function because the diaphragm, ligaments, and circular muscle all contribute to the amount of pressure the LES can generate to block reflux. Normal anatomy can be lost as part of the aging process. The ligaments can stretch and the hole, or hiatus, in the diaphragm can enlarge. If this happens, part of the stomach can move up into the chest instead of normally staying in the abdomen. This condition is called a hiatus or hiatal hernia (see Figure 5). Because the normal relationships between the structures that contribute to the strength of the lower esophageal sphinc-

Antihypertensive Effects

High blood pressure is associated with decreased life expectancy and increased risk of stroke, coronary heart disease, and other end-organ diseases such as renal failure. Ginseng contains active compounds that normalize blood pressure. The effect of a certain drug on blood pressure can be analyzed by investigating the effect of the drug on the smooth muscle of blood vessels. It is well established that blood vessel smooth muscle tone is regulated by the available intracellular Ca2+ concentration, which in turn is profoundly influenced by interaction of the cellular membrane and sarcoplasmic reticu-lum in the smooth muscle. It was found that both protopanxatriol and

Triggers for Loss of Tolerance

Determining which factors lead to the loss of tolerance to gluten in DQ2+ individuals who later develop celiac disease will be crucial in understanding the pathogenesis of celiac disease. Possible factors that may lead to the loss of tolerance are recurring gastrointestinal infections, surgery, or pregnancy. The way in which children are first exposed to gluten may also affect whether tolerance to gluten or an inflammatory response develops. Quantity and timing of exposure to gluten during childhood may affect the development of tolerance to gluten. Interestingly, the aging process has also been implicated in the loss of tolerance to gluten. More recently, it has become apparent that most celiac patients initially present with disease as adults, possibly due to an increased propensity to autoim-munity associated with advanced age.

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