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Episodic vs Semantic Memory

Episodic memory is a recently evolved, late developing, past-oriented memory system, probably unique to humans, that allows remembering of previous experiences as experienced. William james (1890) discussed it as simply memory. The advent of many different forms of memory since James's time has made adjectival modifications of the term necessary. semantic memory is the closest relative of episodic memory in the family of memory systems. It allows humans and nonhuman animals to acquire and use knowledge about their world. Although humans habitually express and exchange their knowledge through language, language is not necessary for either remembering past experiences or knowing facts about the world. Episodic and semantic memory are alike in many ways, and for a long time were thought of and classified together as an undifferentiated declarative memory that was distinguished from procedural memory. Nevertheless, rapidly accumulating evidence suggests that episodic and semantic memory...

Implicit vs Explicit Memory

Psychological studies of human memory have traditionally been concerned with conscious recollection or explicit memory for specific facts and episodes. During recent years, there has been growing interest in a nonconscious form of memory, referred to as implicit memory (Graf and Schacter 1985 Schacter 1987), that does not require explicit recollection for specific episodes. Numerous experimental investigations have revealed dramatic differences between implicit and explicit memory, which have had a major impact on psychological theories of the processes and systems involved in human memory (cf. Roediger 1990 Schacter and Tulving 1994 Ratcliff and McKoon 1997). The hallmark of implicit memory is a change in performance attributable to information acquired during a specific prior episode on a test that does not require conscious recollection of the episode. This change is often referred to as direct or repetition priming. One example of a test used to assess priming is known as stem...

Autobiographical Memory

According to Conway and Rubin (1993), autobiographical memory is memory for the events of one's life (p. 103). There is much overlap between autobiographical memory and episodic memory (see Chapter 7), in that the recollection of personal events and episodes occurs with both types of memory. However, there can be episodic memory without autobiographical memory (Nelson, 1993, p. 357) What I ate for lunch yesterday is today part of my episodic memory, but being unremarkable in any way it will not, I am sure, become part of my autobiographical memory it has no significance to my life story. There can also be autobiographical memory without autobiographical facts that are not accompanied by a feeling of re-experiencing or reliving the past (Wheeler, Stuss, & Tulving, 1997, p. 335). Autobiographical memory relates to our major life goals, our most powerful emotions, and our personal meanings. As Cohen (1989) pointed out, our sense of identity or self-concept depends on being able to...

Frontal Lobe Impairments Loss of an Executive System or Working Memory

Studies of frontal lobe function in nonhuman primates have overwhelmingly focused on working memory, the capacity to hold information on-line for an interval of seconds or minutes. By contrast, studies of frontal lobe function in humans have documented a broad array of abilities, including planning, problem solving, sequencing, and inhibiting impulsive responses (Kimberg, D'Esposito, and Farah 1997). The diversity of abilities affected, and their highlevel nature, has led many to infer that the cognitive system contains a supervisory executive, residing in the frontal lobes. With the animal literature in mind, Dan Kimberg and I wondered whether damage to working memory might produce the varied and apparently high-level behavioral impairments associated with frontal lobe damage (Kimberg and Farah 1993). We used a production system architecture because it makes very explicit the process of weighing different sources of information to select an action. We found that damaging working...

Working Memory Neural Basis of

Working memory, as defined by cognitive psychologists, refers to a system for the temporary holding and manipulation of information during the performance of a range of cognitive tasks such as comprehension, learning and reasoning (Baddeley 1986). The adjective working is a critical part of the definition, emphasizing as it does the processing of information and not its particular content. Working memory is characterized by its limited storage capacity and rapid turnover and is differentiated from the larger capacity and archival memory system traditionally defined as long-term memory. The origin of the term working memory is difficult to trace. It was used by Miller, Galanter, and Pribram in their 1960 book, Plans and the Structure of Behavior, to describe the functions of the frontal lobe This most forward portion of the primate frontal lobe appears to us to serve as a working memory where plans . . . can be retained temporarily when they are being formed, or transformed, or...

Working Memory Cue and Review

The decrease in available working memory, or in the ability to hold something in one's mind and manipulate the information, leads to a diminished capacity to conduct and grasp CT tasks. The therapist working with an older adult often relies more heavily on written materials, diagrams, and concrete examples in teaching CT basic skills. In addition, the decrease in working memory may require patience on the part of therapist, because the older adult may require more repetition and review of important concepts. Hegel et al. (2005) use a strategy called cue and review to allow for better encoding of new information. In this strategy, a therapist starts by explaining the new skill, such as a thought record, then using a simple, less emotionally laden example to show the patient how to use the thought record. Once the therapist sees that the patient understands the process, he she has the patient complete the thought record in the session using another simple example. By presenting the new...

Episodic And Semantic Memory

Our long-term memories contain an amazing variety of different kinds of information. As a result, there is a natural temptation to assume there are various long-term memory systems, each of which is specialised for certain types of information. Tulving (1972) argued for a distinction between episodic memory and semantic memory. According to Tulving, episodic memory refers to the storage (and retrieval) of specific events or episodes occurring in a particular place at a particular time. Thus, memory for what you had for breakfast this morning is an example of episodic memory. In contrast, semantic memory contains information about our stock of knowledge about the world. Tulving (1972, p. 386) defined semantic memory as follows How do the definitions of episodic and semantic memory offered by Wheeler et al. (1997) differ from those of Tulving (1972) According to Wheeler et al. (1997, pp. 348-349) The major distinction between episodic and semantic memory is no longer best described in...

Working Memory

Baddeley and Hitch (1974) argued that the concept of the short-term store should be replaced with that of working memory. Their working memory system has three components The key component of working memory is the central executive. It has limited capacity, and deals with any cognitively demanding task. The phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad are slave systems used by the central executive for specific purposes. The phonological loop preserves the order in which words are presented, and the visuo-spatial sketchpad is used for the storage and manipulation of spatial and visual information. Every component of the working memory system has limited capacity, and is relatively independent of the other components. Two assumptions follow Numerous dual-task studies have been carried out on the basis of these assumptions. For example, Robbins et al. (1996) considered the involvement of the three components of working memory in the selection of chess moves by weaker and stronger...

Information processing Consensus

Of the products of the initial perceptual processing to a short-term memory store. Thereafter, rehearsal serves to maintain information in the short-term memory store, and some of the information is transferred to a long-term memory store. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968 see also Chapter 6) put forward one of the most detailed theories of this type. This theoretical approach provided a simple framework for textbook writers. The stimulus input could be followed from the sense organs to its ultimate storage in long-term memory by successive chapters on perception, attention, short-term memory, and long-term memory The crucial limitation with this approach is its assumption that stimuli impinge on an inactive and unprepared organism. In fact, processing is often affected substantially by the individual's past experience, expectations, and so on. The mind through which they interact with the world is a general-purpose, symbol-processing system (symbols are patterns stored in long-term memory...

The Science of Information Processing

Modern conceptions of memory maintain some version of William James's basic distinction between primary and secondary memory. Primary memory is now usually called WORKING MEMORY, which is itself subdivided into multiple stores involving specific forms of representation, especially phonological and visuospatial codes. Working memory also includes a central executive, which provides attentional resources for strategic management of the cognitive processes involved in problem solving and other varieties of deliberative thought. Secondary or long-term memory is also viewed as involving distinct subsystems, particularly EPISODIC VS. SEMANTIC MEMORY. Each of these subsystems appears to be specialized to perform one of the two basic functions of long-term memory. One function is to store individuated representations of what happened when in specific contexts (episodic memory) a second function is to extract and store generalized representations of the usual kind of thing (semantic memory)....

Computational modelling From flowcharts to simulations

An example of a very inadequate flowchart is shown in Figure 1.1. This is a flowchart of a bad theory about how we understand sentences. It assumes that a sentence is encoded in some form and then stored. After that, a decision process (indicated by a diamond) determines if the sentence is too long. If it is too long, then it is broken up and we return to the encode stage to re-encode the sentence. If it is ambiguous, then its two senses are distinguished, and we return to the encode stage. If it is not ambiguous, then it is stored in long-term memory. After one sentence is stored, we return to the encode stage to consider the next sentence.

Cognitive Neuropsychology

Before discussing the cognitive neuropsychological approach in more detail, we will discuss a concrete example of cognitive neuropsychology in operation. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) argued that there is an important distinction between a short-term memory store and a long-term memory store, and that information enters into the long-term store through rehearsal and other processing activities in the short-term store (see Chapter 6). Relevant evidence was obtained by Shallice and Warrington (1970). They studied a brain-damaged patient, KF, who seemed to have severely impaired short-term memory, but essentially intact long-term memory. The study of this patient served two important purposes. First, it provided evidence to support the theoretical distinction between two memory systems. Second, it pointed to a real deficiency in the theoretical model of Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968). If, as this model suggests, long-term learning and memory depend on the short-term memory system, then it...

Cognitive neuropsychological evidence

How do cognitive neuropsychologists set about the task of understanding how the cognitive system functions A crucial goal is the discovery of dissociations, which occur when a patient performs normally on one task but is impaired on a second task. In the case of KF, a dissociation was found between performance on short-term memory tasks and on long-term memory tasks. Such evidence can be used to argue that normal individuals possess at least two separate memory systems. In the case of short-term and long-term memory, such a double dissocation has been shown. KF had impaired short-term memory but intact long-term memory, whereas amnesic patients have severely deficient long-term memory but intact short-term memory (see Chapter 7). These findings suggest there are two distinct memory systems which can suffer damage separately from each other.

Cognitive Neuroscience

A theory giving a successful account of the neurochemical basis of long-term memory would be unlikely to offer an equally elegant and economical account of the psychological characteristics of memory. While it may in principle one day be possible to map one theory onto the other, it will still be useful to have both a psychological and a physiological theory .Neurophysiology and neurochemistry are interesting and important areas, but at present they place relatively few constraints on psychological theories and models of human memory.

Positron emission tomography PET

Raichle (1994b) has described the typical way in which PET has been used by cognitive neuroscientists. It is based on a subtractive logic. Brain activity is assessed during an experimental task, and is also assessed during some control or baseline condition (e.g., before the task is presented). The brain activity during the control condition is then subtracted from that during the experimental task. It is assumed that this allows us to identify those parts of the brain that are active only during the performance of the task. This technique has been used in several studies designed to locate the parts of the brain most involved in episodic memory, which is long-term memory involving conscious recollection of the past (see Chapter 7). There is more activity in the right prefrontal cortex when participants are trying to retrieve episodic memories than when they are trying to retrieve other kinds of memories (see Wheeler, Stuss, & Tulving, 1997, for a review).

Aging Memory and the Brain

Memory is not a unitary function but instead encompasses a variety of dissociable processes mediated by distinct brain systems. Explicit or declarative memory refers to the conscious recollection of facts and events, and is known to critically depend on a system of anatomically related structures that includes the HIPPOCAMPUS and adjacent cortical regions in the medial temporal lobe. This domain of function contrasts with a broad class of memory processes involving the tuning or biasing of behavior as a result of experience. A distinguishing feature of these implicit or nondeclarative forms of memory is that they do not rely on conscious access to information about the episodes that produced learning. Thus, implicit memory proceeds normally independent of the medial temporal lobe structures damaged in amnesia. Although many important issues remain to be resolved concerning the organization of multiple memory systems in the brain, this background of information has enabled substantial...

Neural Basis What and How Systems

The fact that we can do different things with objects is the basis for Jean-nerod's (1994,1997) proposal that we have both a pragmatic and a semantic representation of objects. Pragmatic representation, which is largely automatic, involves a rapid visuomotor transformation of the object, which is simply considered as a goal for acting. When our action is based on a pragmatic representation, we program and adjust object-oriented actions online in response to object properties. Semantic representation implies the integration of the features of an object into a meaningful identity, and it is generally conscious. The actions it generates are based on the memorized characteristics of objects. On the basis of this distinction, an object's attributes can be classified with regard to different aspects of object-oriented behavior. Size, shape, and texture are probably relevant to both forms of representation, color just to the semantic, weight just to the pragmatic.

Ginkgo Ginkgo Bloba

The evidence for the use of ginkgo biloba for impaired memory (without dementia) is also positive but limited owing to the paucity of methodologically sound studies. A systematic review of clinical trials done for this indication suggested a significant benefit over placebo. However, the authors of this review were leery of making definitive conclusions owing to the possibility of publication bias (72). There is currently no evidence that ginkgo biloba is effective for the prevention of dementia or for memory enhancement in adults without impairment (73).

Attention in the Human Brain

Cognitive studies have shown several forms of short term or working memory and considerable independence between them (Baddeley 1986). Recent imaging data show that verbal, spatial, and object memories involve separate anatomical areas (Smith and Jonides 1995). There is evidence that all forms of memory are interfaced to a common executive system that involves the same midline frontal anatomy described previously (Baddeley 1986 Posner and Raichle 1994).

Imagination And Behavior

An interesting experiment with learning a simple routine on the piano shows how training the imagination improves physical performance. Two groups of people who had no experience of playing the piano were given a simple sequence of notes to learn. One group, the 'mental practice' group, sat in front of an electric piano keyboard, two hours a day, for five days, and imagined both playing the sequence and hearing it played. A second physical practice group actually played the music two hours a day for five days. . . . The level of improvement at five days in the mental practice group, however substantial, was not as great as in those who did physical practice. But when the mental practice group finished its mental training and was given a single two-hour physical practice session, its overall performance improved to the level of the physical practice group's performance at five days We all do mental practice when we memorize answers

Water Soluble Vitamins

The functional deficits are rapidly corrected with thiamine treatment, suggesting that neurons have not been damaged or destroyed. Thiamine deficiency in humans (beriberi Wernicke's disease) produces similar deficits in the control of muscle movements, and also mental confusion. Korsakoff's syndrome, which occurs in almost all patients with Wernicke's disease, involves a loss of short-term memory and mental confusion. Severe thiamine deficiency in humans appears to produce neuronal degeneration in certain brain regions. The motor abnormalities can be corrected with thiamine treatment, but the memory dysfunction is not improved.

Category Representations of Humans versus Nonhuman Animals Exemplars versus Prototypes

In addition, it is important to mention that the simple computational model that could simulate the cat versus dog asymmetry (i.e., a model that embodies only a short-term memory for within-task learning) could not simulate the human versus nonhuman animal asymmetry. However, a model that incorporates a long-term memory structure along with previous training on humans can simulate the human versus nonhuman animal asymmetry (Mermillod, French, Quinn, & Mareschal, 2004). In particular, it was shown that a dual-network connectionist architecture that incorporates both bottom-up (i.e., short-term memory) and top-down (i.e., long-term memory) processing was sufficient to account for the empirical results on categorization of humans versus nonhuman animals obtained with the infants. The dual-network memory model was able to reproduce the results of Quinn and Eimas (1998) because the LTM network contained a representation of humans that influenced processing in the STM network. In...

Levodopa and Dopamine Agonists

That levodopa affects only certain components of cognitive functions is consistent with the findings of Fournet et al. (127), who reported poorer performance only on working memory tasks in patients with PD after withdrawal from levodopa, and of Lange et al. (128), who also found that levodopa withdrawal impacted performance on only a minority of executive function measures. Levodopa's rather selective effects on working memory and certain executive functions may be related to its mediation of dorsolateral frontal cortex blood flow in response to executive task activation (129).

Stress Pathophysiological and Psychological Factors

Some patients report unrelenting stress as a precipitating factor in their development of FM. Stress in this case encompasses any kind of stressor, not just the response to emotional pain we typically may consider when we think of the term. Researchers now believe that stress can change human brain function. For example, studies in nonhuman primates have shown that exposure to psychosocial stressors results in changes to the tissues of the brain in the hippocampal complex. The hippocampus is a part of the forebrain, located in the medial temporal lobe, and belongs to the limbic system. The limbic system supports a variety of functions including emotion, behavior, and memory. People with hippocampal damage experience short-term memory problems and difficulty with spatial navigation, not unlike FM fibro-fog and FM balance issues. In fact, at least two studies using magnetic resonance spectroscopy have demonstrated metabolic abnormalities in the hippocampal complex in patients with FM...

Adaptations to Standard CT When Working with Chronic Depression

Separating the patient from the depression can be very liberating in terms of increasing the therapist's level of empathy, care, and motivation toward the patient. The cognitive deficits that characterize chronic depression include poor recall, poor problem-solving skills, over general autobiographical memory, and rumination. All of these have a real and vivid impact in terms of how the patient functions in the session and go a long way to account for the paralyzing negativity, passivity, and seeming intransigence that manifests itself during treatment sessions. It is all too easy when confronted with a chronically depressed patient to attribute these factors to personality. We encourage the therapist to be mindful in considering what part of the patient's presentation is personality and what part of the patient's depression and the very real cognitive deficits that result from it. How the therapist attributes these factors impacts the level of hope the therapist is likely to bring to...

Cognitive Architecture

The original architecture of this type was a production system. In this view, the mind consists of a working memory, a large set of production rules, and a set of precedence rules determining the order of firing of production rules. A production rule is a condition-action pair specifying actions to perform if certain conditions are met. The first general theory of this type was proposed by newell, Simon, and Shaw (1958) and was called the General Problem Solver (GPS). The idea was that a production system incorporating a few simple heuristics could solve difficult problems in the same way that humans did. A descendant of this approach, soar (Newell 1990), elaborates the production system architecture by adding mechanisms for making decisions, for recursive application of operators to a hierarchy of goals and subgoals, and for learning of productions. The architecture has been applied to help understand a range of human performance from simple stimulus-response tasks, to typing,...

What Should I Tell My Child

This brings us to the third issue how to share the news. The following is relevant for telling not only your child, but also siblings, grandparents, friends, and neighbors, about AS-HFA (more about disclosing diagnosis in adulthood appears in Chapter 9). It is critical that the way the diagnosis is framed be positive, emphasizing your child's strengths and special skills. In discussing the difficulties that are part of AS-HFA, we often find it helpful to compare it to a learning disability. You can ask your child if he or she knows anyone who has trouble with reading, or math, or paying attention and staying seated. Emphasize that most of us have weaknesses of some sort or another some people wear glasses, others walk with a cane, others are slow readers, others are very clumsy on the playground. But those people aren't bad at everything there are many things they can do well. You might say, The girl in your class who can't read well can do math just fine, has lots of friends, and is...

Reinstatement in Toddlers and Preschool Children

Reinstatement during this age period and we also want to know how reinstatement can impact event recall in real-world contexts. Because it is likely that in real-world contexts children's reexposure to event information takes the form of viewing photographs or home videos, we have studied how these types of symbolic or representational reminders reinstate children's event memories. This, in turn, requires that we investigate how children understand the representational functions of these media. Our research therefore brings together literatures on memory development, memory reinstatement, and children's understanding of symbolic media. What follows is a discussion of our research program and how it relates to research on the development of event memory and children's understanding of symbolic media. We conclude with, a discussion of our views on the role of representational reminders in the development of children's long-term memory.

Information Processing Theories

Vygotsky believed the influence of the environment was crucial for development, whereas Piaget believed that the child's ability to independently explore her world was important. Although neither researcher emphasized the role of physiological changes in the brain and their contribution to a child's increasing ability to process information, neither would deny the significance of those changes for development. Information-processing theories attempt to account for changes in a child's cognitive ability via interactions between the developing brain and the child's increasing knowledge of the world. For example, researchers interested in these interactions may examine changes in working memory and how a child's world knowledge affects it. Working memory (sometimes called short-term memory) is the memory that allows a person to remember a phone number that he has just looked up in the phone book. It involves mental rehearsal processes that maintain the information in memory. The capacity...

Cortical Localization History of

Starting in the 1930s, systematic evidence for the localization of various cognitive functions in regions of association cortex began to emerge, particularly from students and associates of Lashley. In an experiment still at the core of contemporary research on the frontal lobes, Carlyle Jacobsen showed that frontal cortex lesions impair the performance of delayed response tasks, in which the monkey must remember which of two cups a peanut was placed under, a deficit Jacobsen described as one of short-term memory. (This result, through no fault of Jacobsen's, led directly to the introduction of frontal lobotomy as a psycho surgical procedure in humans.) In another seminal experiment, K.-L. Chow, in 1950, showed that lesions of temporal cortex yield a deficit in pattern recognition, a finding that helped spark the study of extrastriate mechanisms in vision.

Possible Positive Effects of Computer

There seems to be a correlation between the presence of a computer in a child's home and achievement in school. This evidence is still not strong enough to state categorically that having a computer makes children smarter. Computer use by children can result in gains on a number of developmental stages. For instance appropriate computer use can be related to improvements in nonverbal skills, long-term memory, mathematical skills, language skills, and problem-solving skills. It should be noted that computer use alone does not ensure gains in any of these areas.

In the Autism Spectrum Disorders

Pecially skilled at understanding mechanical objects (such as how machines work), physical cause-and-effect mechanisms, and visual-spatial problems (as in puzzles). He and others have tested the theory that not only characteristic difficulties but also characteristic strengths run in families. Dr. Baron-Cohen's team found that the parents of children with autism or Asperger syndrome were more likely to be engineers, physicists, and mathematicians than the parents of other children (other scientists have also found elevated rates of accounting and science careers in families of individuals with autism spectrum disorders). Dr. Baron-Cohen's research group also surveyed over a thousand university students majoring either in literature or in math, physics, or engineering. They found that the rate of autism spectrum disorders was significantly higher in the families of the math, physics, or engineering students than in the families of the literature students. Finally, this British group of...

Images Words and Numbers

Both short and long-term memories involve phosphorylation of proteins in synapses. In studies of the sea slug Aplesia, Eric Kandell found that a mechanism of short-term memory is protein synthesis in specific synapses, leading to synaptic growth. A polyadenylation element-binding protein in the cytoplasm is one of these proteins. Long-term memory results from the creation of specific, selective neural pathways that store information that can be recalled weeks, months or even years later. For example, the temporal lobe is thought to be involved in the long-term memory of visual images.

Emotion and the Animal Brain

The problem of feelings is really the problem of CONsciousness (LeDoux 1996). Emotion researchers have been particularly plagued by this problem. Although we are nowhere near solving the problem of consciousness (feelings), there have been some interesting ideas in the area of consciousness that may be useful in understanding feelings. In particular, it seems that consciousness is closely tied up with the process we call WORKING MEMORY (Baddeley 1992), a mental workspace where we think, reason, solve problems, and integrate disparate pieces of information from immediate situations and long-term memory (Kosslyn and Koenig 1992 Johnson-Laird 1988 Kihlstrom 1987). In light of this, we might postulate that feelings result when working memory is occupied with the fact that one's brain and body are in a state of emotional arousal. By integrating immediate stimuli with long-term memories about the occurrence of such stimuli in the past, together with the arousal state of the brain and...

Applied Behavior Analysis

Seth's preschool teachers implemented a schedule for him after seeing how sensitive he was to changes in the classroom and how much he thrived on routines. If Seth had memorized what was coming next (for example, lunch immediately follows a trip to the bathroom and washing hands), he was eager to move on to the next activity. However, even minor deviations in the routine, such as staying indoors on a rainy day, elicited shrieks of dismay from Seth, followed by many minutes of lying on the floor, kicking at anyone who approached. His teachers decided to begin using a schedule for Seth, which showed in pictures each of the major events of his day (see Figure 2). When something wasn't going to take place as usual, they used the universal

Functional Decomposition

It assumes that there are a variety of functionally independent units, with intrinsically determined functions, that are minimally interactive. Functional decomposition plays important roles in engineering, physiology, biology, and in artificial intelligence. Functional morphologists, for example, distinguish the causal or functional roles of structures within organisms, the extent to which one structure may be altered without changing overall function, and the effects of these structures for evolutionary change. Within cognitive science, the assumption is that there are a variety of mechanisms underlying our mental life, which are domain specific and functionally independent. The classical distinction in DESCARTES between understanding, imagination and will is a functional decomposition, which postulates at least three independent faculties responsible for specific mental functions likewise, the distinction drawn by kant between sensation, judgment,...

Analyses of the Skills That Jobs Demand

Short-term memory, importance of 0.40 guish highly g-loaded mental tests, such as IQ tests, from less g-loaded ones, such as tests of short-term memory. In short, jobs are like (unstandardized) mental tests. They differ systematically in g-loading, depending on the complexity of their information processing demands. Because we know the relative complexity of different occupations, we can predict where job performance (when well measured) will be most sensitive to differences in workers' g levels. This allows us to predict major trends in the predictive validity of g across the full landscape of work in modern life. One prediction, which has already been borne out, is that mental tests predict job performance best in the most complex jobs.

Electroconvulsive Therapy

For some individuals, medications and therapy may be less helpful for treating their symptoms of bipolar disorder. In such cases, doctors sometimes prescribe electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a medical treatment that involves sending a low-level electric current through the brain for about one minute to induce a small seizure. This is commonly conducted in a hospital under the care of physicians. ECT is usually tried when other treatments don't work, and it can be especially helpful for those experiencing severe depression. Researchers don't fully understand why this treatment works, but it seems to help balance mood and decrease mood symptoms. It is also used to treat acute mania and usually results in rapid improvements without the side effects associated with taking mood stabilizing medications. However, short-term memory loss may occur, which usually lasts only a few short weeks after treatment. If you are interested in learning more about the benefits and side effects of ECT, talk...

Examples Of Research Study

Most of the research on expectancies during the 1970s and 1980s was conducted on college students, with samples ranging from light to heavy social drinkers who were primarily Caucasian. This research has shown that the effect of a person's expectancies depends on whether the behavior involved is socially mediated Stronger expectancy effects are found for social behaviors (e.g., aggression or sexual arousal) than for nonsocial behaviors (e.g., beliefs concerning motor coordination or memory skills) they are stronger for outcomes that are perceived as positive (e.g., sexual arousal) than as negative (e.g., poor motor coordination).

Strategies to Increase Listening Following Directions and Compliance

One of the key frustrations for teachers and parents of children with ADHD is getting the child to stop, listen, and comply with adult directions or commands. There are a number of reasons children or teens with ADHD may have difficulty with compliance that have nothing to do with being deliberately defiant. These include (a) their struggle inhibiting and controlling their behavior (b) being unable to readily stop and disengage from what they are doing (particularly if it is a fun activity or of high interest to the child) or (c) not being able to quickly switch gears at the adult's request to do something that is less motivating. In addition, (d) inattention reduces the likelihood that the child actually listened or heard the directions and (e) working memory weaknesses may also result in the child more easily forgetting the directions that were given.

Methyl4Phenyl1236Tetrahydropyridine

Finally, the chronic low dose model consists of intravenous injections of a low dose of MPTP administration over a 5- to 13-month period (77). This model is characterized by cognitive deficits consistent with frontal lobe dysfunction reminiscent of PD or normal-aged monkeys. These animals have impaired attention and short-term memory processes and perform poorly in tasks of delayed response or delayed alternation. Since gross parkinsonian motor symptoms are essentially absent at least in early stages, this model is well adapted for studying cognitive deficits analogous to those that accompany idiopathic PD.

Concept empiricism Empiricism Defined

One might think that tracking objects requires the introduction of amodal symbols. We need some way of retaining constancy as our images are transformed during an episode of dynamic tracking. As a bird image transforms from standing to soaring, we need a way of marking the fact that the same bird is being represented. Amodal representations seem to fit the bill (so to speak). If we tag our dynamic bird images with amodal labels, we can keep track of the fact that those images correspond to a single object. This would spell trouble for the empiricist. But there is no need for the empiricist to go this route. To identify two different representations with the same object, one doesn't need a third representation to remain constant across them. That merely multiples representations, and it raises the question how does an amodal label get appended to sensory images The constancy problem has a much simpler solution. The most one would need is a way of indexing representations to a common...

Monitoring Mental Activity

Today, we can obtain four-dimensional (4-D) PET images of the regions involved in short-term and long-term memory. We can image the patterns of connectivity. Memories of words and images are stored in different locations in the brain and integrated with perceptions of objects being seen at the time. Images and words may be recorded in the brain by similar processes, with words being attached to the images. Words may be filed in the same regions of the brain as their associated images.

Transfer Appropriate Processing

There is some overlap between this theoretical approach and the one based on the distinction between explicit and implicit memory. In general terms, data-driven or perceptual processes often underlie performance on tests of implicit memory, whereas conceptually driven processes frequently sustain performance on tests of explicit memory. However, not all implicit tests are perceptual, nor are all explicit tests conceptual.

Behavioral Interventions

To address behavioral avoidance, the addition of exposure interventions may be especially helpful. For example, in the case of PTSD, patients have difficulty retrieving a complete memory of the trauma, although they involuntarily experience recurrent thoughts and images of the event in a very vivid and emotional way. PTSD is believed to arise because of the poor elaboration and incorporation of the memory of the trauma into autobiographical memory, leading to poor voluntary recall and cueing of intrusions by stimuli that may be temporarily associated with the trauma thus, one target of PTSD treatment is the patient's systematic exposure to the memory of the event through recall with a therapist (Ehlers & Clark, 2000). In vivo exposure is also used to target avoidance of the current life triggers of PTSD symptoms (Ehlers & Clark, 2000) and to obtain data to disconfirm the misappraisals.

Identifying Your Childs Strengths

Lenge to recognize that this behavior is reflective of a great memory. Observe your child's behavior in a variety of contexts and consider the following questions When is your child most successful Think about areas in which your child is currently doing well or has succeeded in the past. Are there particular subjects in school in which your child gets good grades Does your child do well at spelling bees or memorizing math facts, but have trouble doing word problems or answering questions about what she's read Does your child perform better in certain types of social settings than in others Can he join a group of kids playing a board game, but not ride bikes with the neighborhood kids Do adults often comment on how charming your child is and appear puzzled at his or her difficulties with peers

Electroconvulsive Therapy ECT

ECT (formerly known as electric shock therapy) is one of the oldest and most effective treatments for major depression. ECT also has some efficacy in refractory mania and in psychoses with prominent mood components or catatonia. ECr appears to work via the induction of generalized seizure activity in the brain. The peripheral manifestations of seizuie activity aie blocked by the use of paralytics, and memory for the event is blocked by the use of anesthetics and by seizure activity. Modern ECT produces short-term memory loss and confusion. Bilateral ECT is more effective than unilateral ECT but produces more cognitive side effects.

Superior Memory Ability

S was unusual among those with superior memory ability in two ways. First, his memory powers were much greater. Second, his superiority seemed to owe little to the use of highly practised memory techniques. More typical is the case of the young man (SF) studied by Ericsson and Chase (1982). He was a student at Carnegie-Mellon University who was paid to practise the digit-span task for one hour a day for two years. The digit span (the number of random digits that can be repeated back in the correct order) is typically about seven items, but this individual eventually attained a span of 80 items. Ericsson (1988) proposed that there are three requirements to achieve very high memory skills This theoretical approach was developed by Ericsson and Kintsch (1995). They argued that exceptional memory depends on pre-existing knowledge rather than an enlarged working memory. According to Ericsson and Kintsch (1995, p. 216), the crucial requirements for exceptional memory are as follows Subjects...

The Discrepancy Issue

Measured by an intelligence test) and his actual level of academic achievement (measured by an achievement test). Certain LDs (e.g., a short-term memory problem or central processing dysfunction), however, may also affect a child's performance on IQ tests, thereby reducing the discrepancy between aptitude and achievement. This discrepancy model is useful from third grade onward, and certain disabilities (such as fine motor dyspraxia, retrieval memory dysfunction, and organization problems) often are not detected. Children with the most severe LDs frequently have the smallest discrepancy. An intracognitive discrepancy (a disturbance in basic psychologic processes) occurs in children who have a specific type of cognitive dysfunction such as a deficit in auditory processing, short-term memory, or visual processing. This type of LD is difficult to op-erationalize, but is useful in identifying preschool and primary-age children who have learning problems.

Memory Animal Studies

A major criterion for demonstrating that an animal has a memory deficit is to show that performance is impaired at long-delay intervals, but is intact at short-delay intervals, that is, no impairment in perception, attention, or general intellectual function. A successful strategy for demonstrating intact short-term memory and impaired long-term memory has involved training normal monkeys and monkeys with medial temporal lobe lesions on the delayed nonmatching -to-sample task, a recognition memory task sensitive to amnesia in humans. In this task, the monkey first sees an object, and then after a prescribed delay the animal is given a choice between the previously seen object and a novel one. The key feature of this experimental approach is the use of very short delay intervals (e.g., 0.5 sec). The absence of an impairment at a delay of 0.5 sec would indicate that the medial temporal lobe lesions do not affect short-term memory. Using this strategy, Alvarez-Royo, Zola-Morgan, and...

Memory Human Neuropsychology

The same brain lesions that cause difficulties in new learning also cause retrograde amnesia, difficulty in recollecting events that occurred prior to the onset of amnesia. Typically, retrograde amnesia is temporally graded such that very old (remote) memory is affected less than recent memory. Retrograde amnesia can cover as much as a decade or two prior to the onset of amnesia. These observations show that the structures damaged in amnesia are not the repositories of long-term memory. Rather, these structures are essential, beginning at the time of learning, and they are thought to drive a gradual process of memory consolidation in neocortex. As the result of this process, memory storage in neocortex comes to be independent of the medial temporal lobe and diencephalic structures that are damaged in amnesia. One fundamental distinction in the neuropsychology of memory separates immediate memory from long-term memory. Indeed, this is the distinction that is revealed by the facts of...

Memory Storage Modulation of

The formation of lasting, long-term memory occurs gradually, over time, following learning. A century ago Mueller and Pilzecker (1900) proposed that the neural processes underlying new memories persist in a short-lasting modifiable state and then, with time, become consolidated into a relatively long-lasting state. Later, hebb (1949) proposed that the first stage of the dual-trace memory system is based on reverberating neural circuits and that such neural activity induces lasting changes in synaptic connections that provide the basis for long-term memory. Clinical and experimental evidence strongly supports the hypothesis that memory storage is time-dependent. Disruption of brain activity shortly after learning impairs long-term memory. In humans, acute brain trauma produces retrograde amnesia, a selective loss of memory for recent experiences (Burnham 1903 Russell and Nathan 1946) and in animals retrograde amnesia is induced by many treatments that impair brain functioning,...

Reading Disabilities Dyslexia

Roughly 30 to 60 percent of children with ADHD also have specific learning disabilities. Among the various learning disabilities, reading disorders are most common. Some children have specific processing deficiencies (auditory or visual perception, short-term memory, phonological awareness, or receptive expressive language) that affect their acquisition of reading skills.

On accepting disabilities

It is also important to remember that for surviors of childhood leukemia with learning problems from treatment, higher cognitive functioning often remains intact it is just getting the information in (processing) that is impaired. Children who were gifted usually remain so children with average abilities retain them. Their performance may be slower, they may require extra instruction in memory enhancement and organizational skills, but they can still achieve to their potential. There are thousands of survivors in their late teens and twenties who are successfully attending college, or who have graduated and are pursuing professional careers

Overview of the Memory System

The multi-store model of memory developed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin has guided research in memory and its development. The model is supported by extensive experimental evidence and is applied productively in work with individuals who have suffered brain injuries and students with typical learning characteristics as well as learning difficulties. In this information-processing model, illustrated in Figure 1, human memory is seen as operating in a manner analogous to that of a computer. The model depicts three separate memory stores that function as the hardware of the memory system long-term memory, the sensory register, and working memory. Long-term memory, which is what people typically mean when they refer to memory, is a relatively permanent memory store with an apparently limitless capacity. It includes both semantic memory, a mental reference book that contains facts about the world, and episodic memory, a repository of stored traces of experienced events. It...

The Developmental Onset of Memory

The memory stores described above are assumed to be universal and present throughout life. Indeed, there is evidence that the capacity to store information in long-term memory begins even before birth. In a well-controlled investigation conducted by Anthony DeCasper and Melanie Spence, the researchers asked pregnant women to read aloud a Dr. Seuss story during the last six weeks of their pregnancies, a point in prenatal development at which fetuses can hear. Shortly after birth, the newborns' recognition memory was tested by comparing their reactions to the familiar passages versus similar but new story excerpts, both of which were read by the babies' mothers. The assessment built on the knowledge that babies can learn to modify the time between bursts of sucking when a change in sucking is followed by the presentation of a stimulus that serves as a reinforcer. The new-borns wore headphones and were given a pacifier that recorded their sucking bursts. They indeed modified the way they...

The Neuropsychology Of Visual Imagery

Process that generates images from long-term memory representations, so if this process is damaged then the patient should not be able to describe the appearance of objects from memory or draw objects from memory. However, the same patient should be able to recognise and draw visually presented objects because these involve component processes other than those used in image generation. Several studies have reported patients with this pattern of behaviour (e.g., Lyman, Kwan, & Chao, 1938 Nielsen, 1946).

Developmental Changes in Information Processing Capacity

Does the absolute capacity of the memory stores change with development The answer to this question is unknown and, according to some experts, may be unknowable. It is clear, however, that memory span, a measure of working memory, improves reliably with age. Memory span is defined as the number of single words or digits individuals can report in order immediately after hearing them. It increases from about two items at age two to five items at age seven to seven items in adulthood. The amount of information that individuals can hold in memory at any one time determines at least in part what they can learn. It appears that age-related improvements in the memory span are attributable to two factors changes in the resources that are available in the information processing system and differences in the efficiency with which older children and adults apply these resources. One of the most important developmental changes in the information processing system is in the speed of processing....

The Acquisition of Memory Strategies

A child's intentional memory shows dramatic improvement when he can effectively use memory strategies. These deliberate tactics for remembering develop over a lengthy period that spans the elementary and middle school years. Preschool children use very simple tactics for remembering in some special task settings for example, a four-year-old can be expected to use a marker to denote an object's hiding place in preparation for subsequently finding it. Preschoolers do not, however, use mental strategies and indeed do not typically differentiate memory and perception. By age seven, most children spontaneously use rehearsal to enhance short-term memory performance. Retrieval strategies (such as going sequentially through the alphabet) begin to be spontaneously used around third grade. Children's self-directed use of organization, the ability to impose a semantic structure on the to-be-remembered items to

Fostering Childrens Memory Development

It is also important to keep in mind that memory is facilitated by advances in other domains of development. As examples, narrative skills increase children's abilities to provide reports of their personal experience problem-solving techniques increase functional working memory capacity. The development of the knowledge base plays a vital role in memory performance. Hence, providing children with opportunities to learn about the world contributes significantly to their capacity to remember effectively.

Modularity and Language

Studies of the brain lead to the same conclusion. The left hemisphere of the brain is the language-dominant hemisphere for right-handed individuals. In 1861, Paul broca identified the third frontal gyrus of the language-dominant hemisphere as an important language area. Performing autopsies on brain-damaged individuals with expressive difficulties characterized by slow, effortful telegraphic speech, he found that their lesions involved the third frontal gyrus, now known as Broca's area. Using modern neu-roimaging techniques, Smith and Jonides (1997) have implicated Broca's area specifically in the rehearsal of material in verbal working memory in normal adults, showing an increase in activation with increasing memory load. Spatial tasks requiring active maintenance of spatial information in working memory do not activate Broca's area in the left hemisphere but rather the premotor cortex of the right hemisphere. Though the overall picture of language representation in the brain is far...

The Cognitive and Academic Profile of Individuals with ASHFA

Chapter 5 reviewed the cognitive talents that are often part of high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome, and Chapter 2 introduced the cognitive challenges that are part of the diagnostic profile for autism spectrum disorders. Joseph exemplifies a typical (although not universal) pattern, in which some of his academic skills are highly advanced, others are age-appropriate, and still others are truly deficient. Joseph can sound out almost any word he is shown, but he doesn't always know what it means. This indicates a dissociation between his reading decoding and reading comprehension skills. Similarly, in math he understands the rules of addition and subtraction and is even beginning to memorize the multiplication tables, but he has trouble applying

How has FM affected your schooling your friendships your recreational activities

The college program I am in is difficult even for healthy students. I'm training to be a sign language interpreter, which means cognitive processes and physical movements are vital. I've failed several tests because I happened to be having a fibro-fog day with almost no short-term memory or was having language production problems. Also, when I'm sore and stiff, I can't sign as clearly or as long. Of course, fatigue and concentration problems can make homework a challenge. However, God has given me His strength to succeed, and overall I'm doing pretty well in school I certainly couldn't do it on my own Most of my teachers have been really understanding, too.

Neurological Evidence On Concepts

First, people with a variety of neurological damage develop specific impairments of their semantic memory. When the cognitive systems involved in reading and speaking remain intact, there is evidence that the storage of knowledge or access to it, or both, can be disrupted. For example, Schwartz, Marin, and Saffran (1979 Schwartz, Saffran, & Marin 1980) studied a patient, WLP, suffering from a severe dementing disease. WLP's ability to read was intact but her comprehension was poor. For example, when she was asked to indicate which one of a set of words a picture represented (using basic-level words, like spoon, apple, cigarette), she was poor at selecting the correct word for the picture. Furthermore, when she chose the wrong word, she tended to choose one that was related semantically to the correct choice. So, for example, for a picture of a fork she chose the word spoon and for a picture of a brush she chose comb. Many of these effects can be found together in Alzheimer's...

The Challenge of Dementia

The term 'dementia' is associated with a range of diseases and disorders that affect the structure and function of the brain leading to deterioration in cognitive function. Common symptoms of dementia include loss of short-term memory, reduced vocabulary (aphasia), impaired motor functions (apraxia), a failure to identify and recognise objects (agnosia), and increased difficulty with planning, ordering or abstracting tasks (American Psychiatric Association, 2000 Thomas & O'Brien, 2002). There may also be behavioural and personality changes such as emotional outbursts or mood disturbances. Symptoms in most cases are progressive and terminal, although usually a person will die from other factors, exacerbated by the dementia. In some cases dementia-like symptoms may be caused by other health problems not classified as dementia, including depression and alcohol dependency.

Routes From Print To Sound

CAT FOG COMB PINT MANTINESS FASS You would probably find it a simple task, but it actually involves some hidden complexities. For example, how do you know that the b in comb is silent, and that pint does not rhyme with hint Presumably you have specific information stored in long-term memory about how to pronounce these words. However, this cannot explain how you are able to pronounce non-words such as mantiness and fass, because you do not have any stored information about their pronunciation. Perhaps non-words are pronounced by analogy with real words (e.g., fass is pronounced to rhyme with mass). Another possibility is that rules governing the translation of letter strings into sounds are used to generate a pronunciation for non-words.

Math Difficulties Associated with ADHD

Many students with ADHD and or learning disabilities experience academic difficulty with mathematics, due to the multiple processes and brain functions involved in executing math problems. Some math challenges may be specifically related to weaknesses with ADHD (for example, inattention, organization, working memory, self-monitoring). Others may result more directly from a learning disability (for example, sequential learning, perceptual-motor, language). Remember, some children have both ADHD and co-existing learning disabilities.

Phonology Neural Basis of

In order to produce a word or group of words, a speaker must select the word(s) from the set of words in long-term memory, encode its phonological form in a short-term buffer in order to plan the phonetic shape, which will vary as a function of the context (articulatory phonological planning), and convert this phonetic string into a set of motor commands or motor programs to the vocal tract (articula-tory implementation). Results from studies with aphasic patients show that all patients, regardless of clinical syndrome and accompanying lesion localization, display deficits in the processes of selection and planning (Blumstein 1994). That is, they may produce the wrong sound segment, a selection error, such as keams for teams, or they may produce the wrong sound segment because of the influence of a neighboring sound, a planning error, such as rof beef for roast beef. The patterns of errors that occur show that the sounds of speech are organized in terms of smaller units called...

What Your Childs Therapist Can Offer

As with interventions in the schools summarized in the last chapter, there are some basic principles for teaching social skills that capitalize on your child's strengths. We summarize these principles and give you examples of how they might be implemented in a therapy group in the box on page 192. Social skills training for children with AS-HFA should break down the complex social behaviors that most children learn automatically into concrete steps and rules that can be memorized and practiced in a variety of settings. Abstract concepts, like friendships, thoughts, and feelings, should be introduced through visual, tangible, hands-on activities as much as possible. For example, the therapist might hold a cardboard arrow at the side of your child's face, pointed at the person to whom he is speaking, to help him learn and practice eye contact. Written schedules use your child's natural reading abilities to help him or her transition from one task to another while minimizing anxiety. A...

Michael J Spivey Daniel C Richardson and Monica Gonzalez Marquez

Rather than a physical mark, perhaps what they leave behind is a deictic pointer, or spatial index (Richardson & Spivey, 2000 Spivey, Richardson, & Fitneva, 2004). According to Ballard, Hayhoe, Pook, and Rao (1997 see also Pylyshyn, 1989,2001), deictic pointers can be used in visuomotor routines to conserve the use of working memory. Instead of storing all the In the case of Spivey and Geng's (2001) eye movements during imagery, a few pointers allocated on a blank projection screen will obviously not make reference to any external visual properties, but they can still provide perceptual-motor information about the relative spatial locations of the internal content associated with the pointers. If one is initially thinking about x (e.g., the 10th floor) and then transitions to thinking about y (e.g., the 29th floor), then storing in working memory the relation above (y,x) may not be necessary if the eye movements, and their allocation of spatial indices, have embodied that...

Cognitive Function

In one 6-week double-blind trial in 50 postmenopausal women, 60 mg day total isoflavone equivalents significantly improved non-verbal short-term memory and performance on tests of frontal lobe function with no effects on long-term memory, category generation, or sustained attention (File et al 2005). Similarly, another double-blind controlled trial of 33 postmenopausal women found that 12 weeks'

Pedagogical Implications

As part of this effort, the second author of this chapter offers professional development courses to help teachers enhance their pedagogy. The objectives of these courses are to inform teachers how they can use Algebar to make the link between the two methods and to help improve the teaching of symbolic manipulation and transformational activities. One specific objective is to deploy strategies that will help students reduce the working memory demands of symbolic algebra.

Components of cognitive dysfunction

Cancer patients will typically complain of memory problems when they present for evaluation and treatment of cognitive dysfunction. However, formal neuropsychologi-cal testing often reveals a restriction of working memory capacity rather than a true impairment in the ability to retain newly learned information. For example, the person may learn fewer words than expected on a list-learning task, but retains most of the items that were initially learned over time. In essence, the person can process less information 'on-line', and information that does not get processed in working memory initially will obviously not be recalled later. In addition, patients will demonstrate variability in their ability to focus attention. For example, during a mental arithmetic test they may miss easier items and get more difficult ones correct as a result of fluctuations in attention, despite having preserved mathematical ability. Another common finding on evaluation is an impairment of divided...

Drug Testing And Forensic Issues

Drug testing is an issue with respect to marijuana because of the effects of THC on coordination, sense of timing, and impairment of depth perception as well as short-term memory. It is hazardous for someone who has taken a moderate dosage of marijuana to drive or to operate heavy equipment in the workplace.

From Puzzles To Expertise

Simon and his associates extended DeGroot's findings (see Figure 14.13 Chase & Simon, 1973a, b Simon & Barenfeld, 1969 Simon & Gilmartin, 1973 but see Vincente & Brewer, 1993, on mistakes surrounding the uptake of DeGroot's work). Chase and Simon proposed that players chunked the board (see Miller, 1956 and Chapter 6) that they memorised board positions by breaking them down into seven or so familiar units in short-term memory. The essential difference between chess masters and expert players lay in the size of the chunk that they could encode. So, the seven chunks in a master's short-term memory contained more information than the seven chunks in a poorer player's memory.

Acute Administration

J., McArthur, D. L., Naliboff, B. D. and Hassell, A., Activation peaking in intoxicated and detoxified alcoholics during visuospatial learning. J. Stud. Alcohol 49 126-130, 1988. Haut, J. S., Beckwith, B. E., Petros, T. V. and Russell, S., Gender differences in retrieval from long-term memory following acute intoxication with ethanol. Physiol. Behav. 45 1161-1165, 1989.

Chronic Administration

Alcohol 38 2025-2035, 1977. Mohs, R. C., Tinklenberg, J. R., Roth, W. T. and Kopell, B. S., Slowing of short-term memory Brunfaut, E. and d'Ydewalle, G., A comparison of implicit memory tasks in Korsakoff and alcoholic patients. Neuropsychologia 34 1143-1150, 1996. Sullivan, E. V., Shear, P. K., Zipursky, R. B., Sagar, H. J. and Pfefferbaum, A., Patterns of content, contextual, and working memory impairments in schizophrenia and nonamnesic alcoholism. Neuropsychology 11 195-206, 1997.

Agents To Improve Cognitive Function

Chronic heavy drinking can lead to impairment of most cognitive functions, including abstract thinking, problem solving, concept shifting, psychomotor performance, and memory. The two most common diseases of cognitive impairment in alcoholism are alcoholic amnestic disorder (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome) and alcoholic dementia. Alcoholic amnestic disorder is associated with prolonged and heavy use of alcohol and is characterized by severe memory problems. Though the exact cause is unknown, this disease is thought to be preventable by proper diet, including vitamins, particularly the B vitamin thiamine. The other impairment, alcoholic dementia, has a gradual onset and thus displays various degrees of cognitive impairment, including difficulties in short-term and long-term memory, abstract thinking, intellectual abilities, judgment, and other higher cortical functions.

Special Syndromes Associated with Alcoholism

R., Intact verbal and nonverbal short-term memory following damage to the human hippocampus. Hippocampus 2 151-163, 1992. Brunfaut, E. and d'Ydewalle, G., A comparison of implicit memory tasks in Korsakoff and alcoholic patients. Neuropsychologia 34 1143-1150, 1996.

Evaluating Problemsolving Research

Given 30 or so years of problem-solving research, we should be able to say something about what influences the ease of problem solving. First, problems are made more difficult if people have to memorise and search through a large problem space to find a solution. Stated more simply, problems get difficult when people have to hold more in their heads (for heads read working memory). Second, search difficulties can be alleviated by knowledge of the problem whole parts of the problem can be chunked and routine strategies used, all of which lightens the load on working memory. In short, the more familiar a problem the easier it becomes. Third, problems can be difficult because they are ill defined again, the ability to define problems hinges on having the right sort of knowledge available. Problems may be difficult because it is not clear what they are about or how they can be solved. The constant theme that emerges from this research is that problems are difficult because of two main...

Object Recognition and Shape Analysis

The ABSURDIST algorithm can be applied to the problem of object recognition that is invariant to rotation and reflection. For this application, a pictorial object is the system, and points on the object are elements of the system. Unlike many approaches to object recognition (Ullman, 1996), ABSURDIST's robustness under rotation is achieved automatically rather than being explicitly computed. Figure 12.5 shows the alignments obtained when one object is placed into correspondence with a rotated version of itself. These alignments are useful for object recognition. For example, if the form on the left side of Figure 12.6 were memorized, then the form on the right can be identified as an exact match to this memorized form without needing to rotate either form. Rotation is not required because ABSURDIST uses relative distances between points to determine correspondences. Distances between points are not affected by rotation or reflection. ABSURDIST gets rotational and reflection invariance...

Prenatal Exposure

D., Olson, H. C., Bookstein, F. L., Barr, H. M., Scott, M., Feldman, J. and Mirsky, A. F., Maternal drinking during pregnancy attention and short-term memory in 14-year-old offspring a longitudinal prospective study. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 18 202-218, 1994.

Theoretical Approaches To Reasoning

The abstract rule theory generally takes logical notions of validity as its normative model of reasoning (see previous section). It assumes that people reason validly by applying abstract, content-free rules of inference, in a manner that is similar to the derivation of proofs in logic. In short, people employ a form of mental logic to derive conclusions from premises. However, people can make mistakes because some derivations are more complex than others (and exceed working memory) or because they misunderstand the premises of a given deductive problem. The main proponents of this view are Braine and O'Brien (1991 Braine, 1990 O'Brien, 1993, 1995 O'Brien, Braine, & Yang, 1994) and Rips (1994). The mental models theory also, in essence, assumes logical notions of validity as its normative model (Johnson-Laird, 1999 Johnson-Laird & Byrne, 1991). It assumes that people reason by manipulating mental models of a set of premises, in a manner akin to semantic methods of proof in...

Poststroke Eating Problems

Neurological and functional impairments can result in eating problems following stroke, which can lead to an increased risk of protein-energy malnutrition or exacerbate prestroke undernutrition. Specifically, eating disability has been associated with an inadequate consumption of food and fluids and a deterioration in body mass index, triceps skin fold thickness, mid-arm muscle circumference, and serum protein concentrations during the acute phase of recovery. Specific eating problems contributing to this have included anorexia, impaired lip closure leading to oral repulsion of food and fluids, dysphagia, an inability to manipulate utensils linked to loss of motor skills in eating, and difficulties in maintaining an upright posture to aid food ingestion at mealtimes. The presence of visual field and or perceptual deficits can result in an inability to see or perceive the contents of a meal tray, while aphasia, dysphasia, or dysarthria can hinder or prevent the expression of dietary...

Teaching CT to Older Patients

The most common age-related neurocognitive changes that affect the process of CT are changes in information processing, language recall, processing speed, attentional resources, and working memory. Many older people have subtle changes in these processes therefore, it is very hard to discern that they are processing information differently than when they were younger. However, depression imparts its own cognitive slowing thus, these differences in processing may be more noticeable the more depressed the older adult is (Pearson, Teri, Reifler, & Raskind, 1989).

Case examples and scoring sheets

The patient is a 27-year-old man from Morocco who lives in Switzerland. He presents himself to the general practitioner, who has known him for a couple of years. He has experienced a good health, except for flu 2 years ago. Even though the patient's immigration is recent, his mastery of language and pronunciation are quite good. About 6 months ago the patient stayed 1 night on the department of neurology for the evaluation of the effects of a head trauma as result of an accident quite unexpectedly, while riding a bicycle, he had been struck by a car. In addition to the commotio cerebri, he had a broken wrist, which recovered without functional restrictions. Four weeks after the accident, a neurologist saw the patient. His main complaints were difficulties with his capacity to concentrate and memorize.

Dynamicity Fictivity and Scanning

The most obvious cases of dynamicity are those correlated with word order. Due to the temporality of the speech stream, we can hardly avoid accessing facets of a complex conception in the order given by the sequencing of the words that symbolize them. Dynamicity is not however limited to this dimension. It is essential that we not oversimplify the manifest complexity of language processing by assuming that a single left-to-right pass through a sentence is all there is. Instead, we can reasonably presume that sequenced processing occurs simultaneously in multiple dimensions and on different time scales. Simultaneously, for example, we have to keep track of discourse strategies, clause structure, and the conceptions evoked by individual lexical items, as well as the fine details of articulatory phonetics. In addition to following the order of presentation, we are able -by means of short-term memory - to backtrack and thus to reexamine and reanalyze material already encountered (e.g. in...

Reinterpreting The Gestalt Findings

Atwood and Polson (1976) produced a state-space analysis of these problems in the context of a full process model for explaining subjects' behaviour on water-jug problems. They specified the various heuristic methods used by subjects and included assumptions about the limitations on human information processing (i.e., working memory limitations). Their model had the following main points There are limitations on the number of possible alternative moves that can be stored in working memory. This limitation can be somewhat alleviated by transferring information into long-term memory. Atwood, Masson, and Polson (1980) also tested the proposal that subjects only planned one move ahead to avoid overloading working memory. They assumed that any reduction of the memory load should have the effect of freeing up the problem solver for more long-term planning. To achieve this manipulation they provided subjects with information about all the different moves available from any state in the...

Robert J Ferguson Raine Riggs Tim Ahles and Andrew J Saykin

In the mid-1990s Wieneke and Dienst4 evaluated 28 women with a standardized battery an average of 6 months posttreatment with CAF (cyclophosphamide, doxyrubicin and 5-fluorouracil) and or CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil). Seventy-five percent of patients scored greater than two standard deviations below published norms on one or more of the neuropsycholog-ical measures. Measures of working memory and sustained attention were most commonly affected. The pattern of cognitive impairment was unrelated to depression, type of chemotherapy, or time since treatment. van Dam et al.5 then evaluated breast cancer patients an average of 2 years posttreatment who were randomized to high-dose chemotherapy plus tamoxifen or standard-dose therapy (FEC, 5-fluorouracil, epidoxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide) plus tamoxifen. They also included a control group of Stage I patients who were treated with local therapy only (surgery plus local radiotherapy). Patients in the high-dose...

Idiomatic and Conventional Expressions

Most generally, the present findings are consistent with the idea that many aspects of linguistic processing are tied to what the body is doing at any one moment. People may, for instance, be creating embodied simulations of speakers' messages that involve moment-by-moment what must it be like processes that make use of ongoing tactile-kinesthetic experiences. These simulations processes operate even when people encounter language that is abstract, or refers to actions that are physically impossible to perform. This interpretation of the evidence describe in this chapter is also congruent with a body of emerging evidence in cognitive science showing intimate connections between perceptual sensorimotor experience and language understanding (Barsalou, 1999 Glenberg & Roberston, 2000 Glenberg & Kaschak, 2002 Richardson, Spivey, Barsalou, & McRae, 2003 Zwaan, Stanfield, & Yaxley, 2002). One possibility to consider is that embodied metaphors may not be explicitly represented as...

Paraneoplastic Syndromes

Uncut Men Black

Limbic Encephalopathy Limbic encephalopathy is characterized by profound loss of short-term memory, seizures, and behavior changes, including dementia, which often antedate the diagnosis of cancer. It is associated with inflammatory infiltrates in the hippocampal and medial temporal lobe regions of the brain and may be reversible with successful treatment of the cancer. 50 of patients have Hu-Ab (type 1 antineuronal nuclear antibody) and a few have CV2-Ab or amphiphysin-Ab.

Theories Of Forgetting

How well did the logarithmic and similar functions fit the data According to Rubin and Wenzel (1996, p. 752), One of the biggest surprises, was how well the same functions fit different data sets, although there are exceptions, the same functions fit most data sets. The main exception was autobiographical memory (see Chapter 8). Studies on autobiographical memory differ from most memory studies in that the

The Effects Of Alcohol On Bodily Systems

The main adverse consequences of chronic alcohol consumption with respect to the nervous system are the following brain damage (manifested by dementia and alcohol amnestic syndrome) complications of the withdrawal syndrome (seizures, HALLUCINATIONS) and peripheral neuropathy. Chronic alcohol consumption results in tolerance, followed by an increased long-term consumption that likely leads to tissue damage. PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE may also develop (i.e., a withdrawal syndrome occurs on sudden cessation of drinking). The brain damage, when severe, is usually classified as one of two main disorders. The first is a type of global (general) dementia. It is estimated that 20 percent of admissions to state mental hospitals suffer from alcohol-induced dementia (Freund & Ballinger, 1988). The second is an alcohol-induced amnestic (memory-loss) syndrome, more commonly known as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. This is related to thiamine (Vitamin B1) deficiency. The Wernicke component refers to the...

Does Ddat Treatment Work

Altogether, around 20 measures of performance were taken before and after the study for each group. These included school assessment tests, tests of motor skill, tests of reading, writing, spelling, and a test of working memory. There was significant improvement in a number of measures for both groups. For example, mean dyslexia screening test scores fell to 0.39 and 0.44 for the experimental and control groups, respectively. The experimental group showed greater improvement on measures of posture, eye movement, bead threading, and reading, but not on spelling, phonological segmentation, or writing. On this basis, the researchers concluded that the DDAT therapy benefited the children who received it, a conclusion that was reported in the newspapers. Do you think parents would be well advised to accept this conclusion and pay for their dyslexic children to receive DDAT on the basis of this study

Cognitive Psychology Glossary Terminology

Amnesic syndrome a condition in which there is substantial impairment of long-term memory the condition includes both anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia. Autobiographical memory memory for the events of one's own life. Central executive a modality-free, limited-capacity, component of working memory. Competence the idea that people have a basic ability in some task (e.g., linguistic competence or logical competence) that may or may not be realised in their performance of the task for a variety of reasons (e.g., working memory load). Declarative knowledge it is concerned with knowing that something is the case (e.g., that London is the capital of England). It covers episodic memory and semantic memory see procedural knowledge. Dysexecutive syndrome a condition in which damage to the frontal lobes causes impairments to the central executive component of working memory. Episodic memory a form of long-term memory concerned with personal experiences or episodes that happened in a...

Bilingualism and the Brain

Having two linguistic systems that overlap presents an interesting challenge for theories of bilingual language processing. If these two languages are located on overlapping tissue, how do bilinguals manage to keep these languages from constantly interfering with each other A recent study by Hernandez et al. (1997) was designed to look at this issue using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for Spanish-English bilinguals. Participants were asked to name a picture in their first language, second language, or to alternate between each language on successive trials. Results revealed slower reaction times and an increase in the number of cross-language errors in the alternating condition relative to the single-language condition (Kohnert-Rice and Hernandez forthcoming). In the fMRI study, there was no difference when comparing activation for naming in the first and second language. However, activation in the prefrontal cortex increased significantly when participants were asked...

Present And Future Directions

There are various examples in this book of cases in which the method of converging operations has produced comparable findings from different approaches. For example, there is the issue of whether implicit memory should be divided into perceptual and conceptual implicit memory (considered earlier in the chapter). PET studies have indicated that visual perceptual priming affects the bilateral occipito-

Recognizing Order and Following Rules

Denise is a young adult with Asperger syndrome who graduated from college and works as a medical transcriptionist in a hospital. In explaining her success, she divulged her secret of closely watching others to formulate rules of social behavior. Even when she was a child, she noted, she had observed peers for clues about appropriate conduct or comments. I watched what they did or said in a certain situation and then memorized that rule in case it ever happened to me. And I was always so happy when someone would just tell me the rule I remember being so relieved when my mother said that I should look at someone and give a wave if they said 'Hi' to me in the hall, Denise explained.

Notes on Contributors

Kerry Lee is an Associate Professor of Psychology at the National Institute of Education, Singapore. He has interests in the application of laboratory-based findings to various forensic and educational issues. In recent years, he has focused on individual differences in mathematical proficiency. Using both experimental and correlational methods, he and his colleagues have examined the contributions of working memory and executive functioning to children's performances on algebraic word problems. He is also interested in the use of neuroimaging techniques to examine pedagogically relevant questions. Email Kerry.Lee nie.edu.sg

Self Awareness Self Esteem and Identity Development

Problems with identity and self-esteem present a serious challenge to children with AS-HFA and their families, but there are several strategies you can use to deal with these issues. As we discussed in Chapter 5 and at the end of Chapter 8, emphasizing your child's strengths and special characteristics will help him or her develop positive self-esteem. For example, if your child has a great memory, you might jokingly refer to him or her as Memory Master. Calling your child by this nickname when he demonstrates the skill makes clear that he has just done something special and gives him an easily referenced positive way of looking at himself.

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