Natural Ways to Treat Kidney Damage

The Kidney Disease Solution

The ebook teaches you how to beat kidney disease in a way that no big pharm company wants you to know. The biggest companies make their money when people like you, with kidney disease come in and wonder if there is any way that they can be cured. The medical industry profits off of these sorts of people, because most people do not know that there is a way around the mass-produced medical industry. With the information in this ebook guide you will be able to restore your help without using drugs that end up hurting your kidneys even more. You will be able to avoid surgery, or having to use dialysis just to survive. You can also improve your quality of life if you are already on dialysis or end stage renal failure. This book was born of years of research from Duncan Capicchiano, ND. All of his research, findings, and suggestions are available to you! Read more here...

The Kidney Disease Solution Overview


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The writer presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this book are precise.

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Fluid Retention Dropsy Kidney Failure

Little healing was done in Nazareth because of little faith. Jesus healed all who had the faith to be healed. Dropsy, not a common term today, can be caused by a variety of reasons. Fluid accumulation, swelling, edema, and swollen ankles are more common terms used today. Diuretics are commonly prescribed to treat the symptoms of excessive fluid. This may surprise you, but increasing water from a pure source can release water accumulation in tissues by eliminating toxins accumulated from poor food choices. Heart and kidney function should be evaluated by a skilled experienced healthcare provider if chronic, long-lasting swelling exists. Increasing protein consumption often relieves the body of extra fluid. Fresh parsley is an excellent kidney purifying herb. Try adding it to your salads or make parsley tea with hot water. We support heart function with low dosage, cold-processed nutritional supplements and see reduced swelling as a result. I check all patients for proper alignment of...

Hepatic and Renal Failure

Considering the importance of the liver and kidney in the maintenance of blood glucose levels hypogly-cemia is remarkably rare in both liver and kidney disease. In liver disease hypoglycemia is virtually confined to patients with acute toxic hepatic necrosis, whether due to overwhelming viral infection or specific hepatotoxins such as poisonous mushrooms, unripe akee fruit, and paracetamol in excess. Its appearance always portends an extremely poor prognosis. The association of hypoglycemia with primary cancer of the liver is comparatively common and due to overexpression and secretion of aberrant, or big IGF-II, and is not, as was once supposed, due to nonspecific destruction of hepatic tissue. Hypoglycemia is very rarely due to hepatic secondaries except from IGF-II secreting tumors. Kidney failure is one of the commoner causes of hypoglycemia in nondiabetic hospital inpatients and does not carry as grave a prognostic significance as in patients with liver disease. It generally...

Protein and kidney disease

At one time or another, you've probably heard the myth that high-protein diets are bad for your kidneys, they dehydrate you and cause osteoporosis. Well, here's the truth If you have a history of kidney problems, you should avoid high-protein intakes at all costs. However, it's a medical and scientific fact that except in the case of pre-existing kidney disease, there's no proof that a high-protein intake will cause damage to a healthy kidney. In fact, there's not a single study that has ever been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal using adult human subjects with healthy kidneys that's shown any kidney dysfunction whatsoever as a result of consuming a high-protein diet. In the textbook, Total Nutrition The Only Guide You'll Ever Need, from the Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, the authors, Victor Herbert and Genell Shubak-Sharpe, had this to say about protein and kidney disease

What is diabetic nephropathy

Diabetic nephropathy is the term used to describe kidney damage that occurs in diabetes, usually of longstanding. The damage to the kidney in diabetes can result from the high blood sugar itself, which leads to an expansion of certain types of material in the filtering mechanism of the kidney. This expansion damages the delicate cells responsible for filtering waste materials through the kidney. Eventually, there are abnormal pressures and changes in the important electrical balance in this complex structure. These changes lead to leakage of proteins that are usually either retained or reabsorbed by the kidney. The blood pressure can rise due to overload of fluid and constriction of small blood vessels. The rise in blood pressure further damages the kidney if not treated. If there is an excessive leak of protein, the body becomes protein deficient, which can lead to generalized puffiness and swelling. Eventually, the kidneys can fail and their functions must be replaced by the...

Diabetes And Diabetic Nephropathy

In a controlled crossover trial, 8 weeks of substituting soy protein for animal protein significantly reduced glomerular filtration rates in 12 young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (Stephenson et al 2005). In another crossover trial, isolated soy protein significantly reduced urinary albumin and improved lipid profiles in 14 men with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy (Teixeira et al 2004). Similarly, improvement in lipid profile and renal function was observed in another randomised crossover clinical trial of 14 patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy consuming a 35 soy protein and 30 vegetable protein diet for 7 weeks (Azadbakht et al 2003).

Homocysteine and kidney disease

One group of people who nearly always develop dangerously high homocysteine levels are individuals in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). These people's kidneys no longer function, and they are significantly debilitated, but with dialysis treatment they can live relatively normal lives for years. Their high homocysteine, however, puts them at vastly increased risk for strokes, heart attacks, and other vascular problems. For the most part, doctors trying to lower the homocysteine levels of patients on dialysis resort to high doses of folic acid. This is because dietary folate is the strongest predictor of plasma homocysteine levels in patients with ESRD. But, as we've noted, folic acid can't lower homo-cysteine in the absence of sufficient vitamin B12. It's not surprising, therefore, that folate supplementation of patients with ESRD rarely reduces homocysteine to normal levels. To see if adding vitamin B12 to the treatment regimen would increase its effectiveness, doctors recently...

Immunizations for kidney disease patients

Anyone undergoing hemodialysis or who has had a kidney transplant should receive the three-dose series of HEPATITIS B, an INFLUENZA vaccine each fall, and the PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINE. See also IMMUNIZATION VACCINE. impetigo, common A superficial skin infection most commonly found in children caused by streptococcal bacteria. Impetigo should be treated as soon as possible to avoid spreading the infection to other children and to prevent a rare complication a form of kidney disease called acute glomerulonephritis.


Carnitine depletion in haemodialysis patients is caused by insufficient carnitine synthesis and excessive loss through the dialytic membranes (Matera et al 2003). Carnitine supplementation has been approved by the US FDA for the treatment and prevention of carnitine depletion in dialysis patients. Supplementation in such patients is said to improve lipid metabolism, protein nutrition, antioxidant status, and anaemia and may reduce the incidence of intradialytic muscle cramps, hypotension, Carnitine 188 the routine use of l-carnitine in dialysis patients to manage anaemia and refractory dialysis-associated hypotension is contentious and some authors believe that there is insufficient evidence to support this indication (Steinman et al 2003).

Kidney Failure

One open study of 80 patients with renal failure undergoing haemodialysis found that 1350 mg of chitosan taken three times daily effectively reduced total serum cholesterol levels (from 10.14 4.40 mmol Lto 5.82 2.19 mmol L)and increased serum haemoglobin levels (from 58.2 12.1 g L to 68 9.0 g L) (Jing et al 1997). After 4 weeks, significant reductions in serum urea and creatinine levels were observed. After 12 weeks, patients reported subjective improvements, such as feeling physically stronger, increased appetite and improved sleep, which were also significantly greater than the placebo group. Importantly, during the treatment period, no clinically problematic symptoms were observed.

RRenal Failure

Restriction of dietary protein intake is known to lessen the symptoms of chronic renal insufficiency (Walser, 1992). This raises two related, but distinct questions Do high protein diets have some role in the development of chronic renal failure Do high protein intakes accelerate the progression of chronic renal failure The concept that protein restriction might delay the deterioration of the kidney with age was based on studies in rats in which low energy or low protein diets attenuated the development of chronic renal failure (Anderson and Brenner, 1986, 1987). Walser (1992) has argued that this mechanism is unlikely to operate in humans. In particular, the decline in kidney function in the rat is mostly due to glomerulosclerosis, whereas in humans it is due mostly to a decline in filtration by nonsclerotic nephrons. Also, when creatinine clearance was measured in men at 10- to 18-year intervals, the decline with age did not correlate with dietary protein intake (Tobin and Spector,...

Aluminum Deposition in Tissues

Most metals are deposited to a much greater extent than average in a few organs liver, kidneys, and skeleton. However, the proportion of the total body burden deposited in these is variable and depends on many factors, including the chemical properties of the ion and the age, sex, and metabolic status of the individual. The major site of deposition of aluminum is the skeleton. Skeletal deposits of aluminum have been demonstrated in normal bone using chemical analysis and are easily detected in bone from renal failure patients using histochemical staining techniques. Subsequently, aluminum remains on bone surfaces until it back-exchanges into tissue fluids, the bone surface is removed by osteoclasts, or the bone surface is buried by the apposition of new bone. These processes will result in the gradual loss of bone aluminum and in a transfer of aluminum from bone surfaces to the volume of the bone matrix. Such volume deposits are clearly seen in stained biopsy sections from dialysis...

Toxicity of Systemic Aluminum

The toxicity of aluminum has been extensively reviewed both by WHO and by the US Department of Health and Human Services. Exposure to aluminum at environmental levels produces no known adverse effects in man. There is little evidence to suggest that aluminum may produce adverse effects under conditions of chronic, excess, occupational exposure. Under conditions of high medical exposure, resulting in large aluminum body burdens, the metal is toxic. Aluminum intoxication is characterized by aluminum-induced bone disease (AIBD), microcytic anemia, and encephalopathy. Most information concerning these has been obtained by the study of dialyzed renal failure patients. These patients had lost their ability to excrete aluminum and accumulated large body burdens of aluminum by transfer of the metal from contaminated dialy-zates (most commonly tap water) during hemodia-lysis. The amount of transfer, and resultant body burdens, depended on the duration of treatment and the concentration of...

Evidence for a Role in Alzheimers Disease

The etiology of nonfamilial, sporadic AD is unknown. However, cases have been attributed to head injury and environmental factors, including aluminum. Involvement of aluminum in AD has been suggested because (1) of the similar symp-tomologies of AD and dialysis dementia (2) the administration of aluminum to animals produces histological changes within the brain that are, in some respects, similar to those seen in the brains of AD patients (3) of some reports indicating the presence of aluminum within the cores of senile plaques (4) of the results of some epidemiological studies that have linked AD incidence either with aluminum levels in drinking water or with its consumption as medicines and (5) a disease similar to AD is prevalent in some Pacific islands (Guam), where the levels of aluminum in soils and water are high. However, (1) the pathologies of AD and dialysis dementia are different (2) the histomorphological changes seen in experimental animals differ, in important respects,...

Definition of hypertension

Target BP should be lower in certain groups ofpatients (as acknowledged by the JNC 7), such as those with diabetes, renal failure, or heart failure. The recent Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Blood Pressure (ACCORD-BP) trial has proven this concept wrong in patients with type 2 diabetes, targeting a systolic blood pressure below 120 mmHg, as compared with less than 140 mmHg, did not reduce total or nonfatal cardiovascular events 3 .

Aging And Altered Drug Response

The most consistent physiological change with aging is a decline in kidney function. Both the rate at which tiny blood vessels in the kidney filter the blood and the total flow of blood through the kidneys decline with age. As a result, medicines that are in general excreted by the kidneys regularly are excreted more slowly in the urine of the elderly and hence build up more quickly in their bloodstream. This fact is particularly important for medicines with a narrow therapeutic window (a small difference between the amount of the medicine which is enough to do any good and the amount of the medicine which is poisonous) such as digoxin, aminoglycoside antibiotics, lithium, and chlorpropamide (Greenblatt, Sellars, & Shader, 1982).

Consumer groups at risk of foodborne illness 221 Infants and children

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), one of the most common causes of sudden, short-term kidney failure, may occur after infection by Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) (Bell et al., 1997). Risk for HUS seems to be associated with (1) young age (Noris and Remuzzi, 2005), (2) use of anti-motility drugs and severity of disease (Bell et al., 1997), and (3) administration of antibiotics (Wong et al., 2000). No treatment was associated with more positive outcomes in both of these studies when the case was confirmed as caused by Escherichia coli 0157 or other STEC. This study recommended prevention of pathogen infection as the most prudent means to prevent HUS in young children (Bell et al., 1997).

Individuals with chronic disease

Transplant surgery, like all major surgeries, leads to short periods of immune suppression during which the patient may be at increased risk for infection (Cryer, 2000). Graft survival rate has greatly improved since the introduction of cyclosporine. However, pharmacological suppression of the immune system can lead to infection, a leading cause of mortality in kidney transplant patients

Effects of Socioeconomic Status Poverty and Health

Obesity and hypertension are major causes of heart disease, diabetes, kidney disease, and certain cancers. African Americans experience disproportionately high rates of obesity and hypertension, compared to whites. High blood pressure and obesity have known links to poor diet and a lack of physical activity. In the United States, the prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in the world. The alarming rates of increase of obesity and high blood pressure, along with the deaths from diabetes-related complications, heart disease, and kidney failure, have spurred government agencies to take a harder look at these problems. As a result, many U.S. agencies have created national initiatives to improve the diet quality and the overall health of African Americans.

In Vitro Bioavailability Technique

In that they are less expensive, rapid, and amenable to high throughput analyses. Often, experimental in vitro methods involve an initial 'digestion phase' where the food is treated with acid and digestive enzymes to simulate the initial steps of food breakdown. The digestion phase is then followed by a second phase wherein the goal is to estimate the potential relative availability of a nutrient. This usually involves the measurement of the concentration of the soluble nutrient of interest in a supernatant of the digested food following centrifugation or after dialysis of the digested food products across a semi-permeable membrane designed to select only low-molecular-weight complexes. Variations on this theme include the addition of radioactive isotopes following the digestion phase and the in vitro measurement of cellular uptake of the nutrient in a cell culture preparation or some appropriate index of nutrient uptake. In the case of iron, for example, cellular synthesis of...

Identification Harvesting and Manufacturing

Herbal products can have very similar appearances, especially between subspecies or even varieties within a same family. These can be more difficult to discern if the herb is in the dried form. This poses a great problem as different species, even if they are within the same genus, can have very different chemical constituents (28,29). Misidentification of herbs leading to inappropriate usage of a herb is a cause of morbidity and mortality among consumers. An outbreak of rapidly progressive renal failure was observed in Belgium in 1992-1993 and was related to a slimming regimen involving Chinese herbs, namely Stephania tetrandra and Magnolia officinalis (30,31). Seventy-one cases were reported in 1 month in 1994,35 of whom were on renal replacement therapy. Renal failure has been progressive in most of the cases despite withdrawal of exposure to the Chinese herbs. Renal biopsies showed an extensive interstitial fibrosis with loss of tubes, predominantly in the outer cortex. Chemical...

Biochemical And Biophysical Research Communications

The natural substrate, bacterial peptidoglycan, is a high polymer which should be highly susceptible to steric effects, and also, one of the six lysine residues of lysozyme (lysine 97) is very near the active site (5) and can be modified without seriously inhibiting the enzyme (6). Carboxymethyl-morphine (CMM) (4,7) was selected as a hapten. Conjugation to lysozyme was achieved by combining lysozyme with CMM-isobutyl-chloroformate mixed anhydride (4) (2 equivalents mixed anhydride per lysine residue) in aqueous solution at pH 9.5-10.0 followed by dialysis against water. A magnetic circular dichroism spectrum of the conjugate indicated an average of four haptens per enzyme molecule.* This is consistent with the observation that four of the six lysine residues of lysozyme react readily with iodoacetate whereas the remaining two are relatively inert (8). Rabbit anti-morphine y-globulin was prepared as described previously (4). Lysozyme activity was determined by changes in...

Globalization of the food supply and the influence of economic factors on the contamination of food with pathogens

Demand-side factors that support the increased globalization of the world's food supply include increases in income levels and urbanization. These factors are important in that they affect the mix of food purchased and consumed domestically and the composition of global food trade. Different foods have a different mix of potential microbial foodborne illness hazards to consumers and also vary in the risk of contamination. In turn, hazards in the different foods vary in the likelihood and severity of acute illness and chronic complications (e.g. mild illness from Salmonella in cantaloupe, kidney failure from E. coli 0157 H7 in ground beef). Additionally, wealthier nations tend to demand safer food.

Calcidiol 1aHydroxylase

Calcidiol 1a-hydroxylase is not restricted to the kidney, but is also found in placenta, bone cells (in culture), mammary glands, and keratinocytes. The placental enzyme makes a significant contribution to fetal calcitriol, but it is not clear whether the calcidiol 1-hydroxylase activity of other tissues is physiologically significant or not. Acutely nephrectomized animals given a single dose of calcidiol do not form any detectable calcitriol, but there is some formation of calcitriol in anephric patients, which increases on the administration of cholecalciferol or calcidiol. However, this extrarenal synthesis is not adequate to meet requirements, so that osteomalacia develops in renal failure (Section 3.4.1). The enzyme is inhibited, or possibly repressed, by strontium ions this is the basis of strontium-induced vitamin D-resistant rickets, which responds to the administration of calcitriol or 1a-hydroxycalciol, but not calciferol or calcidiol (Omdahl and DeLuca, 1971).

The clinical of VHL disease

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occurs in up to 70 of patients with VHL and is a frequent cause of death. 70 of VHL patients have the risk of developing RCC by 60 years old (Maher et al., 1990b, 1991 Whaley et al., 1994), at an average age of 44 years versus the average age of 62 years, at which sporadic RCC develops in the general population (http VHL W_VHL clinic. shtml). Renal cysts are common in VHL patients as well however, unlike the completely benign cysts in the general population, renal cysts in VHL patients might degenerate into RCC (Kaelin et al., 2004). However, it is unlikely that RCC in all VHL patients originates from cysts, or that all cysts will eventually become malignant. RCC often overproduces VEGF, and thus can be very vascular (Berse et al., 1992 Sato et al., 1994 Takahashi et al., 1994).

Low Carbohydrate Diets

Low-carbohydrate diets promote the lipolysis of stored triacylglycerols known as ketosis, reduce glucose and insulin levels, and suppress appetite. As a result, there is an increase in blood uric acid concentration. Some studies have shown that the consumption of high amounts of nondairy protein results in a decline in kidney functions in individuals with mildly compromised kidney function. However, no such effect has been shown in individuals with normal kidney functions. Furthermore, low-carbohydrate diets can have side effects such as bad taste, constipation, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, nausea, thirst, and fatigue.

Catecholamine Transferrin and Lactoferrin Interactions

To determine whether catecholamines were delivering Tf-derived iron directly to bacteria, we attempted to prepare 55Fe-complexed norepinephrine by incubating the catecholamine with radiolabelled 55Fe-Tf and separating the mixture on a sephadex gel filtration column (Freestone et al. 2000). Interestingly, identical elution profiles for 55Fe-Tf were obtained in the absence and presence of norepi-nephrine, and no low molecular weight peak of radioactivity corresponding to 55Fe-norepinephrine was observed in the non-denaturing conditions of the Sephadex column, although urea-PAGE clearly indicated norepinephrine-dependent loss of iron from 55Fe-Tf. This indicated that formation of a relatively stable complex between norepinephrine and native Fe-Tf was occurring from which iron was lost only under denaturing separation conditions (such as urea gel elec-trophoresis) (Freestone et al. 2000). Addition of 55Fe-labelled Tf to serum-containing culture media in the presence of norepinephrine, and...

Regulation of Vitamin D Metabolism

In the kidneys, parathyroid hormone increases 1-hydroxylation of calcidiol and reduces 24-hydroxylation. This is not the result of de novo enzyme synthesis, but an effect on the activity of the preformed enzymes, mediated by cAMP-dependent protein kinases. In turn, calcitriol has a direct role in the control of parathyroid hormone, acting to repress expression of the gene. In chronic renal failure, there is reduced synthesis of calcitriol, leading to the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism that results in excess mobilization of bone mineral, hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, hyperphosphaturia, and the development of calcium phosphate renal stones.

Affinitychromatography on heparincross linked columns

Heparin-agarose affinity chromatography has been used to isolate LF from human milk whey in a single chromatographic step (Blackberg & Hernell, 1980). Al-Mashikhi and Nakai (1987) have used heparin-sepharose affinity chromatography to isolate LF from cheddar cheese whey. In this procedure, whey is dialyzed against 0.05M NaCl in 0.005 M sodium barbital-HCl buffer, pH 7.4. Whey solution is applied to a heparin-agarose column equilibrated with the above dialysis buffer. Protein is eluted at a flow rate of 48 ml h using a continuous gradient of 0.05M to 1.0 M NaCl constituted in the dialysis buffer. Fractions are collected and absorbance is read at 280 nm. Rejman et al. (1989) used this method to isolate bLF from mammary secretions collected during the nonlactating period. About 1600 absorbance units (280 nm) of whey protein were efficiently separated by the heparin-agarose column (packed with 2.0 x 16.5 cm of Affi-Gel heparin agarose from Bio-Rad) into four absorbance peaks. LF was...

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

Buckwheat is considered to have beneficial health effects on the intestinal tract, to favor cerebral circulation, to bind cholesterol, and to support vision. It is also used for weakness of the pancreas and thyroid glands, as well as nephritis. Buckwheat contains rutin, which strengthens capillary walls, reducing hemorrhaging in people with high blood pressure and increasing microcirculation in people with chronic venous insufficiency. Buckwheat substitutes for potato and bread in diabetic diets. The high nutritional and medicinal value of buckwheat is due to a high content of iron, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, iodine, fluoride, molybdenum, cobalt, vitamins B1, B2, B9 (folic acid), PP, and E, as well as easily assimilable proteins similar in physiological value to egg and milk proteins.

Escherichia coli E coli 0157H7 One of

The most deadly of the hundreds of strains of the bacterium Escherichia coli. Although most strains of E. coli are harmless and live in the intestines of both humans and animals, the 0157 H7 strain produces a powerful toxin that can cause severe illness. It has emerged during the past 10 years as a cause of food-borne illness that can cause kidney failure and death.

Dehydration and Human Performance

Natives of desert regions have, over the years, habituated to being chronically dehydrated. A study of the desert inhabitants found that they had a curtailed thirst drive that was associated with excretion of low volumes of concentrated urine and a high incidence of kidney disease (kidney stones). When additional water intake (approximately twice normal) was ingested in a subsample of this population, they were able to exercise 10 longer in the desert environment, presumably due to improved thermoregulation. The results of this and other studies illustrate that humans probably do not adapt to dehydration but can become used to a mild chronic dehydration due to inadequate fluid intake. This is not a true physiological adaptation since there are negative health and performance effects associated with chronic dehydration.

Vitamin E Tocopherols and Tocotrienols

Deficiency of vitamin E is well established in experimental animals, resulting in reproductive failure, necrotizing myopathy, liver and kidney damage, and neurological abnormalities. In human beings, deficiency is less well defined, and it was only in 1983 that vitamin E was conclusively demonstrated to be essential. Deficiency is a problem only in premature infants with low birth weight and in patients with abnormalities of lipid absorption or congenital lack of p -lipoproteins - abetalipoproteinemia - or a genetic defect in the a-tocopherol transfer protein. In adults, lipid malabsorption only results in signs of vitamin E deficiency alter many years.

Prevention of Dehydration

Simple methods, such as recording body weight before and after exercise to determine fluid loss and observing the color of urine or the turgidity of skin, can be useful for monitoring hydration status. The simplest insurance against dehydration is to consume fluids prior to and during physical activity or heat exposure to match water loss. The amount of fluid needed to maintain a favorable hydration status is variable between individuals but often necessitates drinking in the absence of thirst. Excess fluid consumption is rarely a problem. However, caution should be used to avoid dilutional hyponatraemia from overzealous hydration. Humans can acclimate to work in a hot environment and enhance their ability to thermo-regulate and conserve fluid, but they cannot adapt to dehydration. Acute dehydration can decrease physical performance and thermoregulation ability and increase the risk for heat illness. Chronic dehydration can reduce metabolic and thermore-gulatory efficiency and...

Target Tissues And Therapeutic Models

Because of the characteristics of the vector, there has only been a small amount of activity in cancer (e.g., 144,145), a target that has attracted a lot of attention from other vector systems. In addition, there have been attempts to use the vectors for lung application, such as cystic fibrosis (146), where some understanding of the issues around tranducing the apical side of the lung epithelial cells has been developed. Other targets include collagen deficiency (147) and kidney disease (148).

Control of Blood Glucose Level

Irrefutable evidence exists that better control of blood glucose concentration reduces the risk of developing long-term complications from diabetes. This is especially true of microvascular complications such as retinopathy (eye disease), nephropathy (kidney disease), and nerve damage in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Control of blood glucose also reduces the risk of macrovascular disease (heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease), although the contribution of blood glucose to these complications is less strong.

Prevention or Control of Comorbidities

Morbidity and mortality among people with diabetes are rarely due to acute hyperglycemia or diabetic ketoacidosis. Rather, the long-term complications are either specific to diabetes (e.g., diabetic retinopathy or nephropathy) or accelerated by diabetes (e.g., atherosclerosis). Diabetes significantly increases the risk of coronary artery, cerebro-vascular, and peripheral vascular disease, with these cardiovascular complications accounting for approximately 80 of deaths in diabetes. Prudent dietary management of diabetes therefore requires consideration of what can be done to prevent or control the various comorbidities of this disease. For example, all people with diabetes should be on a diet that minimizes the risk of atherosclerosis. At the first clinical sign of hypertension, dietary methods should be implemented to lower blood pressure.

Examples of Specialist Roles in Dietetics Renal Dietetics

Varying degrees of renal impairment, whether acute or chronic. In the United States, there is a legal requirement related to funding of patient care that states that a qualified dietitian must be part of the professional team that develops long- and short-term care plans for renal patients. The dietitian, together with the nephrologist, has responsibility for nutritional assessment, the diet prescription, and for monitoring responses to treatment. In addition, he or she must be able to devise appropriate individualised dietary plans, taking into account any other ongoing disease processes or conditions (e.g., diabetes mellitus), and will teach the patient and family how to manipulate the diet. The dietitian will also monitor dietary compliance. A thorough knowledge of physiology and the pathological processes involved in the various kidney diseases and an ability to interpret the patient's biochemical data are therefore essential for the renal dietitian. Some disorders may resolve...

Uncommon Chronic Systemic Inflammatory Disorders Periodic Fever Syndromes

The eastern Mediterranean sea (particularly in Sephardic and Iraqi Jews, Armenians, and Levantine Arabs) and rare in North America and Northern Europeans. A more severe form is seen in North African Jews correlated with homozygosity for M694V (126). FMF has a favorable response to treatment with colchicine, with reduction in the frequency of attacks or preventing them completely. Treatment should be continued for life, but without treatment or with inadequate treatment, amyloidosis is frequent. Early diagnosis using genetic analysis, followed by early treatment with colchicines, will reduce the risk of renal failure secondary to amyloidosis. TNF receptor inhibitors such as etanercept also provide a rational approach to treatment.

Dietary protein and amino acids

Major concerns about using higher-protein diets, particularly those rich in animal products, are an increased risk of renal failure and the association of cholesterol and, especially, saturated fatty acids with cardiovascular disease. There is little evidence for adverse effects of high-protein diets on renal function in individuals without established renal disease,134 although it is obvious that caution should be exerted in the case of susceptible groups. Likewise, it appears that moderately high protein diets are not harmful to cardiovascular health and may indeed be beneficial.135-137 In any case, although recent evidence supports potential benefits, rigorous longer-term studies are needed to investigate the safety and effects of high-protein diets on weight loss and weight maintenance.

General Aspects Of Hgf And Met Structure And Activities

In parenchymal organs, HGF is expressed predominantly in mesenchymal or stromal cells while Met HGF receptor is expressed in epithelial cells (24, 27, 37, 38). HGF induces branching tubulogenesis of epithelial cells, as a mesenchymal-derived factor in several tissues, including kidney, lung, and mammary gland. Targeted mutation of HGF or the c-met gene results in impaired development of the liver, placenta, and skeletal muscles and diaphragm (39-41). HGF is essential for long-distance migration of myogenic precursor cells during development of skeletal muscles and the diaphragm. This is a pertinent example of the motogenic activity of HGF during normal biological processes. Physiologically, expression of HGF is regulated in response to tissue injuries and HGF supports regeneration of various organs such as the liver, kidney, lung, and vascular tissues (24, 26, 28). Thus, HGF exerts biological activities to construct or reconstruct normal tissue...

Ordering up a round of lab tests

A blood test can also measure the level of circulating thyroid hormone. If your levels are out of range, you're hypothyroid (low thyroid levels) or hyperthyroid (excessively high levels of thyroid hormone). The doctor can also check a sedimentation rate to identify inflammation, and he can order a chemistry panel, which will show how well (or poorly) your kidneys and liver are functioning. In addition, the urine can be checked for possible kidney disease. High levels of protein in the urine (also known as proteinuria) or of other elements that are not normally present may indicate the beginning of a kidney disease that needs to be treated.

Metabolism and Meat Contamination

Although citrinin-producing fungal strains have been isolated from dry cured meat products (El Kady et al., 1994 Wu, Ayres, & Koehler, 1974b) and it has been demonstrated that citrinin production may occur on dry cured meat (Bailly et al., 2005 Wu, Ayres, & Koehler, 1974a), no data are available on citrinin content in meat products, despite this toxin has been suspected to play a role in Balkan endemic nephropathy (Pfohl-Lezkowicz, Petkova-Bocharova, Chernozemsky, & Castegnaro, 2002) and is mutagenic (Sabater-Vilar, Maas, & Fink-Gremmels, 1999). However, stability studies demonstrated that this mycotoxin is only partially stable in cured ham, as already demonstrated in other animal-derived foods (Bailly, Querin, Bailly, Benard, & Guerre, 2002 Bailly et al., 2005). Nevertheless, it may be of interest to develop methods able to quantify a possible contamination of processed meat with citrinin.

American College of Rheumatology Criteria for a Diagnosis of Definite SLE

Children who have nonspecific symptoms and a positive ANA require routine follow-up to look for evidence of disease. Some physicians simply instruct the parents to bring the child back if more problems develop. I prefer to be proactive and periodically look for problems. This often allows me to begin therapy before the problems become more serious. It is well known that children with SLE may develop kidney disease and damage to other organs without initially

Effects on the Reproductive System

Epimedium has been reported to have proreproductive effects in the popular press. Teeguarden (52) anecdotally reported that E. sagittatum seemed to stimulate the sensory nerves throughout the body, particularly in the genital region. The effect of Epimedium herb on the testes, prostate gland, and leva-tor ani muscle (which supports the body in thrusting movements) was reported to enhance male sexual function indirectly (53). E. sagittatum appeared to have a sexual potentiation effect and to improve the quality of life in the patients of chronic renal failure with regular hemodialysis (39). Icariin from Epimedium could inhibit contraction of arterial smooth muscle rings that restrict blood flow in the body, via a Ca2 + channel-blocking mechanism, further enhancing vasodilation (48). On the other hand, the chief ingredient of Epimedium herb, icariin, can promote the development of epididymes and seminal vesicle of mouse. In vitro animal studies suggest that icariin may enhance the...

Ehrlichiosis human monocytic

Severe symptoms of the disease may include prolonged fever, kidney failure, meningoencephalitis, seizures, or coma. Between 2 percent and 3 percent of patients may die from the infection. While many of the symptoms overlap with Lyme, the HGE symptoms tend to peak very quickly, moving from health to severe debilitation in a few hours.

Aspirin Death Sentence

Do you know you can die from taking aspirin Aspirin can thin your blood too much. You can get ulcers, have a stroke, and even fractures heal more slowly with aspirin use. The aspirin makers lead people to believe that it is a vitamin, but aspirin can actually cause liver and kidney disease. The American public has been deceived. What you eat, drink, and smoke causes inflammation. Sugar, dairy, too much red meat, trans fat, and soda create an inflammatory state in your blood vessels. Focus on flax oil and olive oil, brown rice syrup in baked goods, almond, rice or oat milk, chicken, turkey, fish, and herbal tea or water. Eat fresh vegetables daily.

Heart Involvement in SLE

Another problem for children with SLE is the development of arteriosclerosis, the hardening of the arteries that occurs normally as people get older. In its severe forms, it causes narrowing of the coronary arteries, which leads to heart attack. Chronic use of corticosteroids promotes the development of arteriosclerosis, so children who have received a lot of corticosteroids may develop arteriosclerosis in their teens or twenties. High cholesterol levels (which may occur in children with severe kidney damage) also promote arteriosclerosis. High blood pressure may be a consequence of corticosteroids and or kidney disease. Inflammation in the blood vessels promotes high blood pressure and arteriosclerosis, too. Some children with SLE have all of these factors. As a result, a number of children with lupus who have been treated with moderate doses of corticos-teroids for many years will have a heart attack in their twenties or thirties. This is one of the strongest arguments for using...

Indications Purple Star Thistle

Amenorrhea (f BOU) Anorexia (f BOU VAD) Bacteria (1 MPG) Brucella (1 MPG) Cancer (f BIB JLH) Cold (f VAD) Corns (f JLH) Diabetes (f1 MPG VAD) Dyskinesia (f VAD) Fever (f BIB EFS) Fistula (f BIB WO2) Flu (f VAD) Gallstone (f HJP) Gravel (f BIB WO2) Headache (f BOU) High Blood Pressure (1 MPG) Hyperglycemia (f VAD) Infection (1 MPG) Jaundice (f BIB) Kidney stone (f HJP) Malaria (f BOU) Mycobacterium (1 MPG) Nephrosis (f BOU HJP) Ophthalmia (f BOU) Pain (f BOU) Pseudomonas (1 MPG) Salmonella (1 MPG) Staphylococcus (1 MPG) Stone (f BIB BOU WO2) Wound (f BOU) Worm (f BOU).

Immunizations for adults

Immunizations for adults Anyone over age 65 should get several vaccines, including a tetanus diphtheria (Td) every 10 years, an INFLUENZA vaccine each fall, and one dose of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine with a booster every six years for transplant recipients, patients without a spleen, or anyone with chronic kidney failure. See also IMMUNIZATION VACCINE.

Laboratory Testing And Typical Patterns Of Disease In Children With

Further evaluation of patients with SLE led to the discovery of the extracta-ble nuclear antigens Ro, La, Sm, and RNP (see Chapter 22). A lot of time and effort have gone into determining the importance of antibodies to these antigens. They do seem to be associated with different patterns of disease, but again there is not enough certainty to make definitive predictions. The clearest associations are with Ro and Sm. Often Ro antibodies are found in children with more rash, greater than average complaints of arthritis, and relatively less kidney disease. A high titer of Ro, high RNP, and low or absent Sm have been described as typical of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD see Chapter 10). Over the years a variety of studies have suggested that adults with SLE who are Ro-positive

Alteration in the process of differentation and muscle repair

Is increased following dialysis (Gustein 2001) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-P), IL-1, and interleukin-2 (IL-2) in patients with chronic fatigue (Dunlop and Campbell 2000). Fatigue related to cancer treatment is another example of the development of this symptom outside the context of cancer cachexia. Increased IL-1 levels coincided with increased fatigue perception in the fourth week of external beam irradiation in a study of prostate cancer patients (Greenberg et al. 1993). It is also well known that fatigue is a major symptom of biotherapy (Richardson 1995 Quesada et al. 1986 Kurzok 2001 Malik et al. 2001). However, other studies found no relationship between fatigue and cytokine levels (Stone et al. 1998).

Cardiovascular Health

One method of measuring the earliest development of accelerated atherosclerosis is by examining the carotid intimal-media wall thickness using sophisticated ultrasonagraphy. In one study of pediatric patients with SLE, patients were shown to have a significantly higher carotid intimal-wall thickness (IMT) compared with healthy controls (28). Children with nephrotic range proteinuria were found to have the highest IMT measurements. These data suggests that aggressive attempts should be undertaken to treat children and adolescents with nephrotic lupus nephritis, in order to help prevent later CHD.

Longterm Outcomes Of Juvenile Onset

Mortality of juvenile onset SLE, as measured in the short term (5- and 10-year survival), has most certainly improved greatly over the last decades. Survival for children and adolescents with SLE is excellent in most pediatric rheumatology centers, with recent data showing 5-year survival of 100 , and 10-year survival of 85 in a cohort of patients followed in the British Columbia Children's Hospital Pediatric Rheumatology Program. (9). In a cohort of pediatric SLE patients with nephritis followed in Toronto Canada, survival was 94 at an average of 11 years follow-up (32). A report of a similar cohort of pediatric SLE patients with nephritis from Italy showed 75 patient survival at 10 years (37). These data compare with survival rates in the 1970's of less than 40 at 10 years for pediatric patients with SLE and renal disease, and 75 at 10 years for pediatric patients treated with immunosuppressive medications (33).

Toxicology And Adverse Side Effects

No death was observed following a single oral dose of Sch B at 2 g kg in rats (49). In addition, an intragastric dose of 200 mg of Sch B for 30 days caused no significant changes in body weight, blood parameters, or histolog-ical parameters of major organs in mice (49). Furthermore, Sch B, when given at 10 mg kg daily for 4 weeks, did not affect appetite, blood parameters, liver or kidney functions, as well as liver histological parameters in dogs (49). Information on clinical toxicity of lignans is scarce. Two cases of interaction between cyclosporin and DDB in kidney transplant patients with chronic hepatitis have been reported, in which cyclosporin was decreased to a subtherapeutic level (132).


In addition to its central effects, the administration of MPTP may lead to systemic effects that may prove detrimental to any animal during the induction of a parkinsonian state. For example, the peripheral conversion of MPTP to MPP+ in the liver could lead to toxic injury of the liver and heart. To address these potential peripheral effects of MPTP, squirrel monkeys were administered MPTP (a series of six subcutaneous injections of 2 mg kg, free-base, two weeks apart) and were given a comprehensive exam 1, 4, and 10 days after each injection. This exam included measurements of body weight, core body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, liver and kidney function, and white blood cell count. Biochemical markers of hepa-tocellular toxicity were evident within days of MPTP lesioning and persisted for several weeks after the last injection. In addition, animals had significant hypothermia within 48 hours after lesioning that persisted for up to 10 days after the last MPTP injection...

Governmental Overview

Followed by low blood pressure and heart rate severe itching, temperature reversal, numbness tingling of extremities that may last months Watery diarrhea, nausea vomiting appearing within hours to a week after eating severe cases include blood diarrhea enterhemorrhagic infection includes bloody diarrhea and kidney failure Explosive diarrhea, foul-smelling, greasy feces, stomach pain, gas, appetite loss,

Conclusion And Perspectives

HGF exerts dramatic effects on reconstruction of normal tissues in experimental animals with tissue injury and tissue fibrosis. Clinical application of HGF for treatment of patients with organ failure and organ fibrosis (e.g., liver fibrosis, chronic renal failure, lung fibrosis) will begin within a few years. An antagonistic molecule for HGF is expected to be effective for treatment of cancer patients. These 'two-pronged approaches' in studies of HGF are being closely scrutinized for possible application for tissue repair remodeling and cancer prevention.

Prognosis For Children With Sjogrens Syndrome

The long-term prognosis for children with primary Sjogren's syndrome is unclear. Some children develop other rheumatic diseases over time. In that case, the underlying rheumatic disease determines the prognosis. Failure to attend properly to recurrent ocular or dental problems may have significant consequences. Serious complications related to kidney disease and vasculitis are infrequent. Because Sjogren's syndrome is rare in childhood, there are no good reports describing the extended follow-up of children with this diagnosis.

Human Health Effects

It has been suggested for several decades that excessive exposure to OA plays a substantive role in the development of BEN. BEN is a bilateral, noninflammatory, chronic nephropathy in which the kidneys are extremely reduced in size and weight and show diffuse cortical fibrosis. Functional impairments are characterized by progressive hypercreatininemia, hyperuremia, and hypochromic anemia. In an endemic area of Croatia, an extremely high incidence of urinary tract tumors in the endemic areas for BEN, particularly urothelial tumors of the pelvis and ureter, has been reported. In Bulgaria, 16 cases of urinary tract tumors were reported among 33 autop-sied patients with BEN. A causal relationship between exposure to OA and these human diseases is suggested by (i) similarities in the morphological and functional renal impairments induced by OA in animals and those observed in BEN and (ii) the finding that foods from the endemic areas are more heavily contaminated with OA than foods from...

Contraindications And Precautions

Goldenseal is contraindicated in kidney disease because of inadequate excretion of the alkaloids (Blumenthal et al 2003). Berberine has been found to be a potent displacer of bilirubin (Chen 1993). A review published in 1996 stated that berberine can cause severe acute haemolysis and jaundice in babies with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (Ho 1996). Goldenseal is therefore not recommended in pregnancy, lactation or cases of neonatal jaundice. Goldenseal is also contraindicated

Diuretics and diuretic combinations

In addition, the risk of sudden death has been shown to rise with increasing doses of thiazide diuretics and to be reduced with the addition of a potassium-sparing compound. In general, fixed diuretic combinations are well tolerated and have remarkably few adverse effects. In combinations containing high doses of ACE inhibitors or ARBs hyperkalemia is of concern in susceptible patients, such as patients with diabetes or chronic renal failure. In rare instances, triamterene has been associated with kidney stones. Spironolactone is known to cause gynecomastia, impotence, menstrual irregularities, and, rarely, agranulocytosis. However, these endocrine adverse effects usually occur at higher doses (above 25 mg day) only. In the Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study (RALES) 38 , spironolactone was shown to decrease morbidity and mortality when added to standard triple therapy in patients with heart failure. A novel aldosterone antagonist (eplerenone) is...

Hearing problems genetic 239

Alport's disease This genetic condition causes kidney inflammation in childhood, followed by a sensorineural hearing impairment in young adulthood. It is more common among boys than girls. There is no clear relationship between the extent of kidney disease and the onset of deafness. Treatment is supportive, since glucocorticoids and cyto-toxic agents do not help.

Increased severity of Vibrio vulnificus infections in those with underlying liver disease

Septicemia cases, and 35 of gastroenteritis cases had significant pre-existing medical conditions. In particular, V. vulnificus infections were associated with underlying liver disease for both wound infections (OR, 4.9 95 CI, 0.9524.81), and primary septicemia (OR, 2.8 95 CI, 1.6-4.7). Liver disease was a strong predictor of a fatal outcome (OR, 7.4 95 CI, 5.2-10.6) (Shapiro et al., 1998). Elevated iron due to primary hemochromatosis, frequent transfusions, and other causes is recognized as a risk factor for many pathogens (Wright et al., 1981). The availability of iron has long been recognized as an important determinant in bacterial survival and growth in serum, and later investigations demonstrated that excess serum iron compromised host iron-sequestering capability and immune response (Hor et al., 2000). One of the mechanisms by which liver disease directly increases the risk of V. vulnificus septicemia is the impaired production of acute phase proteins (like C-reactive protein),...

Prevalence and Risk Factors

Risk factors for acute gout other than hyperurice-mia have been identified. All risk factors act either by increasing serum uric acid levels or by reducing the solubility of uric acid in the joints. For example, male sex, alcohol ingestion, obesity, and weight gain are associated with increased uric acid production, whereas diuretics (thiazides and loop diuretics), low-dose salicylates, and renal insufficiency lead to reduced clearance of uric acid. Hypertension has been associated with increased risk of gout, but this effect probably operates through renal insufficiency, which occurs as a result of hypertension and diuretic therapy. Lead, on the other hand, has been shown to directly reduce the solubility of uric acid in synovial fluid, whereas lead nephropathy also leads to reduced clearance of uric acid the gout associated with lead toxicity is known as saturnine gout. Joint trauma and cooling of distal joints also reduce solubility of uric acid and increase the risk of an acute...

Complications Prognosis And Prevention

Preventive measures for patients other than the transplant and chemotherapy population require addressing the underlying risk factors for developing zygomycosis. Adequate control of diabetes, the use of iron chelators other than deferoxamine (such as substitution of hydroxypyridinone chelators for deferoxamine in patients who require such therapy), limitation of the use of aluminum-containing buffers in dialysis, and aggressive direct and culture-based detection of zygomycosis are among the best preventive measures. Keeping a high level of suspicion for zygomycosis in patients at risk can aid in early diagnosis and implementation of appropriate therapy.

What are the most common symptoms of diabetes

The common and early symptoms of diabetes result from the effect of the high blood sugar entering the urine and drawing fluid from the body's tissues along with it. This leads to excess urine production with frequent urination. The loss of body fluid leads to thirst, in order to replace the fluid loss. As long as the person with diabetes is able to keep pace with his or her thirst by regular fluid intake, he or she will remain relatively well. However, without free access to fluid, which can occur for a variety of reasons, one will become dehydrated, which leads to dizziness upon standing upright drowsiness, confusion, and ultimately fainting and unconsciousness. Due to the wasting of calories as glucose in the urine, patients will complain of hunger and will usually lose weight if high blood sugar is very marked. However, it is important to note that only a minority of people with diabetes will experience these symptoms. Frequently, the degree of high blood sugar is more moderate,...

Diabetes Complications

People with diabetes are at increased risk for serious long-term complications. Hyperglycemia, as measured by fasting plasma glucose concentration or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), causes structural and functional changes in the retina, nerves, kidneys, and blood vessels. This damage can lead to blindness, numbness, reduced circulation, amputations, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease. Type 1 diabetes is more likely to lead to kidney failure. About 40 percent of people with type 1 diabetes develop severe kidney disease and kidney failure by the age of fifty. Nevertheless, between 1993 and 1997, more than 100,000 people in the United States were treated for kidney failure caused by type 2 diabetes. African Americans experience higher rates of diabetes-related complications such as eye disease, kidney failure, and amputations. They also experience greater disability from these complications. The frequency of diabetic retinopathy (disease of the small blood vessels in the retina...

Hypocholesterolemic Activity

That no significant changes in blood cell counts, liver and kidney function as well as other indexes were observed after consumption of hawthorn. Out of the 73 subjects studied, only 7 patients dropped out, 3 of them attributed to intolerance to the acidity of the juice (pH 3.5) while the remaining had problems unrelated to the trial.

Vitamins and Minerals

The standard oral and intravenous vitamin intake and what is currently being given at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center and UCLA Medical Center are listed in Table 4. Also included are the few exceptions to the routine intravenous amounts for both Tables 4 and 5. The mineral and trace element requirements are listed in Table 5. These vitamin, mineral, and trace mineral recommendations are for hospitalized cancer patients and noncancer patients who are hospitalized. They should not have oliguric renal failure or cholastatic liver disease. In acute oliguric renal failure, vitamins A and D should be reduced or eliminated from the enteral or parenteral solutions. Potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, and selenium should be reduced or eliminated. Iron and chromium are known to accumulate in renal failure and should be removed from the par-enteral or enteral formulations. In cholastatic liver disease, the trace elements copper and manganese are excreted via the biliary tree in the bile and...

Preventing Diabetic Complications

In diabetic patients with neuropathy, retinopathy or nephropathy, sorbitokglucose ratios are significantly higher than in those without these complications and ratios increase as complications become more severe (Aida et al 1990b). As licorice and its component isoliquiritigenin have been shown to inhibit aldolase reductase and suppress sorbitol accumulation in red blood cells in vitro (Aida et al 1990b, Zhou & Zhang 1990), a theoretical basis exists for its use in the prevention of diabetic complications.

Restless Legs Syndrome RLS

Symptoms include an irresistible urge to move the legs, sensations of creeping, crawling, numbness, itching, tugging, and tingling. These symptoms tend to become worse during prolonged sitting or at night and improve when the legs are moved. Severe RLS can also involve the arms and even the trunk. RLS is thought to be occasionally associated with attention deficit disorder (ADD) and commonly occurs with end-stage renal (kidney) disease dialysis. The diagnosis is based on history and physical exam, and sometimes a sleep study will be ordered to check for other sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea. For those whose RLS disrupts or prevents their sleep, medications used to promote sleep might include anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, opioids, and dopamine agonists. People who do not respond to treatment with sleep medications also may benefit from iron, B-12, and folic acid supplements. Pregnant and perimenopausal women are at higher risk for RLS due to iron...

Vitamin B6 for the Treatment of Depression

There is a great deal of evidence that deficiency of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is a factor in depressive illness, and many antidepres-sant drugs act to decrease its catabolism or enhance its interaction with receptors. A key enzyme involved in the synthesis of serotonin (and the catecholamines) is aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, which is pyridoxal phosphate-dependent. Therefore, it has been suggested that vitamin B6 deficiency may result in reduced formation of the neurotransmitters and thus be a factor in the etiology of depression. Conversely, it has been suggested that supplements of vitamin B6 may increase aromatic amino acid decarboxylase activity, and increase amine synthesis and have a mood-elevating or antidepressant effect. There is little evidence that vitamin B6 deficiency affects the activity of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase. In patients with kidney failure, undergoing renal dialysis, the brain concentration of pyridoxal phosphate falls to about 50 of normal,...

Osteoporosis and Osteopenia

If your child is taking anticonvulsants (medicines for seizures), diuretics (medicine to help kidney function), or corticosteroids, he or she should be monitored carefully. If a child is discovered to have osteoporosis or osteopenia and is not known to have arthritis or be taking medicines that cause the problem, he or she should be evaluated by an endocrinologist or bone specialist to determine the cause. Young female athletes who train extensively while eating poorly are at particular risk for osteoporosis and stress fractures. Teenagers should be specifically counseled that both alcohol and smoking increase the risk of osteoporosis.

Antihypertensive Effects

High blood pressure is associated with decreased life expectancy and increased risk of stroke, coronary heart disease, and other end-organ diseases such as renal failure. Ginseng contains active compounds that normalize blood pressure. The effect of a certain drug on blood pressure can be analyzed by investigating the effect of the drug on the smooth muscle of blood vessels. It is well established that blood vessel smooth muscle tone is regulated by the available intracellular Ca2+ concentration, which in turn is profoundly influenced by interaction of the cellular membrane and sarcoplasmic reticu-lum in the smooth muscle. It was found that both protopanxatriol and

Could I have had diabetes for a long time and not known it

As you would have experienced complications. However, milder degrees of diabetes are often without obvious symptoms, although in retrospect patients will realize that all was not well when they start to feel the benefits of treatment. Studies have shown that, on average, type 2 diabetes has been present for several years by the time it is diagnosed. It is important that asymptomatic diabetes is detected and treated, because it can lead to serious health consequences, which may be irreversible when detected. About one of every three people has detectable neuropathy (nerve damage) at the time of diagnosis, indicating that longstanding diabetes has been present. Less commonly, eye damage (retinopathy) and or kidney damage (nephropathy) are discovered at the time of diagnosis. These are serious consequences of diabetes and are the leading causes of blindness and kidney failure in working age adults in the United States, as well as much of the industrialized world. As serious, or even more...

Materials and methods

Contamination usually occurs in the infusion system inner environment and the implantation site may show no local signs even if the portacath is left unused. However, inflammation signs, often accompanied by thrombophlebitis, may be present at the site of the venous access system. The diagnosis can be verified with a bacteriological study of the fluid present in the infusion system and if it is, the venous access system has to be removed. The main cause of infusion system contamination is the medical staff's failure to comply with basic rules of infection prevention, which include washing hands and using sterile gloves and masks. One of the leading causes of contamination is multiple normal saline withdrawal from one 400 ml bottle (5 - 10 ml of normal saline are mixed with a 25000 IU heparin solution to prepare the infusion system lock). The 400 ml bottle is not changed within a shift and is stored under inadequate conditions. As a result, the absence of pharmaceutical forms for...

Assessment of Mg Status

The parenteral loading test is probably the best available marker for the diagnosis of Mg deficiency. The Mg retention after parenteral administration of Mg seems to reflect the general intracel-lular Mg content, and a Mg retention more than 20 of the administered Mg suggests Mg deficiency. However, this test is not valid in the case of abnormal urinary Mg excretion and is contraindicated in renal failure.

Caveats for the Diagnosis of Secondary Undernutrition

Ill patients with adequate or excessive body mass indices can manifest metabolic substrate metabolism reminiscent of the severe malnutrition syndromes of adult kwashiorkor or marasmus (inanition). Moreover, fluctuations in weight under acute or semia-cute situations often reflect changes in fluid balance. This is also the situation in patients with end-stage renal failure undergoing chronic dialysis. Methods such as bioelectrical impedance, dual X-ray absor-bance, or isotope dilution in association with indirect calorimetry can assess true lean- and fat-mass status and macronutrient metabolism in patients of apparently normal body mass.

History Of Diabetic Pregnancies

I remember seeing the movie Steel Magnolias when I was a senior in high school and leaving the theater in tears. I knew that the movie was based on a true story about a young woman with diabetes who died from kidney failure. Seeing the movie was a powerful moment, because when I was diagnosed at 14 years old, the concept of motherhood was vague and distant. I still didn't imagine myself as anyone's mother as a senior in high school, but I had never imagined that I couldn't either. Steel Magnolias was a horror movie for thousands of young women with diabetes, setting fire to the fear that having children and becoming a mother would be a death sentence. It's been 20 years since the movie was released and even though advances in diabetes care and education has proven that women with diabetes can have healthy pregnancies and healthy babies, the myth and fear of Steel Magnolias remains strong.

Side Effects of NSAIDs

In some children using NSAIDs, the kidneys become irritated, resulting in a condition called interstitial nephritis. This is a more serious condition that requires stopping the NSAID. It may have to be treated with steroids and could result in permanent damage. Routine urine tests are part of monitoring for side effects of NSAIDs in order to detect any signs of this problem. It may not occur until many months or years after starting the medication. This is why the monitoring must continue.

Insulin Analogues in Children and Teens with Type 1 Diabetes Advantages and Caveats

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is a chronic, metabolic disorder that most commonly presents during childhood and is characterized by absolute insulin deficiency. T1D is caused by selective immune-mediated autoreactive T-cell destruction of beta cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans 1 . Insulin deficiency leads to chronic hyperglycemia and other disturbances of intermediary metabolism. As a result, individuals who have diabetes are at risk of developing progressive long-term microvascular (eg, retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy) and macrovascular (eg, cerebral, coronary, and peripheral vascular disease) complications 2 . The seminal trial in T1D, the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, proved in adults and adolescents that the onset and progression of the microvascular complications can be prevented or delayed by tight control of blood glucose levels 2-4 .

Pathophysiology of Genetic Metabolic Disorders in Nucleotide Metabolism

The important physiological roles played by the nucleic acid precursor rNTP and dNTP molecules in humans has become apparent since the 1970s by the recognition of 28 different inborn errors of purine and pyrimidine metabolism. The spectrum of clinical manifestations ranges from fatal immunodeficiency syndromes to muscle weakness, severe neurological deficits, anemia, renal failure, gout, and urolithiasis (uric acid kidney stones).

Downsides White Willow

Salicylates tannins (AHP, 1997). Commission E reports for oral use of bark, contraindications, adverse effects, and interactions on theoretical grounds similar to those of the salicylates (AEH). (All plants contain salicylates.) In view of the lack of toxicological data, excessive use, especially during lactation and pregnancy, should be avoided. Individuals with aspirin hypersen-sitivity, asthma, diabetes, gastrosis, gout, hemophilia, hepatosis, hypothrombinaemia, nephrosis, and peptic ulcers should be cautious with salicylates. Alcohol, barbiturates, and oral sedatives may potentiate salicylate toxicity. Beware of salicylate interaction with oral anticoagulants, methotrex-ate, metoclopramide, phenytoin, pronebecid, spironolactone, and valproate. Salicylates excreted in breast milk reportedly can cause macular rashes in breast-fed babies. Salicylate toxicity may cause dermatosis, gastrosis, hematochezia, nausea, nephrosis, tinnitus, and vomiting (CAN). Excessive use of the...

Hazard Identification

Pinals and coworkers (1977) treated 30 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 30 controls daily with capsules containing 4.5 g of L-histidine for 30 weeks in a double-blind trial followed by 19 patients receiving this dosage for 10 additional months in a period of open treatment. It is not clear which adverse effects were examined however, the authors concluded that no adverse effects of the histidine therapy were noted. In a similar double-blind treatment design, Blumenkrantz and co-workers (1975) treated 42 patients (16 chronic uremic and 26 undergoing maintenance dialysis) with oral doses of 4 g d of L-histidine for 17.5 weeks. No adverse effects were reported however, it was not evident from the report which adverse effects were examined.

Adverse Effects And Reactions Allergies And Toxicity

Could be a sign of impaired renal function (Ogbonnia et al., 2009). There was an elevation in plasma creatinine concentration, which indirectly suggests kidney damage, specifically of the renal filtration mechanism (Wasan et al., 2001). The seed extract in high doses may cause kidney damage. Also, there was an increase in the AST level only in the animals treated with high doses of the extract, while a decrease in ALT level was observed in all treated animals. This implies that the extract might not have caused any toxic effect on the liver and heart tissues at low and moderate doses, but could have some deleterious effects on the heart tissue in high doses (Ogbonnia et al., 2009). Calcium levels were not affected in any of the treated animals, while a significant increase in the level of phosphorus was observed only in the animals treated with the highest dose of the extract, which could be associated with renal failure. Since there was an increase in creatinine and phosphorus levels...

Artificial Nutrition Support Home Parenteral Nutrition and Home Enteral Tube Feeding

Expert advice and treatment in hospital. With the increasing pressure for hospital beds and the increasing cost of hospital care, many forms of treatment that were previously restricted to the hospital environment have extended to the community, including renal dialysis, cytotoxic drug therapy, HETF, and HPN. HETF has grown rapidly so that its prevalence in several developed countries is now several times greater than in hospital. In contrast, PN is still practiced less commonly outside hospital than in hospital and is likely to remain so in the foreseeable future. Both forms of treatment have led to the development of professional teams specialising in nutritional support in both the hospital and the community. These teams deal with problems ranging from simple day-to-day management issues to difficult ethical problems, such as concerning withholding or withdrawing nutritional support.

Antioxidant Potential Of Sms Determined In Vitro

Ancient TCM theory states that the physical condition of the human body is controlled by the interaction of five elemental organs, heart, liver, kidney, lung, and spleen, although the nature of these organs is not the same as understood in Western medicine. The brain was not classified in the five elemental organs but its function is considered strictly related to liver, kidney, and heart functions. Therefore, it is worth examining protective effects on cerebral oxidative damage by TCM prescriptions that have been used for treating complex diseases, especially related to heart, lung, or kidney failure. In this sense, it is interesting to study the effect of SMS on cerebral oxidative injury.

Role of Exercise in Disease Prevention

Even more important, several of these factors are interrelated. For example, when an individual lowers his or her high blood pressure, the risk for heart disease, stroke, and kidney disease is also reduced. Another example is that exercise favorably alters blood lipid profiles. These profiles include

Monitoring and Management

Evaluation of visceral proteins, such as albumin or prealbumin, has historically been an important part of nutrition assessment. These markers, however, may not adequately reflect an accurate picture of nutritional status or response to therapy because of other conditions, such as nephropathy, enteropathy, liver disease, or volume overload. Additionally, these visceral protein levels are often

Microbial iron acquisition

The ability of malleobactin to mobilize iron from LF and TF was examined in an equilibrium dialysis assay in the absence of bacteria (Yang et al., 1993). Malleobactin was capable of removing iron from both LF and TF at pH values of 7.4, 6.0, and 5.0. However, the levels of iron mobilization were greater for TF than for LF at all the pH values used in the assay. Bordetella bronchisepticci uses a hydroxamate siderophore for removal of iron from LF and TF rather than relying upon a receptor for these host iron-binding proteins (Foster & Dyer, 1993).

Water is essential to the fat burning process

Not only do you need plenty of water for good health, you also need water to lose fat. Here's why One of the important functions of your kidneys is to eliminate toxic waste products from your body through the urine. When you're dehydrated, the body's instinctive reaction is to hold on to whatever water it does have in order to survive. When this water retention occurs, the waste products in the body aren't flushed out, and build up in your system. At this point, the liver will try to help out with the overload. The problem is, when the liver helps out during fluid retention, it can't do its own jobs as efficiently, one of which is burning stored body fat for energy. The result is that your body may not be able to burn body fat as efficiently as normal.

Chronology of Problems

Arthritis, diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, osteoporosis, alcoholism, ulcers, kidney disease, liver disease, migraine, tuberculosis, stroke, psychiatric problems, epilepsy, lung disease, venereal disease, sciatica, drug dependency, thyroid disease, hepatitis, skin disorders, AIDS, fractures, multiple sclerosis, endometriosis, lupus, cancer, heart attack, carpal tunnel, breast implants, irritable bowel, Sjogren's, asthma, posttraumatic stress, sinusitis, vasculitis

Effects Of Cordyceps On The Kidney

Cordyceps has been used extensively to improve kidney function and to protect against the damage caused by certain nephrotoxic chemicals (50,51). In kidney-transplanted recipients, Cordyceps protected the kidney from cyclosporine-mediated nephrotoxicity. Sixty-nine kidney-transplanted recipients, who had stable transplant renal function at least 3 months after grafting, were divided into two groups at random. Each recipient was given cyclosporine at the dose of 5 mg kg day for 15 days. Group A (control, n 39) was administered as placebo (glucose) 3 g while group B (n 30) was administered 3 g of Cordyceps simultaneously. In both groups, the levels of F2, a fraction isolated from the methanol extract of Cordyceps, significantly inhibited the proliferation of human mesangial cells in cultures that were activated by IL-1 and IL-6. The immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) mice (a mouse model for Berger's disease) when fed with 1 F-2 in diet showed a reduction of hematuria and proteinuria...

Indications Milk Thistle

HHB) Fibrosis (1 CGH) Food Allergies (1 WAM) Gallstones (1 HHB MAB SKY HC020444-262 NP9(2) 6) Gastrosis (f APA) Hematuria (f HC020444-262 NP9(2) 6) Hemoptysis (f BIB) Hemorrhage (f KAB MCK) Hemorrhoid (f BIB HHB MAB WOI) Hepatosis (f12 KOM PH2 SHT WAM) Hepatosis A (1 BGB) High Blood Pressure (1 MCK HC020444-262) High Cholesterol (1 MAB) High Triglycerides (1 CGH X15177299) Hydrophobia (f BIB GMH) Hypereme-sis (f1 NP9(2) 6) Hypotonia (f HH3) Infection (f HHB) Inflammation (f1 APA HC020444-262 X15617879) Intoxication (1 FAD) Insulin Resistance (1 SYN) Itch (1 MAB) Jaundice (f2 BIB HH3 MAB PH2 PNC WAM) Leukemia (f1 HC020444-262 NP9(2) 6) Leukorrhea (f BIB) Malaria (f1 BIB HHB PHR PH2 HC020444-262) Menopause (f HHB) Metastasis (1 X15224346) Metrorrhagia (f HHB) Migraine (f HH3) MS (f ACT9 251) MS (1 HC020444-262) Mushroom Poisoning (2 FAD SHT) Myalgia (1 HC020444-262) Nausea (f1 MAB Cyto-protective (1 NP9(2) 6) Nephrosis (f12 BGB NP9(2) 6) Neurosis (f ACT9 251) Obesity (1 PNC) Oligolactea...

Older Immunosuppressive Agents Cyclosporine and Tacrolimus

Cyclosporine interferes with the immune system and has essentially the same risks as the other immunosuppressive drugs. The larger doses used to prevent organ transplant rejection are often associated with kidney damage (renal toxic-ity), but at the low dosages used for children with arthritis, this side effect is uncommon. However, children on cyclosporine should have all the normal monitoring tests with extra attention to make sure the urine and blood pressure are checked routinely. Changes in blood pressure or evidence of kidney irritation do occasionally occur at low doses, but with proper monitoring the drug can be discontinued as soon as they appear. In children who are carefully monitored, side effects are infrequent and generally resolve quickly with discontinuation of the drug.

Elka Jacobson Dickman MDa b Lynne Levitsky MDab

Most cases of diabetes in childhood are immunologically mediated and eventually lead to complete insulin deficiency. Oral therapies for children with type 1 autoimmune diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are experimental and of unproven efficacy. Eight percent to 45 of children with newly diagnosed diabetes have non-immune-mediated diabetes 1 . Oral medication is often a feasible option for this group of children. The phenotype of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is similar in adults and children and includes hyperglycemia, obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. Patients who have T2DM are at risk for the same cluster of long-term complications as persons with T1DM, including nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy 2 . Children and young people who have T2DM have a greater risk of early retinopathy and nephropathy than youth with T1DM and have a greater risk of macrovascular disease 3 . The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) showed that aggressive treatment of hyperglycemia...

Antinephritic Activity

Aceteoside, given from the first day after i.v. injection of anti-GBM serum, inhibits protein excretion into urine on crescentic-type anti-GBM nephritis in rats. In the acteoside-treated rats, cholesterol and creatine contents and antibody production against rabbit g-globulin in the plasmas were lower than those of the nephritic control rats. Histological observation demonstrated that this agent suppresses hyper-cellularity and crescent formation, adhesion of capillary wall to Bowman's capsule, and fibrinoid necrosis in the glomeruli. Furthermore, rat IgG and C3 deposits on the GBM were significantly less in the acteoside-treated group than in the control nephritic group. When the treatment was started from the twentieth day after i.v. injection of anti-GBM serum, by which time the disease had been established, aceteoside resulted in a similar effect on the nephritic rats as stated above. These results suggest that aceteoside may be a useful...

Joseph R Leventhal Indications

The indication for primary radial artery-cephalic vein fistula is end stage renal disease requiring long-term hemodialysis access. Ideally, fistula creation should precede the need for hemodialysis by several months in order to allow for adequate maturation before use. Careful physical examination should be performed to rule out arterial insufficiency in the upper extremity intended for use. Examination of the cephalic vein under tourniquet should be performed to ensure the absence of stenosis or thrombosis in the forearm. Patients with a history of previous central lines, dialysis catheters, and neck chest trauma should be evaluated to rule out central venous obstruction.

Why do some patients with MS become unable to urinate when they have to urinate all day and night

Treatment of bladder dysfunction is usually directed at relieving symptoms and reducing the risk of infection. Ditropan and other anticholinergic drugs are the mainstay of the treatment of urinary frequency and urgency. Unfortunately, these drugs tend to produce dryness of the mouth. Often, patients prefer to use the drugs only at night to reduce wakening and risk of incontinence. These drugs can be useful when patients with urinary frequency and urgency have to leave their homes. Urinary catheterization is sometimes necessary to achieve bladder emptying and can help prevent recurrent bladder infections and complicating kidney damage. If catheterization is recommended, it should

Renal Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

The true secondary hyperparathyroidism of chronic renal failure (CRF) has been extremely difficult to treat by clinicians because of high Pi and PTH concentrations in this condition. Traditional treatment includes the use of binders (chemical) to prevent Pi absorption from the small intestine. In recent years, a calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) in the parathyroid

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