10x Your Memory Power

Memory Professor System

Memory Professor system is a program that uses natural techniques which have gone through a trial, testing and proven to work efficiently and help you gain a strong memory power of about 500% within 30 days only. The program is also offering a guarantee of full money refund within 60-days of purchase which means that this program is secure and has zero risks associated with it hence making it an excellent investment to try. Kit Stevenson is offering a discount to the first 100 people who will purchase this product, and on top of that, he is offering six special bonuses to all the members who buy the memory professor program. There are many benefits associated with this program some of them being, gaining self-esteem, enhancing getting better grades, improving business and personal relationships, enhancing your brain power and finally helping you be in a position to make sound and beneficial business deals. With all these benefits, I highly recommend memory professor system program to everyone who has not yet tried because it is a risk-free method. Hurry up and grab your space while the discounts last. Continue reading...

Memory Professor System Summary

Rating:

4.7 stars out of 14 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: Kit Stevenson
Official Website: memoryprofessor.com
Price: $29.99

Access Now

My Memory Professor System Review

Highly Recommended

This e-book comes with the great features it has and offers you a totally simple steps explaining everything in detail with a very understandable language for all those who are interested.

Do not wait and continue to order Memory Professor System today. If anytime, within Two Months, you feel it was not for you, they’ll give you a 100% refund.

Episodic vs Semantic Memory

Episodic memory is a recently evolved, late developing, past-oriented memory system, probably unique to humans, that allows remembering of previous experiences as experienced. William james (1890) discussed it as simply memory. The advent of many different forms of memory since James's time has made adjectival modifications of the term necessary. semantic memory is the closest relative of episodic memory in the family of memory systems. It allows humans and nonhuman animals to acquire and use knowledge about their world. Although humans habitually express and exchange their knowledge through language, language is not necessary for either remembering past experiences or knowing facts about the world. Episodic and semantic memory are alike in many ways, and for a long time were thought of and classified together as an undifferentiated declarative memory that was distinguished from procedural memory. Nevertheless, rapidly accumulating evidence suggests that episodic and semantic memory...

Implicit vs Explicit Memory

Psychological studies of human memory have traditionally been concerned with conscious recollection or explicit memory for specific facts and episodes. During recent years, there has been growing interest in a nonconscious form of memory, referred to as implicit memory (Graf and Schacter 1985 Schacter 1987), that does not require explicit recollection for specific episodes. Numerous experimental investigations have revealed dramatic differences between implicit and explicit memory, which have had a major impact on psychological theories of the processes and systems involved in human memory (cf. Roediger 1990 Schacter and Tulving 1994 Ratcliff and McKoon 1997). The hallmark of implicit memory is a change in performance attributable to information acquired during a specific prior episode on a test that does not require conscious recollection of the episode. This change is often referred to as direct or repetition priming. One example of a test used to assess priming is known as stem...

Autobiographical Memory

According to Conway and Rubin (1993), autobiographical memory is memory for the events of one's life (p. 103). There is much overlap between autobiographical memory and episodic memory (see Chapter 7), in that the recollection of personal events and episodes occurs with both types of memory. However, there can be episodic memory without autobiographical memory (Nelson, 1993, p. 357) What I ate for lunch yesterday is today part of my episodic memory, but being unremarkable in any way it will not, I am sure, become part of my autobiographical memory it has no significance to my life story. There can also be autobiographical memory without autobiographical facts that are not accompanied by a feeling of re-experiencing or reliving the past (Wheeler, Stuss, & Tulving, 1997, p. 335). Autobiographical memory relates to our major life goals, our most powerful emotions, and our personal meanings. As Cohen (1989) pointed out, our sense of identity or self-concept depends on being able to...

Frontal Lobe Impairments Loss of an Executive System or Working Memory

Studies of frontal lobe function in nonhuman primates have overwhelmingly focused on working memory, the capacity to hold information on-line for an interval of seconds or minutes. By contrast, studies of frontal lobe function in humans have documented a broad array of abilities, including planning, problem solving, sequencing, and inhibiting impulsive responses (Kimberg, D'Esposito, and Farah 1997). The diversity of abilities affected, and their highlevel nature, has led many to infer that the cognitive system contains a supervisory executive, residing in the frontal lobes. With the animal literature in mind, Dan Kimberg and I wondered whether damage to working memory might produce the varied and apparently high-level behavioral impairments associated with frontal lobe damage (Kimberg and Farah 1993). We used a production system architecture because it makes very explicit the process of weighing different sources of information to select an action. We found that damaging working...

Working Memory Neural Basis of

Working memory, as defined by cognitive psychologists, refers to a system for the temporary holding and manipulation of information during the performance of a range of cognitive tasks such as comprehension, learning and reasoning (Baddeley 1986). The adjective working is a critical part of the definition, emphasizing as it does the processing of information and not its particular content. Working memory is characterized by its limited storage capacity and rapid turnover and is differentiated from the larger capacity and archival memory system traditionally defined as long-term memory. The origin of the term working memory is difficult to trace. It was used by Miller, Galanter, and Pribram in their 1960 book, Plans and the Structure of Behavior, to describe the functions of the frontal lobe This most forward portion of the primate frontal lobe appears to us to serve as a working memory where plans . . . can be retained temporarily when they are being formed, or transformed, or...

Working Memory Cue and Review

The decrease in available working memory, or in the ability to hold something in one's mind and manipulate the information, leads to a diminished capacity to conduct and grasp CT tasks. The therapist working with an older adult often relies more heavily on written materials, diagrams, and concrete examples in teaching CT basic skills. In addition, the decrease in working memory may require patience on the part of therapist, because the older adult may require more repetition and review of important concepts. Hegel et al. (2005) use a strategy called cue and review to allow for better encoding of new information. In this strategy, a therapist starts by explaining the new skill, such as a thought record, then using a simple, less emotionally laden example to show the patient how to use the thought record. Once the therapist sees that the patient understands the process, he she has the patient complete the thought record in the session using another simple example. By presenting the new...

Episodic And Semantic Memory

Our long-term memories contain an amazing variety of different kinds of information. As a result, there is a natural temptation to assume there are various long-term memory systems, each of which is specialised for certain types of information. Tulving (1972) argued for a distinction between episodic memory and semantic memory. According to Tulving, episodic memory refers to the storage (and retrieval) of specific events or episodes occurring in a particular place at a particular time. Thus, memory for what you had for breakfast this morning is an example of episodic memory. In contrast, semantic memory contains information about our stock of knowledge about the world. Tulving (1972, p. 386) defined semantic memory as follows How do the definitions of episodic and semantic memory offered by Wheeler et al. (1997) differ from those of Tulving (1972) According to Wheeler et al. (1997, pp. 348-349) The major distinction between episodic and semantic memory is no longer best described in...

Working Memory

Baddeley and Hitch (1974) argued that the concept of the short-term store should be replaced with that of working memory. Their working memory system has three components The key component of working memory is the central executive. It has limited capacity, and deals with any cognitively demanding task. The phonological loop and the visuo-spatial sketchpad are slave systems used by the central executive for specific purposes. The phonological loop preserves the order in which words are presented, and the visuo-spatial sketchpad is used for the storage and manipulation of spatial and visual information. Every component of the working memory system has limited capacity, and is relatively independent of the other components. Two assumptions follow Numerous dual-task studies have been carried out on the basis of these assumptions. For example, Robbins et al. (1996) considered the involvement of the three components of working memory in the selection of chess moves by weaker and stronger...

Information processing Consensus

Of the products of the initial perceptual processing to a short-term memory store. Thereafter, rehearsal serves to maintain information in the short-term memory store, and some of the information is transferred to a long-term memory store. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968 see also Chapter 6) put forward one of the most detailed theories of this type. This theoretical approach provided a simple framework for textbook writers. The stimulus input could be followed from the sense organs to its ultimate storage in long-term memory by successive chapters on perception, attention, short-term memory, and long-term memory The crucial limitation with this approach is its assumption that stimuli impinge on an inactive and unprepared organism. In fact, processing is often affected substantially by the individual's past experience, expectations, and so on. The mind through which they interact with the world is a general-purpose, symbol-processing system ( symbols are patterns stored in long-term memory...

Computational modelling From flowcharts to simulations

An example of a very inadequate flowchart is shown in Figure 1.1. This is a flowchart of a bad theory about how we understand sentences. It assumes that a sentence is encoded in some form and then stored. After that, a decision process (indicated by a diamond) determines if the sentence is too long. If it is too long, then it is broken up and we return to the encode stage to re-encode the sentence. If it is ambiguous, then its two senses are distinguished, and we return to the encode stage. If it is not ambiguous, then it is stored in long-term memory. After one sentence is stored, we return to the encode stage to consider the next sentence.

Cognitive neuropsychological evidence

How do cognitive neuropsychologists set about the task of understanding how the cognitive system functions A crucial goal is the discovery of dissociations, which occur when a patient performs normally on one task but is impaired on a second task. In the case of KF, a dissociation was found between performance on short-term memory tasks and on long-term memory tasks. Such evidence can be used to argue that normal individuals possess at least two separate memory systems. In the case of short-term and long-term memory, such a double dissocation has been shown. KF had impaired short-term memory but intact long-term memory, whereas amnesic patients have severely deficient long-term memory but intact short-term memory (see Chapter 7). These findings suggest there are two distinct memory systems which can suffer damage separately from each other.

Cognitive Neuroscience

A theory giving a successful account of the neurochemical basis of long-term memory would be unlikely to offer an equally elegant and economical account of the psychological characteristics of memory. While it may in principle one day be possible to map one theory onto the other, it will still be useful to have both a psychological and a physiological theory .Neurophysiology and neurochemistry are interesting and important areas, but at present they place relatively few constraints on psychological theories and models of human memory.

Aging Memory and the Brain

Memory is not a unitary function but instead encompasses a variety of dissociable processes mediated by distinct brain systems. Explicit or declarative memory refers to the conscious recollection of facts and events, and is known to critically depend on a system of anatomically related structures that includes the HIPPOCAMPUS and adjacent cortical regions in the medial temporal lobe. This domain of function contrasts with a broad class of memory processes involving the tuning or biasing of behavior as a result of experience. A distinguishing feature of these implicit or nondeclarative forms of memory is that they do not rely on conscious access to information about the episodes that produced learning. Thus, implicit memory proceeds normally independent of the medial temporal lobe structures damaged in amnesia. Although many important issues remain to be resolved concerning the organization of multiple memory systems in the brain, this background of information has enabled substantial...

Neural Basis What and How Systems

The fact that we can do different things with objects is the basis for Jean-nerod's (1994,1997) proposal that we have both a pragmatic and a semantic representation of objects. Pragmatic representation, which is largely automatic, involves a rapid visuomotor transformation of the object, which is simply considered as a goal for acting. When our action is based on a pragmatic representation, we program and adjust object-oriented actions online in response to object properties. Semantic representation implies the integration of the features of an object into a meaningful identity, and it is generally conscious. The actions it generates are based on the memorized characteristics of objects. On the basis of this distinction, an object's attributes can be classified with regard to different aspects of object-oriented behavior. Size, shape, and texture are probably relevant to both forms of representation, color just to the semantic, weight just to the pragmatic.

Attention in the Human Brain

Cognitive studies have shown several forms of short term or working memory and considerable independence between them (Baddeley 1986). Recent imaging data show that verbal, spatial, and object memories involve separate anatomical areas (Smith and Jonides 1995). There is evidence that all forms of memory are interfaced to a common executive system that involves the same midline frontal anatomy described previously (Baddeley 1986 Posner and Raichle 1994).

Imagination And Behavior

An interesting experiment with learning a simple routine on the piano shows how training the imagination improves physical performance. Two groups of people who had no experience of playing the piano were given a simple sequence of notes to learn. One group, the 'mental practice' group, sat in front of an electric piano keyboard, two hours a day, for five days, and imagined both playing the sequence and hearing it played. A second physical practice group actually played the music two hours a day for five days. . . . The level of improvement at five days in the mental practice group, however substantial, was not as great as in those who did physical practice. But when the mental practice group finished its mental training and was given a single two-hour physical practice session, its overall performance improved to the level of the physical practice group's performance at five days We all do mental practice when we memorize answers

Stress Pathophysiological and Psychological Factors

Some patients report unrelenting stress as a precipitating factor in their development of FM. Stress in this case encompasses any kind of stressor, not just the response to emotional pain we typically may consider when we think of the term. Researchers now believe that stress can change human brain function. For example, studies in nonhuman primates have shown that exposure to psychosocial stressors results in changes to the tissues of the brain in the hippocampal complex. The hippocampus is a part of the forebrain, located in the medial temporal lobe, and belongs to the limbic system. The limbic system supports a variety of functions including emotion, behavior, and memory. People with hippocampal damage experience short-term memory problems and difficulty with spatial navigation, not unlike FM fibro-fog and FM balance issues. In fact, at least two studies using magnetic resonance spectroscopy have demonstrated metabolic abnormalities in the hippocampal complex in patients with FM...

Adaptations to Standard CT When Working with Chronic Depression

Separating the patient from the depression can be very liberating in terms of increasing the therapist's level of empathy, care, and motivation toward the patient. The cognitive deficits that characterize chronic depression include poor recall, poor problem-solving skills, over general autobiographical memory, and rumination. All of these have a real and vivid impact in terms of how the patient functions in the session and go a long way to account for the paralyzing negativity, passivity, and seeming intransigence that manifests itself during treatment sessions. It is all too easy when confronted with a chronically depressed patient to attribute these factors to personality. We encourage the therapist to be mindful in considering what part of the patient's presentation is personality and what part of the patient's depression and the very real cognitive deficits that result from it. How the therapist attributes these factors impacts the level of hope the therapist is likely to bring to...

Cognitive Architecture

The original architecture of this type was a production system. In this view, the mind consists of a working memory, a large set of production rules, and a set of precedence rules determining the order of firing of production rules. A production rule is a condition-action pair specifying actions to perform if certain conditions are met. The first general theory of this type was proposed by newell, Simon, and Shaw (1958) and was called the General Problem Solver (GPS). The idea was that a production system incorporating a few simple heuristics could solve difficult problems in the same way that humans did. A descendant of this approach, soar (Newell 1990), elaborates the production system architecture by adding mechanisms for making decisions, for recursive application of operators to a hierarchy of goals and subgoals, and for learning of productions. The architecture has been applied to help understand a range of human performance from simple stimulus-response tasks, to typing,...

Reinstatement in Toddlers and Preschool Children

Reinstatement during this age period and we also want to know how reinstatement can impact event recall in real-world contexts. Because it is likely that in real-world contexts children's reexposure to event information takes the form of viewing photographs or home videos, we have studied how these types of symbolic or representational reminders reinstate children's event memories. This, in turn, requires that we investigate how children understand the representational functions of these media. Our research therefore brings together literatures on memory development, memory reinstatement, and children's understanding of symbolic media. What follows is a discussion of our research program and how it relates to research on the development of event memory and children's understanding of symbolic media. We conclude with, a discussion of our views on the role of representational reminders in the development of children's long-term memory.

Information Processing Theories

Vygotsky believed the influence of the environment was crucial for development, whereas Piaget believed that the child's ability to independently explore her world was important. Although neither researcher emphasized the role of physiological changes in the brain and their contribution to a child's increasing ability to process information, neither would deny the significance of those changes for development. Information-processing theories attempt to account for changes in a child's cognitive ability via interactions between the developing brain and the child's increasing knowledge of the world. For example, researchers interested in these interactions may examine changes in working memory and how a child's world knowledge affects it. Working memory (sometimes called short-term memory) is the memory that allows a person to remember a phone number that he has just looked up in the phone book. It involves mental rehearsal processes that maintain the information in memory. The capacity...

Images Words and Numbers

Both short and long-term memories involve phosphorylation of proteins in synapses. In studies of the sea slug Aplesia, Eric Kandell found that a mechanism of short-term memory is protein synthesis in specific synapses, leading to synaptic growth. A polyadenylation element-binding protein in the cytoplasm is one of these proteins. Long-term memory results from the creation of specific, selective neural pathways that store information that can be recalled weeks, months or even years later. For example, the temporal lobe is thought to be involved in the long-term memory of visual images.

Applied Behavior Analysis

Seth's preschool teachers implemented a schedule for him after seeing how sensitive he was to changes in the classroom and how much he thrived on routines. If Seth had memorized what was coming next (for example, lunch immediately follows a trip to the bathroom and washing hands), he was eager to move on to the next activity. However, even minor deviations in the routine, such as staying indoors on a rainy day, elicited shrieks of dismay from Seth, followed by many minutes of lying on the floor, kicking at anyone who approached. His teachers decided to begin using a schedule for Seth, which showed in pictures each of the major events of his day (see Figure 2). When something wasn't going to take place as usual, they used the universal

Examples Of Research Study

Most of the research on expectancies during the 1970s and 1980s was conducted on college students, with samples ranging from light to heavy social drinkers who were primarily Caucasian. This research has shown that the effect of a person's expectancies depends on whether the behavior involved is socially mediated Stronger expectancy effects are found for social behaviors (e.g., aggression or sexual arousal) than for nonsocial behaviors (e.g., beliefs concerning motor coordination or memory skills) they are stronger for outcomes that are perceived as positive (e.g., sexual arousal) than as negative (e.g., poor motor coordination).

Strategies to Increase Listening Following Directions and Compliance

One of the key frustrations for teachers and parents of children with ADHD is getting the child to stop, listen, and comply with adult directions or commands. There are a number of reasons children or teens with ADHD may have difficulty with compliance that have nothing to do with being deliberately defiant. These include (a) their struggle inhibiting and controlling their behavior (b) being unable to readily stop and disengage from what they are doing (particularly if it is a fun activity or of high interest to the child) or (c) not being able to quickly switch gears at the adult's request to do something that is less motivating. In addition, (d) inattention reduces the likelihood that the child actually listened or heard the directions and (e) working memory weaknesses may also result in the child more easily forgetting the directions that were given.

Concept empiricism Empiricism Defined

One might think that tracking objects requires the introduction of amodal symbols. We need some way of retaining constancy as our images are transformed during an episode of dynamic tracking. As a bird image transforms from standing to soaring, we need a way of marking the fact that the same bird is being represented. Amodal representations seem to fit the bill (so to speak). If we tag our dynamic bird images with amodal labels, we can keep track of the fact that those images correspond to a single object. This would spell trouble for the empiricist. But there is no need for the empiricist to go this route. To identify two different representations with the same object, one doesn't need a third representation to remain constant across them. That merely multiples representations, and it raises the question how does an amodal label get appended to sensory images The constancy problem has a much simpler solution. The most one would need is a way of indexing representations to a common...

Monitoring Mental Activity

Today, we can obtain four-dimensional (4-D) PET images of the regions involved in short-term and long-term memory. We can image the patterns of connectivity. Memories of words and images are stored in different locations in the brain and integrated with perceptions of objects being seen at the time. Images and words may be recorded in the brain by similar processes, with words being attached to the images. Words may be filed in the same regions of the brain as their associated images.

Behavioral Interventions

To address behavioral avoidance, the addition of exposure interventions may be especially helpful. For example, in the case of PTSD, patients have difficulty retrieving a complete memory of the trauma, although they involuntarily experience recurrent thoughts and images of the event in a very vivid and emotional way. PTSD is believed to arise because of the poor elaboration and incorporation of the memory of the trauma into autobiographical memory, leading to poor voluntary recall and cueing of intrusions by stimuli that may be temporarily associated with the trauma thus, one target of PTSD treatment is the patient's systematic exposure to the memory of the event through recall with a therapist (Ehlers & Clark, 2000). In vivo exposure is also used to target avoidance of the current life triggers of PTSD symptoms (Ehlers & Clark, 2000) and to obtain data to disconfirm the misappraisals.

Electroconvulsive Therapy ECT

ECT (formerly known as electric shock therapy) is one of the oldest and most effective treatments for major depression. ECT also has some efficacy in refractory mania and in psychoses with prominent mood components or catatonia. ECr appears to work via the induction of generalized seizure activity in the brain. The peripheral manifestations of seizuie activity aie blocked by the use of paralytics, and memory for the event is blocked by the use of anesthetics and by seizure activity. Modern ECT produces short-term memory loss and confusion. Bilateral ECT is more effective than unilateral ECT but produces more cognitive side effects.

Superior Memory Ability

S was unusual among those with superior memory ability in two ways. First, his memory powers were much greater. Second, his superiority seemed to owe little to the use of highly practised memory techniques. More typical is the case of the young man (SF) studied by Ericsson and Chase (1982). He was a student at Carnegie-Mellon University who was paid to practise the digit-span task for one hour a day for two years. The digit span (the number of random digits that can be repeated back in the correct order) is typically about seven items, but this individual eventually attained a span of 80 items. Ericsson (1988) proposed that there are three requirements to achieve very high memory skills This theoretical approach was developed by Ericsson and Kintsch (1995). They argued that exceptional memory depends on pre-existing knowledge rather than an enlarged working memory. According to Ericsson and Kintsch (1995, p. 216), the crucial requirements for exceptional memory are as follows Subjects...

Memory Animal Studies

A major criterion for demonstrating that an animal has a memory deficit is to show that performance is impaired at long-delay intervals, but is intact at short-delay intervals, that is, no impairment in perception, attention, or general intellectual function. A successful strategy for demonstrating intact short-term memory and impaired long-term memory has involved training normal monkeys and monkeys with medial temporal lobe lesions on the delayed nonmatching -to-sample task, a recognition memory task sensitive to amnesia in humans. In this task, the monkey first sees an object, and then after a prescribed delay the animal is given a choice between the previously seen object and a novel one. The key feature of this experimental approach is the use of very short delay intervals (e.g., 0.5 sec). The absence of an impairment at a delay of 0.5 sec would indicate that the medial temporal lobe lesions do not affect short-term memory. Using this strategy, Alvarez-Royo, Zola-Morgan, and...

Memory Human Neuropsychology

The same brain lesions that cause difficulties in new learning also cause retrograde amnesia, difficulty in recollecting events that occurred prior to the onset of amnesia. Typically, retrograde amnesia is temporally graded such that very old (remote) memory is affected less than recent memory. Retrograde amnesia can cover as much as a decade or two prior to the onset of amnesia. These observations show that the structures damaged in amnesia are not the repositories of long-term memory. Rather, these structures are essential, beginning at the time of learning, and they are thought to drive a gradual process of memory consolidation in neocortex. As the result of this process, memory storage in neocortex comes to be independent of the medial temporal lobe and diencephalic structures that are damaged in amnesia. One fundamental distinction in the neuropsychology of memory separates immediate memory from long-term memory. Indeed, this is the distinction that is revealed by the facts of...

On accepting disabilities

It is also important to remember that for surviors of childhood leukemia with learning problems from treatment, higher cognitive functioning often remains intact it is just getting the information in ( processing ) that is impaired. Children who were gifted usually remain so children with average abilities retain them. Their performance may be slower, they may require extra instruction in memory enhancement and organizational skills, but they can still achieve to their potential. There are thousands of survivors in their late teens and twenties who are successfully attending college, or who have graduated and are pursuing professional careers

The Neuropsychology Of Visual Imagery

Process that generates images from long-term memory representations, so if this process is damaged then the patient should not be able to describe the appearance of objects from memory or draw objects from memory. However, the same patient should be able to recognise and draw visually presented objects because these involve component processes other than those used in image generation. Several studies have reported patients with this pattern of behaviour (e.g., Lyman, Kwan, & Chao, 1938 Nielsen, 1946).

The Acquisition of Memory Strategies

A child's intentional memory shows dramatic improvement when he can effectively use memory strategies. These deliberate tactics for remembering develop over a lengthy period that spans the elementary and middle school years. Preschool children use very simple tactics for remembering in some special task settings for example, a four-year-old can be expected to use a marker to denote an object's hiding place in preparation for subsequently finding it. Preschoolers do not, however, use mental strategies and indeed do not typically differentiate memory and perception. By age seven, most children spontaneously use rehearsal to enhance short-term memory performance. Retrieval strategies (such as going sequentially through the alphabet) begin to be spontaneously used around third grade. Children's self-directed use of organization, the ability to impose a semantic structure on the to-be-remembered items to

Modularity and Language

Studies of the brain lead to the same conclusion. The left hemisphere of the brain is the language-dominant hemisphere for right-handed individuals. In 1861, Paul broca identified the third frontal gyrus of the language-dominant hemisphere as an important language area. Performing autopsies on brain-damaged individuals with expressive difficulties characterized by slow, effortful telegraphic speech, he found that their lesions involved the third frontal gyrus, now known as Broca's area. Using modern neu-roimaging techniques, Smith and Jonides (1997) have implicated Broca's area specifically in the rehearsal of material in verbal working memory in normal adults, showing an increase in activation with increasing memory load. Spatial tasks requiring active maintenance of spatial information in working memory do not activate Broca's area in the left hemisphere but rather the premotor cortex of the right hemisphere. Though the overall picture of language representation in the brain is far...

The Cognitive and Academic Profile of Individuals with ASHFA

Chapter 5 reviewed the cognitive talents that are often part of high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome, and Chapter 2 introduced the cognitive challenges that are part of the diagnostic profile for autism spectrum disorders. Joseph exemplifies a typical (although not universal) pattern, in which some of his academic skills are highly advanced, others are age-appropriate, and still others are truly deficient. Joseph can sound out almost any word he is shown, but he doesn't always know what it means. This indicates a dissociation between his reading decoding and reading comprehension skills. Similarly, in math he understands the rules of addition and subtraction and is even beginning to memorize the multiplication tables, but he has trouble applying

Neurological Evidence On Concepts

First, people with a variety of neurological damage develop specific impairments of their semantic memory. When the cognitive systems involved in reading and speaking remain intact, there is evidence that the storage of knowledge or access to it, or both, can be disrupted. For example, Schwartz, Marin, and Saffran (1979 Schwartz, Saffran, & Marin 1980) studied a patient, WLP, suffering from a severe dementing disease. WLP's ability to read was intact but her comprehension was poor. For example, when she was asked to indicate which one of a set of words a picture represented (using basic-level words, like spoon , apple , cigarette ), she was poor at selecting the correct word for the picture. Furthermore, when she chose the wrong word, she tended to choose one that was related semantically to the correct choice. So, for example, for a picture of a fork she chose the word spoon and for a picture of a brush she chose comb . Many of these effects can be found together in Alzheimer's...

The Challenge of Dementia

The term 'dementia' is associated with a range of diseases and disorders that affect the structure and function of the brain leading to deterioration in cognitive function. Common symptoms of dementia include loss of short-term memory, reduced vocabulary (aphasia), impaired motor functions (apraxia), a failure to identify and recognise objects (agnosia), and increased difficulty with planning, ordering or abstracting tasks (American Psychiatric Association, 2000 Thomas & O'Brien, 2002). There may also be behavioural and personality changes such as emotional outbursts or mood disturbances. Symptoms in most cases are progressive and terminal, although usually a person will die from other factors, exacerbated by the dementia. In some cases dementia-like symptoms may be caused by other health problems not classified as dementia, including depression and alcohol dependency.

Phonology Neural Basis of

In order to produce a word or group of words, a speaker must select the word(s) from the set of words in long-term memory, encode its phonological form in a short-term buffer in order to plan the phonetic shape, which will vary as a function of the context (articulatory phonological planning), and convert this phonetic string into a set of motor commands or motor programs to the vocal tract (articula-tory implementation). Results from studies with aphasic patients show that all patients, regardless of clinical syndrome and accompanying lesion localization, display deficits in the processes of selection and planning (Blumstein 1994). That is, they may produce the wrong sound segment, a selection error, such as keams for teams , or they may produce the wrong sound segment because of the influence of a neighboring sound, a planning error, such as rof beef for roast beef. The patterns of errors that occur show that the sounds of speech are organized in terms of smaller units called...

Michael J Spivey Daniel C Richardson and Monica Gonzalez Marquez

Rather than a physical mark, perhaps what they leave behind is a deictic pointer, or spatial index (Richardson & Spivey, 2000 Spivey, Richardson, & Fitneva, 2004). According to Ballard, Hayhoe, Pook, and Rao (1997 see also Pylyshyn, 1989,2001), deictic pointers can be used in visuomotor routines to conserve the use of working memory. Instead of storing all the In the case of Spivey and Geng's (2001) eye movements during imagery, a few pointers allocated on a blank projection screen will obviously not make reference to any external visual properties, but they can still provide perceptual-motor information about the relative spatial locations of the internal content associated with the pointers. If one is initially thinking about x (e.g., the 10th floor) and then transitions to thinking about y (e.g., the 29th floor), then storing in working memory the relation above (y,x) may not be necessary if the eye movements, and their allocation of spatial indices, have embodied that spatial...

Cognitive Function

In one 6-week double-blind trial in 50 postmenopausal women, 60 mg day total isoflavone equivalents significantly improved non-verbal short-term memory and performance on tests of frontal lobe function with no effects on long-term memory, category generation, or sustained attention (File et al 2005). Similarly, another double-blind controlled trial of 33 postmenopausal women found that 12 weeks'

Pedagogical Implications

As part of this effort, the second author of this chapter offers professional development courses to help teachers enhance their pedagogy. The objectives of these courses are to inform teachers how they can use Algebar to make the link between the two methods and to help improve the teaching of symbolic manipulation and transformational activities. One specific objective is to deploy strategies that will help students reduce the working memory demands of symbolic algebra.

Drug Testing And Forensic Issues

Drug testing is an issue with respect to marijuana because of the effects of THC on coordination, sense of timing, and impairment of depth perception as well as short-term memory. It is hazardous for someone who has taken a moderate dosage of marijuana to drive or to operate heavy equipment in the workplace.

Acute Administration

J., McArthur, D. L., Naliboff, B. D. and Hassell, A., Activation peaking in intoxicated and detoxified alcoholics during visuospatial learning. J. Stud. Alcohol 49 126-130, 1988. Haut, J. S., Beckwith, B. E., Petros, T. V. and Russell, S., Gender differences in retrieval from long-term memory following acute intoxication with ethanol. Physiol. Behav. 45 1161-1165, 1989.

Chronic Administration

Alcohol 38 2025-2035, 1977. Mohs, R. C., Tinklenberg, J. R., Roth, W. T. and Kopell, B. S., Slowing of short-term memory Brunfaut, E. and d'Ydewalle, G., A comparison of implicit memory tasks in Korsakoff and alcoholic patients. Neuropsychologia 34 1143-1150, 1996. Sullivan, E. V., Shear, P. K., Zipursky, R. B., Sagar, H. J. and Pfefferbaum, A., Patterns of content, contextual, and working memory impairments in schizophrenia and nonamnesic alcoholism. Neuropsychology 11 195-206, 1997.

Agents To Improve Cognitive Function

Chronic heavy drinking can lead to impairment of most cognitive functions, including abstract thinking, problem solving, concept shifting, psychomotor performance, and memory. The two most common diseases of cognitive impairment in alcoholism are alcoholic amnestic disorder (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome) and alcoholic dementia. Alcoholic amnestic disorder is associated with prolonged and heavy use of alcohol and is characterized by severe memory problems. Though the exact cause is unknown, this disease is thought to be preventable by proper diet, including vitamins, particularly the B vitamin thiamine. The other impairment, alcoholic dementia, has a gradual onset and thus displays various degrees of cognitive impairment, including difficulties in short-term and long-term memory, abstract thinking, intellectual abilities, judgment, and other higher cortical functions.

Object Recognition and Shape Analysis

The ABSURDIST algorithm can be applied to the problem of object recognition that is invariant to rotation and reflection. For this application, a pictorial object is the system, and points on the object are elements of the system. Unlike many approaches to object recognition (Ullman, 1996), ABSURDIST's robustness under rotation is achieved automatically rather than being explicitly computed. Figure 12.5 shows the alignments obtained when one object is placed into correspondence with a rotated version of itself. These alignments are useful for object recognition. For example, if the form on the left side of Figure 12.6 were memorized, then the form on the right can be identified as an exact match to this memorized form without needing to rotate either form. Rotation is not required because ABSURDIST uses relative distances between points to determine correspondences. Distances between points are not affected by rotation or reflection. ABSURDIST gets rotational and reflection invariance...

Poststroke Eating Problems

Neurological and functional impairments can result in eating problems following stroke, which can lead to an increased risk of protein-energy malnutrition or exacerbate prestroke undernutrition. Specifically, eating disability has been associated with an inadequate consumption of food and fluids and a deterioration in body mass index, triceps skin fold thickness, mid-arm muscle circumference, and serum protein concentrations during the acute phase of recovery. Specific eating problems contributing to this have included anorexia, impaired lip closure leading to oral repulsion of food and fluids, dysphagia, an inability to manipulate utensils linked to loss of motor skills in eating, and difficulties in maintaining an upright posture to aid food ingestion at mealtimes. The presence of visual field and or perceptual deficits can result in an inability to see or perceive the contents of a meal tray, while aphasia, dysphasia, or dysarthria can hinder or prevent the expression of dietary...

Teaching CT to Older Patients

The most common age-related neurocognitive changes that affect the process of CT are changes in information processing, language recall, processing speed, attentional resources, and working memory. Many older people have subtle changes in these processes therefore, it is very hard to discern that they are processing information differently than when they were younger. However, depression imparts its own cognitive slowing thus, these differences in processing may be more noticeable the more depressed the older adult is (Pearson, Teri, Reifler, & Raskind, 1989).

Dynamicity Fictivity and Scanning

The most obvious cases of dynamicity are those correlated with word order. Due to the temporality of the speech stream, we can hardly avoid accessing facets of a complex conception in the order given by the sequencing of the words that symbolize them. Dynamicity is not however limited to this dimension. It is essential that we not oversimplify the manifest complexity of language processing by assuming that a single left-to-right pass through a sentence is all there is. Instead, we can reasonably presume that sequenced processing occurs simultaneously in multiple dimensions and on different time scales. Simultaneously, for example, we have to keep track of discourse strategies, clause structure, and the conceptions evoked by individual lexical items, as well as the fine details of articulatory phonetics. In addition to following the order of presentation, we are able -by means of short-term memory - to backtrack and thus to reexamine and reanalyze material already encountered (e.g. in...

Reinterpreting The Gestalt Findings

Atwood and Polson (1976) produced a state-space analysis of these problems in the context of a full process model for explaining subjects' behaviour on water-jug problems. They specified the various heuristic methods used by subjects and included assumptions about the limitations on human information processing (i.e., working memory limitations). Their model had the following main points There are limitations on the number of possible alternative moves that can be stored in working memory. This limitation can be somewhat alleviated by transferring information into long-term memory. Atwood, Masson, and Polson (1980) also tested the proposal that subjects only planned one move ahead to avoid overloading working memory. They assumed that any reduction of the memory load should have the effect of freeing up the problem solver for more long-term planning. To achieve this manipulation they provided subjects with information about all the different moves available from any state in the...

Robert J Ferguson Raine Riggs Tim Ahles and Andrew J Saykin

In the mid-1990s Wieneke and Dienst4 evaluated 28 women with a standardized battery an average of 6 months posttreatment with CAF (cyclophosphamide, doxyrubicin and 5-fluorouracil) and or CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil). Seventy-five percent of patients scored greater than two standard deviations below published norms on one or more of the neuropsycholog-ical measures. Measures of working memory and sustained attention were most commonly affected. The pattern of cognitive impairment was unrelated to depression, type of chemotherapy, or time since treatment. van Dam et al.5 then evaluated breast cancer patients an average of 2 years posttreatment who were randomized to high-dose chemotherapy plus tamoxifen or standard-dose therapy (FEC, 5-fluorouracil, epidoxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide) plus tamoxifen. They also included a control group of Stage I patients who were treated with local therapy only (surgery plus local radiotherapy). Patients in the high-dose...

Idiomatic and Conventional Expressions

Most generally, the present findings are consistent with the idea that many aspects of linguistic processing are tied to what the body is doing at any one moment. People may, for instance, be creating embodied simulations of speakers' messages that involve moment-by-moment what must it be like processes that make use of ongoing tactile-kinesthetic experiences. These simulations processes operate even when people encounter language that is abstract, or refers to actions that are physically impossible to perform. This interpretation of the evidence describe in this chapter is also congruent with a body of emerging evidence in cognitive science showing intimate connections between perceptual sensorimotor experience and language understanding (Barsalou, 1999 Glenberg & Roberston, 2000 Glenberg & Kaschak, 2002 Richardson, Spivey, Barsalou, & McRae, 2003 Zwaan, Stanfield, & Yaxley, 2002). One possibility to consider is that embodied metaphors may not be explicitly represented as enduring...

Paraneoplastic Syndromes

Uncut Men Black

Limbic Encephalopathy Limbic encephalopathy is characterized by profound loss of short-term memory, seizures, and behavior changes, including dementia, which often antedate the diagnosis of cancer. It is associated with inflammatory infiltrates in the hippocampal and medial temporal lobe regions of the brain and may be reversible with successful treatment of the cancer. 50 of patients have Hu-Ab (type 1 antineuronal nuclear antibody) and a few have CV2-Ab or amphiphysin-Ab.

Theories Of Forgetting

Storing Popcorn Freezer

How well did the logarithmic and similar functions fit the data According to Rubin and Wenzel (1996, p. 752), One of the biggest surprises, was how well the same functions fit different data sets, although there are exceptions, the same functions fit most data sets. The main exception was autobiographical memory (see Chapter 8). Studies on autobiographical memory differ from most memory studies in that the

The Effects Of Alcohol On Bodily Systems

The main adverse consequences of chronic alcohol consumption with respect to the nervous system are the following brain damage (manifested by dementia and alcohol amnestic syndrome) complications of the withdrawal syndrome (seizures, HALLUCINATIONS) and peripheral neuropathy. Chronic alcohol consumption results in tolerance, followed by an increased long-term consumption that likely leads to tissue damage. PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE may also develop (i.e., a withdrawal syndrome occurs on sudden cessation of drinking). The brain damage, when severe, is usually classified as one of two main disorders. The first is a type of global (general) dementia. It is estimated that 20 percent of admissions to state mental hospitals suffer from alcohol-induced dementia (Freund & Ballinger, 1988). The second is an alcohol-induced amnestic (memory-loss) syndrome, more commonly known as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. This is related to thiamine (Vitamin B1) deficiency. The Wernicke component refers to the...

Does Ddat Treatment Work

Altogether, around 20 measures of performance were taken before and after the study for each group. These included school assessment tests, tests of motor skill, tests of reading, writing, spelling, and a test of working memory. There was significant improvement in a number of measures for both groups. For example, mean dyslexia screening test scores fell to 0.39 and 0.44 for the experimental and control groups, respectively. The experimental group showed greater improvement on measures of posture, eye movement, bead threading, and reading, but not on spelling, phonological segmentation, or writing. On this basis, the researchers concluded that the DDAT therapy benefited the children who received it, a conclusion that was reported in the newspapers. Do you think parents would be well advised to accept this conclusion and pay for their dyslexic children to receive DDAT on the basis of this study

Cognitive Psychology Glossary Terminology

Amnesic syndrome a condition in which there is substantial impairment of long-term memory the condition includes both anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia. Autobiographical memory memory for the events of one's own life. Central executive a modality-free, limited-capacity, component of working memory. Competence the idea that people have a basic ability in some task (e.g., linguistic competence or logical competence) that may or may not be realised in their performance of the task for a variety of reasons (e.g., working memory load). Declarative knowledge it is concerned with knowing that something is the case (e.g., that London is the capital of England). It covers episodic memory and semantic memory see procedural knowledge. Dysexecutive syndrome a condition in which damage to the frontal lobes causes impairments to the central executive component of working memory. Episodic memory a form of long-term memory concerned with personal experiences or episodes that happened in a...

Bilingualism and the Brain

Having two linguistic systems that overlap presents an interesting challenge for theories of bilingual language processing. If these two languages are located on overlapping tissue, how do bilinguals manage to keep these languages from constantly interfering with each other A recent study by Hernandez et al. (1997) was designed to look at this issue using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for Spanish-English bilinguals. Participants were asked to name a picture in their first language, second language, or to alternate between each language on successive trials. Results revealed slower reaction times and an increase in the number of cross-language errors in the alternating condition relative to the single-language condition (Kohnert-Rice and Hernandez forthcoming). In the fMRI study, there was no difference when comparing activation for naming in the first and second language. However, activation in the prefrontal cortex increased significantly when participants were asked...

Abel 1992 References On Attention

Atkinson, R.C., & Shiffrin, R.M. (1971). The control of short-term memory. Scientific American, 225, 82-90. Ayers, M.S., & Reder, L.M. (1998). A theoretical review of the misinformation effect Predictions from an activation-based memory model. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 5, 1-21. Baars, B.J. (1997). Consciousness versus attention, perception, and working memory. Consciousness and Cognition, 6, 363-371. Baddeley, A.D. (1986). Working memory. Oxford Clarendon Press. Baddeley, A.D. (1992). Working memory. Science, 255, 556-559. Baddeley, A.D., Emslie, H., Kolodny, J., & Duncan, J. (1998). Random generation and the executive control of working memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 51A, 819-852. Baddeley, A.D., Grant, S., Wight, E., & Thomson, N. (1975). Imagery and visual working memory. In P.M.A.Rabbitt & S.Dornic (Eds.), Attention & performance, Vol. V. London Academic Press. Baddeley, A.D., & Hitch, G.J. (1974). Working memory. In G.H.Bower (Ed.), The psychology of...

Present And Future Directions

There are various examples in this book of cases in which the method of converging operations has produced comparable findings from different approaches. For example, there is the issue of whether implicit memory should be divided into perceptual and conceptual implicit memory (considered earlier in the chapter). PET studies have indicated that visual perceptual priming affects the bilateral occipito-

Recognizing Order and Following Rules

Denise is a young adult with Asperger syndrome who graduated from college and works as a medical transcriptionist in a hospital. In explaining her success, she divulged her secret of closely watching others to formulate rules of social behavior. Even when she was a child, she noted, she had observed peers for clues about appropriate conduct or comments. I watched what they did or said in a certain situation and then memorized that rule in case it ever happened to me. And I was always so happy when someone would just tell me the rule I remember being so relieved when my mother said that I should look at someone and give a wave if they said 'Hi' to me in the hall, Denise explained.

Notes on Contributors

Kerry Lee is an Associate Professor of Psychology at the National Institute of Education, Singapore. He has interests in the application of laboratory-based findings to various forensic and educational issues. In recent years, he has focused on individual differences in mathematical proficiency. Using both experimental and correlational methods, he and his colleagues have examined the contributions of working memory and executive functioning to children's performances on algebraic word problems. He is also interested in the use of neuroimaging techniques to examine pedagogically relevant questions. Email Kerry.Lee nie.edu.sg

Self Awareness Self Esteem and Identity Development

Problems with identity and self-esteem present a serious challenge to children with AS-HFA and their families, but there are several strategies you can use to deal with these issues. As we discussed in Chapter 5 and at the end of Chapter 8, emphasizing your child's strengths and special characteristics will help him or her develop positive self-esteem. For example, if your child has a great memory, you might jokingly refer to him or her as Memory Master. Calling your child by this nickname when he demonstrates the skill makes clear that he has just done something special and gives him an easily referenced positive way of looking at himself.

The Strengths That Accompany the Challenges

Having Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism is not all bad. There are special gifts, talents, and inclinations that come along with the challenges and make your child a very special, unique, and interesting person. Many children and teens with these conditions have excellent memories. They remember details of family trips, routes around their city, or spelling lists effortlessly. Many also excel in reading. Like Joseph, they may teach themselves to read at an early age and later be able to read words aloud and spell well above grade level. Others are very advanced in visual-spatial skills, putting together complex jigsaw puzzles, reading maps, or working electronic equipment far better than their peers. If you can find some practical way to apply your child's special interests to the real world, then his or her incredible abilities to focus, memorize, and spend long hours immersed in a topic become invaluable strengths. You may have heard of Dr. Temple Grandin, a professor of...

World without Metaphor

Now I understand. William has always loved the subways. He has memorized the subway map of Toronto and knows the names of all the stations, what color they are, and in what direction the trains travel from station to station. Since there are over fifty stations in the system, that is quite an accomplishment. Every Saturday for years, he and his father traveled the subways as a treat. William would sit in a seat by the window and look at all the stations going by, the people coming in and out, noticing the individual

Reminders Symbolic Understanding And Memory Development

Memory Reminder Chart

Children's developing understanding of the representational functions of symbolic media may also contribute to reminder effectiveness in young children. For example, photographs were not effective reminders for children at 18 months, but evidence of reinstatement with photographs was found at 24 months. Even greater memory enhancement with photograph reminders was evident at 30 months. The amount of information included in the photographs as compared to videos cannot wholly account for these findings reinstatement occurred with 18-month-olds when they viewed videos of objects without action information which is similar to the kind of event information shown in photographs. Thus, with increasing age and experience, children may be reminded of events with increasingly more abstract reminders. Bauer, P. J., & Hertsgaard, L. A. (1993). Increasing steps in recall of events Factors facilitating immediate and long-term memory in 13.5- and 16.5-month-old children. Child Development, 64,...

Rolf A Zwaan and Carol J Madden

Children do not only learn to associate constructs with objects, but also with actions and properties. For example when parents say, give me the ball, the child will associate an action - grasping a ball, extending the arm, and then releasing the ball into the grasp of a parent - with a linguistic construction (and with encouraging sounds and facial expressions on the part of the parent). In fact, the child learns something more fundamental, namely that this syntactic construction can be applied in many other contexts - for instance, throw me the ball, and even tell me a story. As such, the syntactic structure can be thought of as a linguistic construction that conveys meaning (Goldberg, 1995,2003). The meaning of this construction, the double-object construction, is that an object or something more abstract moves from the agent to a recipient. This is what the different contexts in which the expression is used have in common. Importantly, however, this is only part of the meaning of...

Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system and SDB 41 Alzheimer disease

Searching for links between Alzheimer's disease and sleep-disordered breathing has already started in the eighties. Cognitive deficits observed in individuals with SDB was seen as a preliminary stage in the development of dementia. Cognitive deficits in individuals with impaired respiratory function were found on both verbal, spatial and executive functions as well as short-term memory (Naegele, 1995 Alchanatis, 2005). A number of pathomechanisms may contribute to cognitive impairment in patients with respiratory disorders. The important part play episodes of hypoxia and subsequent oxidative stress resulting in impaired cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system (Gibson, 1981 Shimada, 1981). Another pathomechanism may be associated with changes in cerebral blood flow, observed during sleep -significant hypoperfusion after an episode of apnea. Studies using magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed a decrease in metabolism in the frontal lobes in people with severe respiratory...

Potential Importance of Phytoestrogens to Human Health Molecular Mechanisms of Action

Some beneficial effects following dietary intervention with soy isoflavones have been observed on the cognitive function aspect of brain health, and the mechanism is likely to be via an oestrogenic action, particularly because ER , in addition to ERa, is expressed in brain. Although other mechanisms may contribute, they remain to be elucidated. Consumption by young healthy male and female subjects (parallel group design) of a high-soy diet (100 mg isoflavones day for 10 weeks) compared to a low-soy diet (0.5 mg isoflavones day) resulted in improved cognitive function, including significantly improved short-term and long-term memory and mental flexibility. These improvements were found in males and females. Consumption by post-menopausal women (parallel group design, placebo controlled) of a dietary supplement (soy extract containing 60 mg isoflavones day for 12 weeks) resulted in improved cognitive function, particularly improved long-term memory.

The Brain And Physical Training

Of thought and sensory perception to the control and execution of movement. All physical activities in sports and exercise modify the brain systems, first consciously and then unconsciously. Athletes first learn coordinated motor skills through conscious mental processes and physical repetition. The learned skills are stored in the form of short-term memory. Short-term memory is created by a functional, nonstructural modification in the ability of neurons to signal each other. For example, the neurons representing a group of muscles signal each other, after proper training, with clearer, faster, and stronger communication. Further training transforms this short-term memory into long-term unconscious memory in the synaptic connections of different brain systems. Long-term memory involves an actual structural or anatomic change in the number of signaling sites. Repetitive training causes the ability to perform a particular motor skill to be embedded in the neural circuits that produce...

Alzheimers Disease AD

The severe memory loss of AD is associated with decreased neuronal activity in the medial temporal lobe memory network, which includes the hippocampus. The decline in long-term memory is most typical of Alzheimer's disease. Elderly persons with no symptoms of dementia may have difficulty concentrating on one thing when distractions are present. They become confused in complex, novel situations (Buckner, 2004).

Historical roots of cognitive psychology

The year 1956 was critical in the development of cognitive psychology. At a meeting at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chomsky gave a paper on his theory of language, George Miller presented a paper on the magic number seven in short-term memory (Miller, 1956), and Newell and Simon discussed their very influential computational model called the General Problem Solver (discussed in Newell, Shaw, & Simon, 1958 see also Chapter 15). In addition, the first systematic attempt to consider concept formation from a cognitive perspective was reported (Bruner, Goodnow, & Austin, 1956).

Familiarity And Other Episodic Memories

A useful, if somewhat controversial, distinction among memory systems is between semantic and episodic memory (Tulving, 1985). Semantic memories are for facts, such as the definitions of words and answers to questions that were the focus of the feeling-of-knowing research discussed in the previous section. Episodic memories are for events in our lives. So, when you recall that one of Roosevelt's vice presidents was Harry Truman, that is a semantic memory, whereas your recollection that you encountered that example earlier is an episodic memory. We could talk about knowing that

Affordances and Interaction with Objects

This does not mean that visual input and memory input have the same effect on action. For example, Wing, Turton, and Fraser (1986) have shown that grasping directed at memorized objects involves larger grip aperture than grasping directed at visual objects. In interaction with the memory input the visual input is necessary to adjust the grip appropriately. Neither sensorimotor nor semantic information is necessary and sufficient for performing appropriate actions. The visual input potentiates the affordances associated with the object - e.g., the handles, or the kind of grasp (Tucker & Ellis, 1998, 2001). This notion is compatible with the idea that we may have forms of representations or world models, but that they are partial and action-based and must be integrated with information on the current environment and needs (Clark, 1997).

Feel as if my memory has gotten worse since I developed diabetes Could I be right

Sugar have been shown to have poor long-term memory performance. However, both high and low blood sugar levels are associated with poor memory performance. This affects recall of things previously remembered and memorization of new information. The effect of low blood sugar on memory appears to be the same whether a person is aware of the blood sugar or unaware of it. When memory problems are associated with high blood sugars, the good news is that they are often reversible with improved control of the diabetes, even in older people. Therefore, if you feel that your memory has deteriorated, a first step would be to ensure that your diabetes is under the best possible control, without unnecessary high or low blood sugars. In addition to controlling blood sugars, it is important to remember that diabetes is a chronic disorder and that we age along with our diabetes. Memory function tends to decline with age, even in people without diabetes. Also, it is possible that some of the...

Steve Abel Dry Needling

Components of, 12b, 13 integration of stress response in, 12 Liver, visceral reflex zones of, 168 Local acu-reflex points, 122 Local reflex loops, 8-9 Local twitch response, 160-161 Long-distance runners, case histories athlete with previous injuries, 209b athlete without previous injuries, 209b Long-term depression, 23-24 Long-term memory, 20-21 Long-term potentiation, 23-24 Lower back, forces on, 29, 30 Lower back pain, musculoskeletal

Acquired immunity to foodborne pathogens

Indeed, gut-associated CD8+ T cells provide a long-term memory function in the gastrointestinal mucosa (Cheroutre and Kronenberg, 2005). Following primary challenge, these effector cells reside as intraepithelial lymphocytes that can specifically target pathogen-infected host cells. Although the initial functional differentiation of the gut CD8+ T cell response is CD4+ T cell-independent, the development of a lasting CD8+ T cell memory response requires interaction with specific CD4+ helper T cells (Masopust et al., 2001). These gut-associated CD8+ T cells differ significantly from their counterparts in the spleen and exhibit longer survival and enhanced cytolytic activity. This is thought to provide an immediate and highly efficient localised response to invasion of foodborne pathogens (Cheroutre and Kronenberg, 2005).

Helpingyour child to compensate

For reasons stemming from CAPD combined with one or more of the following (missing link, e.g. the unlearned behaviour of knowing that we must use language a small verbal working memory difficulties recognising facial detail), your child could behave in any of a number of ways

Young Childrens Event Recall

Deferred and elicited imitation paradigms have capitalized on children's interest in and ability to imitate modeled actions. In deferred imitation experiments, an experimenter models a unique action or sequence of actions. Children are restricted from producing the action(s) during this initial training period. After a time delay, children are then encouraged to produce the target action(s). Because children only observe actions, but do not perform any actions themselves during the initial exposure to the event, their subsequent imitation of the actions is considered a form of explicit, declarative memory as opposed to implicit, procedural memory which is the result of practice (Bauer, 2002). Studies using the deferred imitation methodology have shown that infants as young as 6 months showed deferred imitation of actions after a 24-hour delay (Collie & Hayne, 1999) and those infants from 9 to 14 months can remember single actions and two-step action sequences for 1-2 days (Meltzoff,...

Precipitating Factors

Pharmacological effects of alcohol and drugs can also distort communication. For example, large doses of alcohol consumed in short periods of time can result in blackouts, or disrupted short-term memory. A person in a blackout is unlikely to remember what was said and done during the episode. Excessive cocaine consumption can result in suspicion, hostility, and paranoia. A person in a state of withdrawal from alcohol or drugs can be irritable, and oscillation between withdrawal and intoxication distorts communications, thereby leading to inconsistency, unpredictability, and mistrust (Hayes & Emshoff, 1993).

Cognitive Neuropsychology Of Thinking

Until relatively recently there has been little research on the cognitive neuropsychology of thinking (Shallice, 1988). This gap in the field must have been due to the complexity of thought in its reliance on many diverse lower-level systems (e.g., attention, working memory, and language). Because thinking violated many of the assumptions of modularity some theorists ruled it out as a meaningful area of study from the neuroscience perspective (Fodor, 1983). Happily, the development of more advanced neuroimaging techniques combined with the better understanding of lower-level processes has led to rapid advances in our understanding. et al., 1999). Phillips et al. looked at working memory effects on the task by using verbal and visuospatial executive secondary tasks (see Chapter 6) and found that pre-planning was less important than executive processing involving the execution and monitoring of on-line planning.

Language Neural Basis of

Broca's area had difficulty in using and comprehending grammatical information (Zurif, Caramazza, and Meyerson 1972). Recent functional imaging work with PET has suggested that it may play a role in short-term memory for linguistic information (Stromswold et al. 1996). Still other PET studies conclude that it is part of an articulatory loop (Paulesu, Frith, and Frackowiak 1993), while those that involve electrically stimulating the exposed brain during neurosurgery specify it as an end stage for motor speech (Ojemann 1994). Kirshner, H., T. Hughes, T. Fakhoury, and B. Abou-Khalil. (1995). Aphasia secondary to partial status epilepticus of the basal temporal language area. Neurology 45(8) 1616-1618. Luders, H., R. P. Lesser, J. Hahn, D. S. Dinner, H. Morris, S. Resor, and M. Harrison. (1986). Basal temporal language area demonstrated by electrical stimulation. Neurology 36 505-510. Martin, A., C. L. Wiggs, L. G. Ungerleider, and J. V Haxby. (1996). Neural correlates of...

How is a diagnosis of MS made

By December I was taking large amounts of Antivert, Dramamine, and ginger ale to get through a 3-hour class. If I moved too fast or a student waved a hand or turned a page of a book without warning, I would fight the nausea that comes from vertigo. I memorized my lectures so that I did not have to look down at my notes. I would sometimes have to vomit during the breaks in class, wash my face, and then continue to teach. On the day I picked up the students' exams to grade, I went to see my general doctor. He immediately said that I did not have a virus and refused to let me drive myself to the emergency appointment he made with a neurologist.

Attention Span Short Term Memory

Impairment of attention span and short-term memory of a few minutes duration are common following stroke. Attention deficits result in an inability either to focus on immediate events or to establish a new focus unless a current stimulus is removed. As a consequence, an activity that requires a sequence of steps, such as eating a meal with two or three courses, cannot he completed. Lack of concentration is also unhelpful in relearning eating patterns. Removing or minimizing distractions at mealtimes, simplifying the complexity of information necessary to regain eating skills, and providing verbal, written or auditory alarms as reminders to eat are important in overcoming this problem.

Intelligence quotient 277

Auditory Memory There are two kinds of auditory memory Long-term auditory memory is the ability to recall something heard long ago, whereas short-term auditory memory is the ability to remember something heard very recently. Children with problems in this area may find it difficult to remember people's names, memorize and recall telephone numbers, follow multistep spoken directions, recall stories they have been told, or remember lines from songs.

Neutral Cues Cocaine Cues

Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning with 18F fluorodeoxyglucose as a tracer for cerebral glucose metabolism, showing increased activity in brain regions implicated in several forms of memory, when human volunteers who abused cocaine were exposed to drug-related stimuli. Cocaine abusers were studied under a neutral condition (left) and also in a test session in which they were presented with drug-related stimuli, such as a videotape of cocaine self-administration. They reported varying degrees of craving. A subject who reported high cocaine craving when viewing the cocaine cues (right) showed brain activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DL) (upper scans), a brain region that is important in short-term memory, and the amygdala (AM) (lower scans), a brain region that is important in emotional aspects of memory. The findings, which have implications for treatment of cocaine addiction, suggest that a distributed network, which integrates emotional and other...

Why Writing Is Such a Struggle for Students with ADHD

Working memory is necessary in order to juggle the many different thoughts that one might want to transcribe onto paper. It involves The process of writing also requires the retrieval of assorted information from long-term memory (facts, experiences) to share about the writing topic, as well as recall of vocabulary words, spelling, mechanics, and grammatical usage (PBS, 2002).

Intelligent Agent Architecture

Many complex systems are made up of specialized subsystems that interact in circumscribed ways. In the biological world, for example, organisms have modular subsystems, such as the circulatory and digestive systems, presumably because nature can improve subsystems more easily when interactions among them are limited (see, for example, Simon 1969). These considerations apply as well to artificial systems vehicles have fuel, electrical, and suspension subsystems computers have central-processing, mass-storage, and input-output subsystems and so on. When variants of a system share a common organization into subsystems, it is often useful to characterize abstractly the elements shared by all variants. For example, a family of integrated circuits might vary in clock speed or specialized data operations, while sharing a basic instruction set and memory model. In the engineering disciplines, the term architecture has come to refer to generic models of shared structure. Architectures serve as...

Situated Cognition and Learning

Mind and environment interact not only in highly technical tasks, but also in everyday tasks where cognitive artiFACTS represent needed information, support decisions, and potentially even interfere with performance (Norman 1987). For example, the mental artifact of the columnar format for arithmetic provides a structure to keep track of information when short-term memory would otherwise be overwhelmed. As Agre and Chapman (1987) suggest, the physical setting can greatly lighten the processing load of the thinker by providing external cues about what to do next and when goals are accomplished (such as giving feedback through elevator buttons that light up when activated). This relationship of cognition to environmental structure is also used in humancomputer interaction to design artifacts that can exploit cognitive processes while supporting difficult tasks (Wino-grad and Flores 1986).

Positron emission tomography PET

Raichle (1994b) has described the typical way in which PET has been used by cognitive neuroscientists. It is based on a subtractive logic. Brain activity is assessed during an experimental task, and is also assessed during some control or baseline condition (e.g., before the task is presented). The brain activity during the control condition is then subtracted from that during the experimental task. It is assumed that this allows us to identify those parts of the brain that are active only during the performance of the task. This technique has been used in several studies designed to locate the parts of the brain most involved in episodic memory, which is long-term memory involving conscious recollection of the past (see Chapter 7). There is more activity in the right prefrontal cortex when participants are trying to retrieve episodic memories than when they are trying to retrieve other kinds of memories (see Wheeler, Stuss, & Tulving, 1997, for a review).

Theoretical Approaches To Reasoning

The abstract rule theory generally takes logical notions of validity as its normative model of reasoning (see previous section). It assumes that people reason validly by applying abstract, content-free rules of inference, in a manner that is similar to the derivation of proofs in logic. In short, people employ a form of mental logic to derive conclusions from premises. However, people can make mistakes because some derivations are more complex than others (and exceed working memory) or because they misunderstand the premises of a given deductive problem. The main proponents of this view are Braine and O'Brien (1991 Braine, 1990 O'Brien, 1993, 1995 O'Brien, Braine, & Yang, 1994) and Rips (1994). The mental models theory also, in essence, assumes logical notions of validity as its normative model (Johnson-Laird, 1999 Johnson-Laird & Byrne, 1991). It assumes that people reason by manipulating mental models of a set of premises, in a manner akin to semantic methods of proof in logic. In...

The Science of Information Processing

Modern conceptions of memory maintain some version of William James's basic distinction between primary and secondary memory. Primary memory is now usually called WORKING MEMORY, which is itself subdivided into multiple stores involving specific forms of representation, especially phonological and visuospatial codes. Working memory also includes a central executive, which provides attentional resources for strategic management of the cognitive processes involved in problem solving and other varieties of deliberative thought. Secondary or long-term memory is also viewed as involving distinct subsystems, particularly EPISODIC VS. SEMANTIC MEMORY. Each of these subsystems appears to be specialized to perform one of the two basic functions of long-term memory. One function is to store individuated representations of what happened when in specific contexts (episodic memory) a second function is to extract and store generalized representations of the usual kind of thing (semantic memory)....

Transfer Appropriate Processing

There is some overlap between this theoretical approach and the one based on the distinction between explicit and implicit memory. In general terms, data-driven or perceptual processes often underlie performance on tests of implicit memory, whereas conceptually driven processes frequently sustain performance on tests of explicit memory. However, not all implicit tests are perceptual, nor are all explicit tests conceptual.

Cortical Localization History of

Starting in the 1930s, systematic evidence for the localization of various cognitive functions in regions of association cortex began to emerge, particularly from students and associates of Lashley. In an experiment still at the core of contemporary research on the frontal lobes, Carlyle Jacobsen showed that frontal cortex lesions impair the performance of delayed response tasks, in which the monkey must remember which of two cups a peanut was placed under, a deficit Jacobsen described as one of short-term memory. (This result, through no fault of Jacobsen's, led directly to the introduction of frontal lobotomy as a psycho surgical procedure in humans.) In another seminal experiment, K.-L. Chow, in 1950, showed that lesions of temporal cortex yield a deficit in pattern recognition, a finding that helped spark the study of extrastriate mechanisms in vision.

Developmental Changes in Information Processing Capacity

Does the absolute capacity of the memory stores change with development The answer to this question is unknown and, according to some experts, may be unknowable. It is clear, however, that memory span, a measure of working memory, improves reliably with age. Memory span is defined as the number of single words or digits individuals can report in order immediately after hearing them. It increases from about two items at age two to five items at age seven to seven items in adulthood. The amount of information that individuals can hold in memory at any one time determines at least in part what they can learn. It appears that age-related improvements in the memory span are attributable to two factors changes in the resources that are available in the information processing system and differences in the efficiency with which older children and adults apply these resources. One of the most important developmental changes in the information processing system is in the speed of processing....

Functional Decomposition

It assumes that there are a variety of functionally independent units, with intrinsically determined functions, that are minimally interactive. Functional decomposition plays important roles in engineering, physiology, biology, and in artificial intelligence. Functional morphologists, for example, distinguish the causal or functional roles of structures within organisms, the extent to which one structure may be altered without changing overall function, and the effects of these structures for evolutionary change. Within cognitive science, the assumption is that there are a variety of mechanisms underlying our mental life, which are domain specific and functionally independent. The classical distinction in DESCARTES between understanding, imagination and will is a functional decomposition, which postulates at least three independent faculties responsible for specific mental functions likewise, the distinction drawn by kant between sensation, judgment,...

Components of cognitive dysfunction

Cancer patients will typically complain of memory problems when they present for evaluation and treatment of cognitive dysfunction. However, formal neuropsychologi-cal testing often reveals a restriction of working memory capacity rather than a true impairment in the ability to retain newly learned information. For example, the person may learn fewer words than expected on a list-learning task, but retains most of the items that were initially learned over time. In essence, the person can process less information 'on-line', and information that does not get processed in working memory initially will obviously not be recalled later. In addition, patients will demonstrate variability in their ability to focus attention. For example, during a mental arithmetic test they may miss easier items and get more difficult ones correct as a result of fluctuations in attention, despite having preserved mathematical ability. Another common finding on evaluation is an impairment of divided...

Overview of the Memory System

The multi-store model of memory developed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin has guided research in memory and its development. The model is supported by extensive experimental evidence and is applied productively in work with individuals who have suffered brain injuries and students with typical learning characteristics as well as learning difficulties. In this information-processing model, illustrated in Figure 1, human memory is seen as operating in a manner analogous to that of a computer. The model depicts three separate memory stores that function as the hardware of the memory system long-term memory, the sensory register, and working memory. Long-term memory, which is what people typically mean when they refer to memory, is a relatively permanent memory store with an apparently limitless capacity. It includes both semantic memory, a mental reference book that contains facts about the world, and episodic memory, a repository of stored traces of experienced events. It...

Memory Professor System Official Download Link

For a one time low investment of only $29.99, you can download Memory Professor System instantly and start right away with zero risk on your part.

Download Now