Cyclical Ketogenic Diets Review

High Carb Fat Loss

Rusty Moore, a fitness advisor and a fitness writer, created this high Carb Fat Loss program. Over the years, Rusty Moore has advised several men and women especially those that need to add definition while staying slim and fit. He has been researching and writing on matters fitness for about 10 years teaching the definition without excess size training methods. He has some Visual impact fitness courses that he uses to impact the society on matters fitness and health. This program works perfectly for vegan and non-veggie lovers. The book contains two regimen one with meat and the other one without. Regardless of the category you fall, you will get an arrangement that works for you in the book. High Carb Fat Loss has all the tricks and tips to help you get in shape and at the same time look youthful. The product also increases insulin activity which can reduce dangers of diabetes. Additionally, the program will enhance your digestion which can make you eat better. Once you finalize the payments, you will get the full product which is available in PDF formats. It's a perfect match for almost everybody in the market that wants an eating routine arrangement to make them lean but at the same time don't want to go on a keto eating routine. Continue reading...

High Carb Fat Loss Summary


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High Carb Fat Loss Review

Highly Recommended

This is one of the best ebooks I have read on this field. The writing style was simple and engaging. Content included was worth reading spending my precious time.

As a whole, this manual contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

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Highfat diets cause ketosis and make you ill

Ketosis is a condition in which ketones (chemicals related to acetone) appear in the blood, and in the urine. They accumulate to the point where they are poisonous, and in severe diabetic ketosis, coma will supervene unless insulin is given to enable the patient to utilise sugar. But in diabetic ketosis, the level of ketones in the blood is very high. It may reach over 300 milligrams per 100 c.c., 30 times higher than the moderate ketosis induced in the obese by fat feeding, which in turn is only half the moderate level of ketosis found in a normal person who has been fasting for two days. Kekwick and Pawan in their studies on human subjects found that very high fat diets were well tolerated and that ketosis was not a complication in their obese patients. So there are degrees of ketosis and the effects of the severe ketosis of diabetes are quite different from the mild ketosis of a fasting person or the even milder ketosis of a person on a high-fat diet. All degrees of ketosis have...

The first rule of macronutrient ratios Always eat proteins and carbohydrates together

Before we get into specific ratios and percentages, you must first understand the most basic rule of nutrient ratios Your diet should never consist primarily of one food type or one macronutrient type there must be a proper balance between proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Without even doing any sophisticated number crunching, you'll always be in the ballpark simply by having a serving of lean protein and a serving of complex carbohydrate at every meal. If you frequently eat carbohydrates or proteins by themselves, your ratios will be out of balance and your results will be compromised.

Methods of producing carbohydrates with lower glycemic index

Based on the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 (USDA, 2005), dietary carbohydrates should provide 45-65 of total calories. Dietary carbohydrates, structurally, can be divided into monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. a-1,4- and 1,6-linked glucans (such as starch and maltodextrins) are digestible by human enzymes, while dietary fiber - including some oligosaccharides (like inulin) and non-starch polysaccharides (like pectins, hemicelluloses, cellulose) - cannot be digested by the human body. The majority of starches in cooked and processed foods are rapidly digested and produce high postprandial glycemia. Starches that digest slowly result in a moderated glycemic response and may provide extended energy to an individual. A challenge facing researchers in the public and private sectors is to create such slowly digestible starches with low GI as an ingredient for typically high-GI processed foods, or as new food products, or, through...

Complex carbohydrates should make up the majority of your carbohydrate calories

Complex carbohydrates take longer to digest and absorb than simple carbohydrates. They provide sustained energy levels without the highs and lows in blood sugar and energy levels produced by eating simple carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates contain fiber, which slows down their absorption and helps stabilizes blood sugar and insulin. Complex carbohydrates are more filling, allowing you to feel more full on less food. Complex carbohydrates from natural sources are also the most nutrient dense carbohydrates you can eat, whereas refined (white) sugar is nutritionally void. Complex carbohydrates have a higher thermic effect and they stimulate less insulin production. For all these reasons, complex carbohydrates are the carbohydrates of choice for fat loss. As a general rule, 2 3 or more of all your carbohydrates should be complex carbohydrates, while 1 3 or less should be simple carbohydrates.

For carbohydratesensitive endomorph types

From my experience working with thousands of clients, I would estimate that about 70 -80 of people will lose fat on a baseline diet without carbohydrate restriction. That leaves 20 to 30 who don't respond well to the conventional high carbohydrate, low fat approach. Even on a low fat, low calorie diet combined with regular exercise, these carbohydrate sensitive people still have a difficult time getting lean (and they're often extremely frustrated with their lack of results despite their honest efforts). For carbohydrate sensitive people, a reduced carbohydrate diet with more protein and fat may be the answer.

Low carbohydrate levels affect your mood and mental state

The low carbohydrate diet is infamous for producing brain fog because your brain and central nervous system function almost exclusively on glucose. When you deprive yourself of carbohydrates for any prolonged period of time, you will often become tired, weak, moody, irritable and an all around grouchy S.O.B. Just ask anyone who has ever gone on a strict low carbohydrate diet (or anyone who has lived with a low carb dieter), and they'll tell you - a severe low carbohydrate diet can cause a Jeckyl and Hyde effect.

Low carbohydrate diets may cause muscle loss

When glycogen stores are severely depleted through dietary restriction, your body can also burn protein for energy, converting muscle tissue into glucose through a process called gluconeogenesis. Carbohydrates have a protein-sparing effect - they help ensure that you don't burn up muscle for energy. (Unfortunately, if your carbohydrates are too high, they also have a fat-sparing effect because when carbohydrates are plentiful, you tend to burn more carbohydrate for energy). Advocates of ketogenic and very low carbohydrate diets claim that the very nature of the ketogenic diet prevents muscle loss. In the real world, I have never observed this even once Extremely strict very low carbohydrate diets invariably cause muscle to be lost along with the fat.

Reasons why you must eat lean proteins and complex carbohydrates together at every meal to maximize fat loss and muscle

To gain muscle and lose fat, it's not only unnecessary to separate carbohydrates and proteins - it's counterproductive. Here are 8 convincing scientific reasons why. Read them and then you be the judge of whether you want to eat a meal without your protein and carbohydrates. 1) To maintain positive nitrogen balance, a state where you are retaining more protein than you excrete, resulting in a net gain of muscle tissue, you must consume protein approximately every three hours. Proteins cannot be stored like carbohydrates. This requires protein feedings with every meal. Eat carbohydrates by themselves without protein, and your body must break down muscle to get the amino acids it needs (You eat up your own muscle tissue ) 2) To get the protein (amino acids) into the muscle cells efficiently requires insulin. Insulin is secreted most readily in response to eating carbohydrates. Therefore, a moderate (but not over-sized) portion of carbohydrate should be eaten with your protein to...

Fibrous carbohydrates green vegetables help you lose fat because they have a low calorie density

Eating fibrous carbohydrates for the health benefits is important, but fiber also plays a major role in a reducing body fat. The reason is because fibrous carbohydrates such as green vegetables don't contain many calories - they have a low calorie density. Low calorie density foods are very important for fat loss because they make it easier to stay full without going over your calorie limits. The starches are much more calorie-dense than the fibrous carbohydrates. Some fibrous vegetables are so low in calories that once the thermic effect is factored in, it could be said that such foods have negative calories. This is the primary reason that a fat reducing nutrition program should be very high in vegetables.

High carbohydrate very low fat

In the 80s and 90s, most diet programs called for very low fat, low protein and extremely high carbohydrate. The Pritkin diet, which recommended 70 carbohydrate, 20 protein and 10 fat, is one example. Other programs falling into this category are the Dean Ornish's Eat More Weigh Less program, Robert Hass's Eat to Win and vegetarianism. If the right types of carbohydrates are eaten, this is probably a healthy way to eat, but it's so lopsided in favor of carbohydrates, you can't really say it's balanced and this approach definitely isn't for everyone. When it comes to shifting body composition from fat to muscle, many people simply don't respond well to high carbohydrates, no matter how carefully they are chosen. Very high carbohydrate, low fat diets are also a bit light on essential fats, and the protein levels are too low to support serious weight training. Some extremely carbohydrate-sensitive people actually see increases in cholesterol and triglycerides when their carbs are too...

Ignore the high fat diet cult

Zero fat is definitely not the answer. Now let's talk about the opposite end of the spectrum - the high fat diet. In the weight loss and bodybuilding world, there is a small cult of high fat advocates who insist that a very high fat diet (40-70 of your calories) is the ultimate method of losing fat, building muscle and improving athletic performance. Why anyone would fall for such tripe is beyond me, but it's probably because it sounds so off the edge, unusual and controversial. Any diet that sounds new and controversial, combined with a ton of marketing is bound to catch people's attention because of its uniqueness. As I mentioned earlier in this manual, it's easy to overlook the fundamentals and disregard common sense in our quest for some esoteric magical formula. Frankly, there are some really stupid things being said about nutrition these days and eating high fats (especially saturated and processed fats) is one of them. The high fat diet is totally without scientific or...

Why do low carbohydrate diet proponents talk so much about ketosis

The goal of some very low carbohydrate diets is to produce the metabolic state known as ketosis. In the absence of carbohydrate, fats burn incompletely, causing by products called ketone bodies to accumulate in the bloodstream. Being in ketosis is a sure-fire indicator that your body has been forced to run on fat for fuel. That's why achieving ketosis is the primary goal of so many low carbohydrate diets. Ketosis can occur when your carbohydrates are dropped below 100 grams, although most people don't stay in ketosis until carbohydrates go below 30-70 grams a day. Ketosis can be detected with a urine test. Paper strips called ketostix are dipped in the urine and when they change to a certain color, this indicates you've achieved a ketogenic state. The high carb gurus often argue that ketogenic diets are dangerous and unhealthy. Ketogenic diets might be dangerous, depending on the parameters of the diet and a person's health status, but no sweeping conclusions can be made about their...

Insulin response and sensitivity to carbohydrates

Some people are more carbohydrate sensitive than others. Your level of sensitivity to carbohydrates will have a direct bearing on your ability to lose body fat, and it's one of the most critical factors in determining the correct nutritional strategy for you. Carbohydrate sensitive individuals who do not adjust their nutrition properly often have an incredibly difficult time getting lean. Their blood sugar rises rapidly with the consumption of even small amounts of carbohydrates. This in turn causes the release of large amounts of insulin. High concentrations of insulin in the bloodstream are lipogenic and anti-lipolytic. This means that when excessive insulin is present, you stop releasing fat from the adipose cells and you go into fat storage mode. This explains why one person can eat a diet high in bread, pasta, potatoes and other carbohydrates and lose body fat easily, while another person will gain body fat and feel terrible on the same diet.

Benefits of Low Glycemic Index Carbohydrates on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

High glycemic index foods induce postprandial hyperinsulinemia, which is a powerful predictor for metabolic risk factors and CVD in epidemiological studies. Both cross-sectional and prospective population studies have shown favorable lipid profiles in association with high carbohydrate diets. Initially, these benefits were attributed to a high fiber content. However, when the glycemic index is controlled for, it is the low glycemic index diets rather than high fiber content that have the greatest influence on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, insulin sensitivity, and fibrinolytic parameters. In a cross-sectional study on more than 2000 middle-aged subjects, the glycemic index was a stronger determinant of HDL cholesterol than any other dietary factor, be it carbohydrate or fat. In this study, the HDL cholesterol of the women whose habitual diet was within the lowest quintile for glycemic index was 0.25 mmol l higher than that for women whose dietary carbohydrate was within...

Health Effects of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are stored in the human body as glycogen mainly in the liver and muscle. The human body has a limited storage capacity for carbohydrates compared to fat. The total amount of carbohydrates stored in tissues and circulating in the blood as glucose is approximately 7.56 MJ (1800 kcal). Diets high in carbohydrate ensure adequate glycogen storage available for immediate energy utilization. Carbohydrates are the preferred energy source for the human brain and have an important role in reducing protein breakdown when energy intake is inadequate. Dietary carbohydrates are absorbed in their hex-ose form (glucose, fructose, galactose) and provide 15.6 kJg-1 (3.75 kcal g-1) of energy. Although sugars and polysaccharides provide similar amounts of energy, they differ in their physiological and metabolic properties. The effects of carbohydrate-containing foods on blood glucose levels during digestion and absorption are variable, depending on the type of dietary carbohydrate....

Physiological Ketosis

Physiological hyperketonemia is found in the suckling neonate (high-fat diet of the milk Figure 1), postexercise (depletion of hepatic glycogen reserves), and after prolonged fasting (more than 24 h Figure 7). All these situations have in common a low hepatic carbohydrate status (depletion of glycogen and or activation of gluconeogenesis) and therefore from a physiological standpoint one would expect an increased rate of ketogenesis. Comparison of the factors which can influence ketogenesis in suckling and fasting (Table 2) shows the expected broad agreement. Fed high-fat diet

Complex Carbohydrates

Complex carbohydrates, or polysaccharides, are composed of simple sugar units in long chains called polymers. Three polysaccharides are of particular importance in human nutrition starch, glycogen, and dietary fiber. Starch and glycogen are digestible forms of complex carbohydrates made of strands of glucose units linked by alpha bonds. Starch, often contained in seeds, is the form in which plants store energy, and there are two types amylose and amylopectin. Starch represents the main type of digestible complex carbohydrate. Humans use an enzyme to break down the bonds linking glucose units, thereby releasing the sugar to be absorbed into the bloodstream. At that point, the body can distribute glucose to areas that need energy, or it can store the glucose in the form of glycogen. Pastas and whole-grain breads contain complex carbohydrates, which are long strands of glucose molecules. Nutritionists recommend that 55-60 percent of calories come from carbohydrates, and especially...

Dietary Fiber Complex Carbohydrates and Health Outcomes A Need for Fiber Equivalents

In the large bowel NSPs and RS are fermented by the microflora, yielding metabolic end products, principally short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which may mediate some of the health benefits ascribed to the carbohydrates. Undigested protein (resistant protein) and other nondigested carbohydrates (e.g., OSs) also contribute to large bowel fermentation. These nondigested fractions contribute to dietary fiber via fermentation and could be considered in net dietary fiber intake. This problem could be overcome relatively easily by classifying them (and other non-NSP carbohydrates) as fiber equivalents in which their actions are compared against an agreed standard. This is similar to the situation with other nutrients such as vitamin A, where reti-nol equivalents include carotenoids, which are reti-nol precursors. It follows that classifications based on chemical composition alone appear to be quite inadequate if one considers as improved health and diminished disease risk as the most...

Eat the Right Percentages of Protein Carbohydrates and Fats

The latest research shows that 30 percent lean protein, 40 percent low-glycemic carbohydrates, and 30 percent acceptable fats work best for metabolic efficiency. These percentages have been tremendously effective in my program for athletes who want to lose fat, build more lean muscle, and improve performance, and for people who are overfat and often suffering from either elevated triglycerides or high glucose levels. A recent article in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition makes a convincing argument for this ratio in people suffering from type 2 diabetes, stating that eating 30 percent dietary protein and 40 percent carbohydrates appears to improve glycemic control without increasing the risk of heart disease. In as little as five weeks, the glucose levels of the study participants dropped an astonishing 40 percent, and blood lipids, especially triglycerides, were significantly lowered.

Proposed Mechanism by which Dietary Carbohydrates Glycemic Index Influence Insulin Resistance

Adipocyte metabolism is central to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and dietary carbohydrates influence adipocyte function. The previous simplistic view that insulin resistance resulted from the down-regulation of the insulin receptors in response to hyperinsulinemia is being replaced by the hypothesis that high circulating NEFA levels both impair insulin action and reduce pancreatic fi cell secretion. It is plausible that low glycemic index carbohydrates Many of the metabolic benefits associated with low glycemic index carbohydrates can be attributed to their ability to reduce adipocyte NEFA release. Low glycemic index foods have been consistently shown to reduce insulin resistance, and animal studies have shown that improvements in fat and muscle insulin sensitivity are accompanied by decreases in fatty acid synthatase activity, adipocyte size, and lipid storage. Although human studies have shown that low glycemic index diets consumed for 3 weeks increase adipocyte insulin...

Protein intake and low carbohydrate dieting

The other time when more than 30 protein is justified is when you're using a low carbohydrate diet, either because you're carbohydrate sensitive or you're preparing for a bodybuilding or fitness competition (Or photo shoot). A high protein, low-carbohydrate diet may not be appropriate (Or healthy) for year-round maintenance, but there's no question that eating more protein and less carbohydrates makes it easier for some people to lose body fat. Some people are very sensitive to carbohydrates. When they eat a lot of carbohydrates, their bodies overreact. There's an unusually large surge in their blood sugar and insulin levels, which may increase fat storage and inhibit enzymes that promote the breakdown of stored body fat. One solution to this problem is less carbohydrate and -you guessed it - more protein. The baseline diet of 50-55 carbohydrates, 30 protein and 15-20 fat is without a doubt the healthiest, most balanced way to eat, and most people will lose fat on these ratios just by...

The truth about low carbohydrate diets

The popularity of low carbohydrate diet programs has given carbohydrates in general a bad name and caused the widespread misconception that all carbohydrates are fattening. The truth is that carbohydrates are not fattening and most people don't need low carbohydrate diets to get lean. Many low carbohydrate programs are based on the assumption that all people are carbohydrate sensitive or resistant to insulin. My research and experience has proven the opposite - that most people will lose fat simply by lifting weights, doing cardio, eating less than they burn and cleaning up their diets. In other words, low carbohydrate diets should be looked at as last resort diets or peaking diets for special events such as bodybuilding, fitness competition or photo shoots. A low carbohydrate diet is not for year round maintenance. It's a temporary tool for reaching peak condition.

Very low carbohydrate high fat high protein

On the other end of the spectrum you have the very high fat, high protein, very low carbohydrate diets. The Atkin's Diet is the most popular. Others include Protein Power, The Carbohydrate Addicts Diet, Sugar Busters, The Ketogenic diet, The Anabolic Diet and a whole host of other programs that impose strict regulations on the amount of carbohydrate you can eat. The basic assumption of the very low carbohydrate approach is that carbohydrates cause fat storage because they increase insulin production. Insulin is portrayed as an evil fat-storing monster that makes everything you eat turn into fat. The objective of these programs is to control insulin by cutting out carbohydrates and this will supposedly cause rapid body fat loss. There is some truth in these arguments, but unfortunately, the information has been distorted and taken to extremes. Contrary to what certain diet gurus tell you, carbohydrates are not fattening. What's fattening is eating more calories than your body can use...

Secrets of low carb dieting How to get all the low carb benefits without the low carb side effects

Reading the list of side effects and disadvantages might be enough to make you steer clear of ever using a reduced carbohydrate diet. However, most of these problems occur by using a conventional low carbohydrate diet. Bodybuilders do things a little differently, and the result is often magnificent muscularity and rock bottom body fat levels - without the negative effects There are three secrets to getting all the benefits of low carbohydrate dieting without all the side effects. The first is carbohydrate tapering, which is the practice of eating more carbohydrates early in the day and fewer later in the day. The second secret is using moderate carbohydrate reductions, not the removal of all carbohydrates. The third is carbohydrate cycling. When combined, the results of these three techniques can increase fat loss beyond your wildest dreams and expectations Lets take a closer look at each one.

Benefits of Low Glycemic Index Carbohydrates on Diabetic Control

This is the area in which there is most evidence of clinical efficacy. Two independent systematic reviews of the world evidence demonstrated the efficacy of low glycemic index diets on glycemic control in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Clinical studies have shown that after 3 months of a diet containing low glycemic index carbohydrates, glycemic control is improved in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. With low glycemic diets, postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations decrease in type 2 diabetic subjects, whereas both postprandial glucose values and insulin requirements decrease in type 1 diabetic subjects. Good glycemic control and favorable lipid and fibri-nolytic profiles have also been reported in individuals with either type 1 or 2 diabetes who habitually consume low glycemic index dietary carbohydrates. It remains to be shown whether these diets bestow

Low Fat High Carbohydrate Diets of Adults

The chronic diseases of greatest concern with respect to relative intakes of macronutrients are CHD, diabetes, and cancer. In this section, the relationship between total fat and total carbohydrate intakes are considered. Comparisons are made in terms of percentage of total energy intake. For example, a low fat diet signifies a lower percentage of fat relative to total energy. It does not imply that total energy intake is reduced because of consumption of a low amount of fat. The distinction between hypocaloric diets and isocaloric diets is important, particularly with respect to impact on body weight. Low and high fat diets can still be isocaloric. The failure to identify this distinction has led to considerable confusion in terms of the role of dietary fat in chronic disease.

Classification of Dietary Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates can be subdivided into several categories based on the such as glucose or fructose. A disaccharide (e.g., sucrose, lactose, and maltose) consists of two sugar units. Oligosaccharides, containing 3 to 10 sugar units, are often breakdown products of polysaccharides, which contain more than 10 sugar units. Oligosaccharides such as raffinose and stachyose are found in small amounts in legumes. Examples of polysaccharides include starch and glycogen, which are the storage forms of carbohydrates in plants and

Very low carbohydrate diets can cause your energy levels to crash

You can increase fat loss by restricting carbohydrates, but your energy levels and performance are going to drop if you cut them too much. That's why virtually 100 of elite athletes follow moderately high carbohydrate diets, regardless of whether their sport is anaerobic or aerobic in nature (Bodybuilders are an exception because their ultimate goal is cosmetic appearance, not physical performance). Because carbohydrates are your body's preferred energy source, the more you reduce your carbohydrates, the less energy you will have. If your workout intensity suffers, your results will suffer.

The natural simple carbohydrates are healthy but ALL simple carbohydrates should be used in moderation during

When we talk about simple carbohydrates, we're often referring to refined sugar and white flour products - these are the bad carbohydrates. But not all simple carbohydrates are bad. Some simple carbohydrates occur in nature. These natural sugars include fructose (found in fruit) and lactose (found in dairy products). Natural sugars are fine when eaten in moderation. There's no reason to cut out all your simple carbohydrates - just the bad (refined) ones, but you should reduce simple carbohydrates overall if you want maximum fat loss. This is one of the many tricks bodybuilders use to get so lean - they cut out refined sugar completely, but they even cut back on natural sugars too, opting for starchy and fibrous carbohydrates instead.

Reducing carbohydrates and increasing protein reduces water retention giving you sharper more detailed muscle definition

A high carbohydrate diet tends to increase water retention because every gram of glycogen holds three grams of water. A high protein, low carbohydrate diet has the opposite effect - it tends to decrease water retention, giving you a more defined look to your muscles. Bloating and puffiness from water retention is only temporary and should not be confused with legitimate changes in body composition. However, the improved muscle definition from the high protein, low carbohydrate diet is another reason this type of diet is favored by so many bodybuilders and fitness competitors.

The low carbohydrate very high protein diet for bodybuilding and fitness competition

For very brief periods, bodybuilders often decrease their carbohydrates to only about 25 of their total calories. This is considered a low carbohydrate diet and is PHASE III in the BFFM program. This type of program would only be appropriate for an extreme endomorph or a competitive physique athlete (That's why it's often called a competition diet. ) The Competition Diet (Phase III) Low carbohydrate, very high protein 25-30 carbohydrates 50 protein 20-25 fat. For the average male, the phase III competition diet is about 150 to 200 grams of carbohydrates per day. For the average female, the carbohydrate intake is about 90 to 130 grams. This is just enough carbohydrate to stay alert and fuel high intensity workouts. A larger drop would be overkill. except the world's best bodybuilders, of course - would argue that this is far too much protein, which it probably is if you stayed at this level all the time. However, if you reduce your carbohydrates to 25-30 of your total calories and you...

Why you shouldnt stay on low carbohydrates for more than three days in a row

After three days in a row on low carbohydrates, your glycogen levels will be almost completely depleted. If you were to continue on low carbohydrates for a fourth day, fifth day, or beyond, you would notice your energy and training intensity begin to diminish. You would also notice that your muscles would flatten out and become softer. Your metabolic rate would begin to slow down and your thyroid gland would decrease its output of thyroid hormone. Basically, your diet would become less and less effective the longer you stayed on low carbohydrates beyond the three day period. Your body is so smart, it simply makes changes in physiology and metabolism to compensate for the prolonged lack of carbohydrates (which it interprets as starvation). That's why you have to shake things up and keep your body off guard by throwing in a high carbohydrate day every fourth day.

What are carbohydrates and what are they for

Unlike proteins, which are used as building materials, carbohydrates are used for energy, particularly for high-intensity exercise. Sports nutritionist Dr. Michael Colgan, author of Optimum Sports Nutrition, calls carbohydrates premium fuel. I've never heard a better definition. Fats are also used for fuel, but the difference is that fats don't burn as efficiently as carbohydrates. It's a common misconception that fat is a more efficient fuel source, but it's not - it's simply a more concentrated fuel source (nine calories per gram for fat versus four calories per gram for carbohydrate). Carbohydrates are the body's preferred and most efficient energy source. Whenever carbohydrates are restricted, energy levels and performance usually decline. Fat is stored in the body as a backup energy source (like a reserve fuel tank ). A 185-pound man with 18 body fat has 116,500 calories stored in his reserve tank. Your body can also store carbohydrates, but in much more limited quantities....

Very low carbohydrate diets are difficult to stay on

By their very nature, low carbohydrate diets are restrictive and difficult to follow. On a very low carbohydrate diet, you are only allowed to eat protein, meat and fat with limited amounts of low calorie carbohydrates such as lettuce, green vegetables and very small portions of natural starches. How long do you think you could comfortably stay on this kind of program Extremely restrictive diets require tremendous willpower and almost always set you up for cravings and bingeing. Many people fail simply because they can't faithfully stay on the wagon.

Why a high fat diet is no good

After reading chapter six on calories, you now understand that to lose body fat you have to eat fewer calories than you burn each day. One problem with fats is they are more calorie dense than any other food. Each gram of fat contains 9 calories, while each gram of carbohydrate or protein contains only 4 calories. Since each gram of fat contains more than twice the calories, this means eating fat makes it more likely that you'll eat too many calories. Quite simply, a high fat diet is a high calorie diet, and a high calorie diet is a fat storing diet. There are differences between the various types of fats, but ALL fats contain 9 calories per gram. So if you want to lose body fat, you'll need to reduce your total fats in general in order to keep your calories down. 4. A high fat diet doesn't leave room for enough protein or carbohydrates High fat diets are often promoted as effective ways of increasing anabolic hormones and controlling fat storing hormones, resulting in increased...

Eat fruit in moderation but focus more on natural fibrous and starchy carbohydrates

Your carbohydrates from fructose is NOT the most efficient fat loss strategy. Fructose is a simple carbohydrate, and you should use all simple carbohydrates in moderation during a fat burning program. On the BFFM program, fruit is best used as a small portion of your carbohydrate calories, not the primary source. One or two pieces of fruit a day is fine, with the remainder of your carbohydrates coming from green fibrous carbohydrates (asparagus, broccoli, etc) and complex starchy carbohydrates (such as oatmeal, brown rice and yams).

The many types of carbohydrates

Eating the right quantity of carbohydrate is important, but the quality of the carbohydrates you choose is equally important. Ultimately, all the carbohydrates you eat end up in the bloodstream as glucose (blood sugar), but you can't lump all carbohydrates together into one category, because they're not all the same. Before we talk about how to calculate your optimal quantity of carbohydrates, you first need to learn about the different qualities of carbohydrates. There are simple and complex carbohydrates, starchy and fibrous carbohydrates, refined and natural carbohydrates, high-glycemic and low-glycemic carbohydrates. Some of these carbohydrates are good and some are bad. The good carbohydrates are your friends they will supply you with energy and nutrients and help you get leaner and more muscular. The bad carbohydrates are your foes they have a greater potential for fat storage, they are nutritionally void and rob you of energy. To lose fat, become more muscular, optimize your...

Simple Carbohydrates monosaccharides and disaccharides

There are two broad categories of carbohydrates Simple and complex. Let's talk about the simple ones first. Simple carbohydrates consist of a single sugar molecule (monosaccharide) or two single sugar molecules linked together (disaccharide). The Monosaccharides include fructose, glucose, and galactose. The two we'll refer to the most are fructose (fruit sugar) and glucose (blood sugar.) Glucose is found naturally in food or it can be produced in the body through the breakdown of complex carbohydrates. Fructose is the type of simple carbohydrate found in fruit. Types of Simple Carbohydrates (sugars) Types of Simple Carbohydrates (sugars)

Natural vs refined The most important distinction you can ever make about carbohydrates

So far you've learned the difference between simple and complex carbohydrates, starchy and fibrous complex carbohydrates and high GI and low GI carbohydrates. These are all significant factors, but the 1 most important distinction you can ever make about carbohydrates is the difference between natural and refined (or processed) carbohydrates.

Processed and refined carbohydrates are calorie dense but nutrient sparse They are empty calories

Refined carbohydrates provide little or no nutritional value. Sucrose (white table sugar), for example, is 99 pure calories no vitamins, no minerals, no proteins, just empty calories that do nothing for you. Sugar is worse than zero nutrition - it's negative nutrition because it depletes minerals from your body. It's also stored easily as fat and causes fluctuating blood sugar and insulin levels.

Calorie density of carbohydrates

In addition to choosing carbohydrates on the basis of whether they are refined or natural, another criteria you should use for carbohydrate selection is calorie density. Eating more calories than your body can handle at once is the primary cause of fat storage. Therefore, it makes sense that you should choose foods with a low calorie density if you want to lose fat. Refined carbohydrates are more likely to make you fat than natural carbohydrates. If all carbohydrates have four calories per gram, then how can this be It's because refined carbohydrates contain more calories in the same volume of food than natural complex carbohydrates. (They're more calorie dense). Because refined sugars are so highly processed, a lot of calories get packed into a small serving of food. The milling, grinding, bleaching and enriching of grains decreases their complexity and removes much of the nutritional content. The milling of grains into white flour also decreases the particle size while increasing...

High carbohydratelow fatmoderate protein The bodybuilders diet

The 60-30-10 nutrient ratio is the program I originally used when I first started bodybuilding. When I began training and competing it was the late eighties and early nineties, right in the middle of the fat phobia era. I ate high complex carbohydrates and low fats simply because it was in vogue and widely accepted. All the experts recommended it 60-30-10 (or close to it) was recommended in Keith Klein's Get Lean system, Cliff Sheat's Lean Bodies and Larry North's Living Lean Program. Professional bodybuilders like Lee Labrada and bodybuilding nutritionists such as Chris Aceto and John Parillo also endorsed it.


Carbohydrates occur in plant and animal tissues as well as in microorganisms in many different forms and levels. In animal organisms, the main sugar is glucose and the storage carbohydrate is glycogen in milk, the main sugar is almost exclusively the disac-charide lactose. In plant organisms, a wide variety of monosaccharides and oligosaccharides occur, and the storage carbohydrate is starch. The structural polysaccharide of plants is cellulose. The gums are a varied group of polysaccharides obtained from plants, seaweeds, and microorganisms. Because of their useful physical properties, the gums have found widespread application in food processing. The carbohydrates that occur in a number of food products are listed in Table 4-1. Table 4-1 Carbohydrates in Some Foods and Food Products Figure 4-1 Methods of Representation of D-Glucose. Source From M.L. Wolfrom, Physical and Chemical Structures of Carbohydrates, in Symposium on Foods Carbohydrates and Their Roles, H. W. Schultz, R.F....

Pathological ketosis

The major example of pathological ketosis is of course insulin-dependent or type 1 diabetes. Essentially the changes in this condition are similar to those that occur during fasting, but they are more pronounced. Insulin is absent or very low in the plasma and therefore there is no antagonistic action to restrain the opposing hormones, adrenaline, nor-adrenaline, and glucagon. Consequently, lipolysis in adipose tissue is greatly stimulated and plasma fatty acids increase to high levels. A rare, but intriguing, example of pathological ketosis (ketone bodies up to 10mmoll_1) is the inborn error of hepatic glycogen synthase deficiency (Figure 8). Here glycogen is virtually absent from the liver so that after short-term fasting (5-10 h) the glucose falls to hypoglycemic levels, plasma insulin is decreased, plasma fatty acids increase, and ketogenesis is switched on. On consuming a meal the pattern is reversed until the blood glucose falls again. This case illustrates the importance of...

Simple Carbohydrates

Simple carbohydrates, or simple sugars, are composed of monosaccharide or disaccharide units. Common monosaccharides (carbohydrates composed of single sugar units) include glucose, fructose, and galactose. Glucose is the most common type of sugar and the primary form of sugar that is stored in the body for energy. It sometimes is referred to as blood sugar or dextrose and is of particular importance to individuals who have diabetes or hypo-glycemia. Fructose, the primary sugar found in fruits, also is found in honey and high-fructose corn syrup (in soft drinks) and is a major source of sugar in the diet of Americans. Galactose is less likely than glucose or fructose to be found in nature. Instead, it often combines with glucose to form the disaccharide lactose, often referred to as milk sugar. Both fructose and galactose are metabolized to glucose for use by the body. Oligosaccharides are carbohydrates made of two to ten monosaccharides. Those composed of two sugars are specifically...


The concentration of ketone bodies in the blood is exquisitely sensitive to changes in pathophysiologi-cal state. It is therefore useful to define normoketo-nemia in mammals as a concentration of total ketone bodies in blood below 0.2mmoll-1, hyper-ketonemia as above this level, and ketoacidosis (ketosis by analogy to the definition of lactic acido-sis) as above 7mmoll-1. In adult mammals there are small but characteristic diurnal variations in ketone body concentrations. Larger increases in concentration occur in man in response to change in patho-physiological state (Table 1). The concentrations span a 200-fold range and it is this which underlines the important role of ketone bodies as substrates and signals.

Atkins Robert MD 19302003

A tkins first proposed his high-protein, high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet in 1972 in his book, Dr. Atkin's Diet Revolution The High Calorie Way to Stay Thin Forever. This radical approach in the 1970s told dieters they could eat as much red meat, eggs, cheese, and other high-fat foods as they desired but not eat pasta, cereal, bread or other carbohydrates. The diet was relatively popular as a fad diet, but low-carb would not become a buzz word for several decades. Even though it was originally designed as a diet to maintain blood-sugar levels for diabetics, it became a popular weight-loss strategy that started the low-carb movement.

The Science of Success

The problem now, of course, is that we never experience the famine end of that equation, only the feast. As a result, we store fat but never require our bodies to burn it off. Much of our excess weight comes from the carbohydrates we eat, especially the highly processed ones found in baked goods, breads, snacks, and other convenient favorites. Modern industrial processing removes the fiber from these foods, and once that's gone their very nature and how we metabolize them changes significantly for the worse. So my eating plan's first principle was to permit good carbohydrates (fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) and curtail the intake of bad carbohydrates (the highly processed ones, for the most part, where all the fiber had been stripped away during manufacturing). We would thereby eliminate a prime cause of obesity. This was in marked contrast to the Atkins Diet, for instance, which bans virtually all carbohydrates and leaves the dieter to exist mostly on proteins. That regimen...

Effect of pH values of the bleaching agents on mineral loss of enamel

The physical and chemically soundness of the enamel depends on the pH and the saliva consisting of calcium phosphate and fluoride. Caries lesions develop with the fermentation of carbohydrates by bacteria's, the formation of organic acids and the pH decrease. The critical pH value for the enamel is pH 5.5 and when the oral pH decreases below this value, the bands between the fibrils and apatite of the enamel dissolve and the inorganic structure is affected (Axellson, 2000). In a study (Mcgucking et al., 1992) the enamel surface of bleached teeth were examined with a scanning electron microscope and a profilometer. The results showed that the enamel surface was affected by different concentrated bleaching agents, but these differences were not related with the pH values of the agents. When Tezel et al (Tezel et al., 2011 Tezel et al., 2007) measured the pH values of the bleaching agents used in their study with a pH meter it had been found that the pH was approximately 8 for each...

The Colon and Drug Delivery

The importance of the colon varies in mammals according to the nature of their diet. Thus true carnivores have a short colon with a small caecum, whereas large ruminants have a high capacity rumen for fermentation. The appendix in humans is vestigial and apparently unimportant in the human nutritional process. On opening the abdomen, the large colon is usually easily visible because the transverse loop has a very antral position in the abdominal cavity and may contain gas. Figure 2.13 illustrates the main physiological features of the colon. The bacterial fermentation of ingested soluble carbohydrates yields carbon dioxide, and in some individuals if the redox potential is low enough, hydrogen and methane.

Fats versus Carbs The Debate

How has America done since the low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet recommendations We've gotten fatter and fatter. In addition, adult-onset di In addition, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) diet pyramid was built on a base of the so-called complex carbohydrates bread, pasta, rice. Like most Americans, I took that to mean that I could eat these foods in abundance and still live thin, healthy, and happily ever after. I was taught in medical school that the only bad effect of sugars was tooth decay. If you recall the '70s, you remember how bread, pasta, and rice were made to seem healthy when compared to the supposed evils of meat. It turns out that the United States and the northern European countries with the high fat intake and high heart attack rates also had the lowest levels of fiber in their carbohydrates. By contrast, less-developed countries with high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets had lots of fiber in their carbs. In the 1990s, the Harvard School of Nutrition, under the...

Nutritional Importance

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) expert consultation on carbohydrates use the term 'sugar' to describe monosaccharides and disaccharides. Sugars can be separated analytically from the food matrix by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), high performance liquid chromatography, and enzymatic methods. Sugars are widely used in the food industry as sweeteners and preservatives. They improve the texture, body, palatability, and viscosity of foods and beverages. There are several definitions of fiber, and no consensus exists among international organizations. The Association of Official Analytical Chemists International defines fiber as nondigestible animal and plant carbohydrates, based on the analytical methods for fiber separation using an enzymatic-gravimetric method (Table 5). According to the new definition of the expert panel on macronutrients appointed by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Science (Table 5), dietary...

The Nutritional Transition and Its Health Effects

Changes in the dietary intake patterns of Asian countries have been called the nutritional transition, meaning a shift away from the traditional Asian diets to a more varied diet higher in sugars, fats, and processed foods. This new eating trend includes fewer carbohydrates and fiber and is higher in fat and meat. Together with a shift towards physical inactivity, obesity among the Asian population has risen. The nutritional and health effects of these new foods contribute to higher mortality rates due to CVD in many Asian countries.

Baby Bottle Tooth Decay

This often happens when infants or toddlers fall asleep while sucking on a bottle. Breastfed infants are usually not at risk, unless they feed for extended periods. The carbohydrates in the drink (lactose in milk, or fructose in fruit drinks) mix with the normal bacteria in the mouth. This bacteria is found in the plaque on teeth and gums. When plaque mixes with carbohydrates, acids are formed that dissolve tooth enamel, causing tooth decay and dental caries. To prevent baby bottle tooth decay, a child should not be put in bed with a bottle and the bottle should be taken away as soon as mealtime is over. Further, only formula or water should be put in a bottle juices and sweet drinks should be offered in a cup. see also Infant Nutrition Oral Health.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

This is a heterogeneous disorder in which there is both resistance to the action of insulin and relative insulin insufficiency. In contrast to type 1 diabetes, endogenous insulin secretion is at least partially preserved and thus most patients are not insulin dependent for acute survival (hence the former name, non-insulin-dependent diabetes). The circulating insulin levels are adequate to protect these patients from ketosis, except during periods of extreme stress. Some patients in this category can be treated with oral agents (sulfonylureas, metfor-min, and thiazolidinediones), but many are managed with insulin because their pancreases are unable to produce sufficient insulin to overcome their tissue insulin resistance. Obesity is a frequent contributing factor to the insulin resistance in this disorder. Occasionally, it is difficult to determine whether a patient has type 1 or type 2 diabetes. This is particularly likely in a nonobese person older than 35 years of age who has never...

Fiber in the Digestive Tract

Food is conveyed progressively through the alimentary tract, stored at intervals, and broken down mechanically as required, by a tightly controlled system of rhythmic muscular contractions. The digestive enzymes are released into the lumen at the appropriate stages to facilitate the decomposition of carbohydrates, proteins, and complex lipids. By definition, the polysaccharides that comprise dietary fiber are not digested by endogenous enzymes, though they are often fermented to a greater or lesser degree by bacterial enzymes in the large intestine.

Evidence Considered in Estimating the Average Requirement

The amount of glucose produced from obligatory endogenous protein catabolism in children is not known. Therefore, this information was not considered in the derivation of the EAR for children. Children ages 2 to 9 years have requirements for carbohydrate that are similar to adults. This is based on population data in which animal-derived foods are ingested exclusively (e.g., Alaska and Greenland natives), as well as in children with epilepsy who have been treated with ketogenic diets for extended periods of time (Swink et al., 1997 Vining, 1999). In these children, the ketoacid concentration was in the range of 2 to 3 mmol L (i.e., similar to that in a starving adult) (Nordli et al., 1992).

Absorption in the small intestine

The primary function of the small intestine is the absorption of nutrients from chyme. It receives up to eight litres of chyme per day and passes only 5001000 ml to the large intestine. The remaining fluid is absorbed by the columnar cells of the villous epithelium. Most substances are absorbed in the proximal small intestine. The duodenum is the primary site of iron and calcium absorption, and the jejunum is the site where absorption of fats, carbohydrates and proteins takes place. Finally, only a few substances such as vitamin B12 and bile salts are actively absorbed in the ileum. There are a number of barriers to transport from the intestinal lumen to the blood the luminal plasma membrane, the cell's interior, the intercellular space, the basement membrane of the capillary and the cell membranes of the endothelial cell of the capillary or lymphatic vessels.

Highfat highprotein diets are unbalanced and cause deficiency diseases

DuBois published the results of this study in the American Journal of Biological Chemistry in 1930 under the title, Prolonged meat diets with study of kidney functions and ketosis. Here are their findings summarised for convenience with those of other doctors who reported on other aspects of the experiment

Nutrition for People with Cancer

People with cancer often have increased nutritional needs. As such, it is important for them to consume a variety of foods that provide the nutrients needed to maintain health while fighting cancer. These nutrients include protein, carbohydrates, fat, water, vitamins, and minerals. Nutrition suggestions for people with cancer often emphasize eating high-calorie, highprotein foods. Protein helps to ensure growth, repair body tissue, and maintain a healthy immune system. Therefore, people with cancer often need more protein than usual.

Digestion and Absorption

Carbohydrates must be digested and absorbed in order to transform them into energy that can be used by the body. Food preparation often aids in the digestion process. When starches are heated, they swell and become easier for the body to break down. In the mouth, the enzyme amylase, which is contained in saliva, mixes with food products and breaks some starches into smaller units. However, once the carbohydrates reach the acidic environment of the stomach, the amylase is inactivated. After the carbohydrates have passed through the stomach and into the small intestine, key digestive enzymes are secreted from the pancreas and the small intestine where most digestion and absorption occurs. Pancreatic amylase breaks starch into di-saccharides and small polysaccharides, and enzymes from the cells of the small-intestinal wall break any remaining disaccharides into their monosac-charide components. Dietary fiber is not digested by the small intestine instead, it passes to the colon unchanged.

Presentday Cultivation And Usage

Cumin seeds contain up to 14.5 lipids (Wealth of India, 2001). The ASTA Standard specification for cumin seeds indicates the contents to be ash 9.5 , acid-insoluble ash 1.5 , volatile oil 2.5 , and moisture 9 . The proximate composition shows water 6.0 g, food energy 460 kcal, protein 18.0 g, fat 23.8 g, carbohydrates 44.6 g, ash 7.7 g, calcium 0.9 g, phosphorus 450 mg, sodium 160 mg, potassium 2100 mg, iron 47.8 mg, thiamine 0.730 mg, riboflavin 0.380 mg, niacin 2.5 mg, ascorbic acid 17 mg, and vitamin A activity 127 retinal equivalents, respectively, per 100 g (Donna & Antony, 1993).

Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD) refers to any of the conditions that affect the coronary arteries and reduces blood flow and nutrients to the heart. It is the leading cause of death worldwide for both men and women. Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of CAD. Controlled risk factors associated with CAD include hypertension, cigarette smoking, elevated blood lipids (e.g., cholesterol, triglyceride), a high-fat diet (especially saturated fats and trans-fatty acids), physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, and stress. Lifestyle changes can assist in prevention of CAD. Uncontrolled risk factors include a family history of CAD, gender (higher in males), and increasing age.

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

The moisture, protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate contents of different date seed varieties from several studies are shown in Table 53.1. The reported composition of seeds varied as follows 3.1-10.3 moisture, 2.3-6.4 protein, 5.0-13.2 fat, 0.9-1.8 ash, and 71.9-87.0 carbohydrates. Date seeds contain relatively high amounts of protein and fat compared to date flesh, where the levels were 1.5-3.0 and 0.1-1.4 , respectively (Al-Farsi et al., 2007). Regarding the mineral content of date seeds, Ali-Mohamed and Khamis (2004) reported on six varieties their values were as follows (mg 100 g) 459.8 542.2 potassium, 21.7 26.1 sodium, 6.5-11.3 calcium, 61.3-69.5 magnesium, 2.8-6.0 iron, 1.3-1.7 manganese, 1.0-1.4 zinc, and 0.4-0.6 copper.

A look at nonspecific host defenses 821 Physical barriers

The mucin layer varies in thickness, with low-viscosity layers interspersed between thicker layers recently secreted from goblet cells, and it has been suggested that foodborne pathogenic bacteria may take advantage of this lack of homogeneity, moving through low-viscosity layers to gain access to the epithelial surface. While mucus has protective properties, it should be noted that it also serves as a nutrient source for bacteria. The foodborne pathogens Vibrio cholerae and Listeria monocytogenes can trigger mucin exocytosis at the intestinal epithelium, presumably benefiting from the release of this rich source of carbohydrates, peptides, vitamins and minerals (Coconnier et al., 1998 Lencer et al., 1990). Notably, the normal enteric microflora also breaks down mucin to utilize as a nutrient source (Simon and Gorbach, 1986), providing mucin with yet another potential role in host defense, through the ability to promote maintenance of and colonization by non-pathogenic commensal...

Frequent meals prevent binges and control cravings

On a more serious note, the habit of missing meals and then bingeing on huge meals of processed carbohydrates and fatty foods can lead to the development of Type-II diabetes in those with the genetic predisposition. It even gets worse This condition often progresses into deterioration of the cardiovascular system and atherosclerotic disease. It has also been associated with increased LDL cholesterol in the bloodstream. Obesity, diabetes and heart disease are no laughing matters. This isn't just about getting lean -frequent eating can save your health and possibly your life.

Innate cellular responses frontline defenders

Cells of the innate immune system include neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, all of which are phagocytes. Phagocytic cells ingest invading pathogens, with the goal ofdigesting and destroying the invader, using an array of enzymes, reactive oxygen intermediates, and nitric oxide. Macrophages are the key phagocytic cell type in tissues. Monocytes, their precursors, are present in the blood, as are neutrophils. Macrophages recognize invading microorganisms through receptors that detect non-self components, including carbohydrates such as mannose (Delves and Roitt, 2000). Macrophages and neutrophils both interact with complement (a protein component of the innate immune response) and antibodies (components of the adaptive immune response) to improve their rates of phagocytosis of invading microbes through the process of opsonization. Once foodborne pathogens are phagocytosed, they are exposed to an impressive intracellular array of defenses, including lysozyme, antimicrobial...

The Sugar Fat Connection

I know we have been told to eat our five servings of fruit and vegetables daily. I wholeheartedly agree that we need to eat that amount to be at a minimum. My experience reveals that many people focus on the sweet and super-sweet dried fruits resulting in a carbohydrate overdose. Your body requires a limited amount of all of the primary building blocks carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. When you focus on and consume the sweeter fruits or carbs, your body will convert them to fat. This might not be a habit of yours, but I have seen patients eat their normal cake, cookie, doughnut, and Danish then add fruit to the mix and think that it doesn't count. Hello All food is accounted for. Excess fruit can be converted to fat And fat needs to be used or burned.

Eating Fat And Growing Slim In Practice

THE MOST recent work here and in America shows that unrestricted calorie, high-fat, high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets will get weight off the obese more effectively than any other kind of regime. The evidence, set out briefly in the earlier chapters of this book, is clear and incontrovertible. The five main arguments against eating a high-fat diet which have been examined, do not stand up to serious investigation. They are that such diets Cause ketosis and make you ill Mr. Salisbury might also have said what nonsense is written about fat being fattening. With unfinished meat it is very difficult to eat the ideal proportion of one part of fat to three parts lean, which gets weight off most efficiently on a low-carbohydrate diet. So opposition to fat is apparent rather than real and anyone who starts to eat a high-fat diet can do so without offending their tastes by choosing-at first anyway-those foods high in invisible or approved fats which they like already. After a week or two on...

Physiology of Absorption Metabolism and Excretion Total

Fatty acids released from adipose tissue or to a lesser extent during hydrolysis of chylomicron and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triacylglycerols are also taken up and oxidized by the liver. Oxidation of fatty acids containing up to 18 carbon atoms occurs mainly in the mitochondria. Oxidation of excess fatty acids in the liver, which occurs in prolonged fasting and with high intakes of medium-chain fatty acids, results in formation of large amounts of acetyl CoA that exceed the capacity for entry to the citric acid cycle. These 2-carbon acetyl CoA units condense to form ketone bodies (e.g., acetoacetate and P-hydroxybutyrate) that are released into the circulation. During starvation or prolonged low carbohydrate intake, ketone bodies can become an important alternate energy substrate to glucose for the brain and muscle. High dietary intakes of medium-chain fatty acids also result in the generation of ketone bodies. This is explained by the carnitine-independent influx of...

Transport and cellular uptake

I'he sod mm-independent transporter TAT I and the glycoprotein-anchorcd complex L AT I are expressed in bram capillary endothelial cells and certainly contribute to Trp transport, but their relative importance, location, and the role of other transporters is not completely understood, l'rp competes with the branched-cham amino acids (valine, leucine, isoleucinejand other large neutral amino acids (methionine, tyrosine, tryptophan, and histidine) for the transport into brain. This may mean that increased blood concentrations of phenylalanine (especially in patients with phenylketonuria, an inborn error of metabolism with defective phenylalanine utilization) or branched-chain amino acids (due to a high-carbohydrate diet) limit Trp availability in brain, Materno-fetal transfer The exchanger LAT1 appears to be the major route for Trp travelling from maternal blood into the syncyiiotrophoblast (Ritchie and Taylor, 2001), Transfer across the basolateral membrane may...

Calculate your calories first then split them up into the proper ratios of protein carbohydrate and fat

The first step in developing your own custom-tailored fat loss program is to do your calorie calculations. Only then should you divide up your daily allotment among the three macronutrients carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Many authorities suggest calculating how many grams of protein, carbohydrates and fat you need based on bodyweight and then the calories will take care of themselves. There's some merit to this method if the gram recommendations are figured properly for your personal needs, but the shortcoming of this method is lack of precision it can only give you a ballpark estimate.

Increased Estrogen Availability

Intake of saturated and omega-6 fatty acids may promote cancer progression partly by increasing the production or availability of estrogen.36,37 38 Estrogen is a growth factor for a number of cancers, including many breast cancers. High-fat diets and associated increases in fat tissue can increase estrogen availability in a number of ways High-fat diets may reduce the amount of estrogen excreted through the feces.

Mild Oxidative Stress

As mentioned, polyunsaturated fatty acids are susceptible to free radical damage because of their high number of double carbon bonds. Therefore, moderate intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids may stimulate cancer progression by inducing mild oxidative stress within tumors. Recent studies have suggested that diets containing 15 percent of calories polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly increase DNA oxidative damage to lymphocytes and other indicators of oxidative stress in humans as compared to diets containing 5 percent poly-unsaturated fatty acids.62'63 Not surprisingly, in these and other studies vitamin E reduced the negative effects of high-fat diets. In one study vitamin E (at about 170 I.U., as scaled to humans) inhibited the ability of high-fat diets to promote growth of transplanted human prostate cancer cells in mice.64

Adults Ages 19 Years and Older

Of studies have reported on the impact of or the relationship between low and high fat diets and the indicators for and risk of chronic diseases (e.g., coronary heart disease, diabetes, and obesity) (see Chapter 11). There are insufficient data, however, to identify a defined intake level for fat based on maintaining fat balance or on the prevention of chronic diseases. Therefore, neither an AI nor an EAR and RDA are set.

Overall nutrient composition

Nutrient content of whole and defatted macadamia nuts, in comparison with those of the top three nuts consumed on a global basis, is shown in Table 21.3. Whole macadamia kernel has the highest lipid content but provides the lowest amount of proteins and carbohydrates. However, protein and carbohydrate contents of defatted macadamias are comparable to those of the other defatted nuts. Note that the proximate composition of the defatted nuts in Table 21.3 is estimated from the nutrient content of the whole nuts on a fat-free basis. These values also represent the estimated chemical composition of the flours from defatted nuts. In the case of macadamia, the speculated data for the defatted nuts are in accordance with the values determined from the defatted flours in a previous study. Jitn-garmkusol et al. (2008) reported the proximate composition of totally defatted flours (0.5 0.9 fat, wb) from three macadamia cultivars grown in northern Thailand. Protein, carbohydrate, and ash contents...

Establish a baseline and master the fundamentals first Then experiment and adjust as needed

Most diet programs begin with some kind of quick start crash diet program that is extremely restrictive. That's because the creators of these programs want you to see quick weight loss right from the beginning. However, unless you already understand the fundamentals of fat-burning nutrition, it makes no sense to attempt going on an extremely difficult regimen such as a bodybuilding contest diet or a very low carbohydrate ( ketogenic ) diet. You'll never stick to it. I like high protein, low carbohydrate diets at certain times for certain purposes. But a big mistake a lot of people make is trying a strict bodybuilder's pre-contest regimen, or some unique twist to their macronutrient ratios before they even clean the junk out of their diets or master the fundamental of eating complex carbohydrates and lean proteins every three hours. If you're still skipping meals and eating junk such as sugar and sweets, refined carbohydrates, alcohol and saturated fats, you're not ready for an...

Adjustments for nutrient ratios by body type

The mesomorph could probably follow any nutrient ratio and still get results. I know some mesomorphs on the 50 - 50 diet 50 McDonalds and 50 pizza. They still grow muscle like weeds and have ripped abs. I'm not endorsing this approach, just making a point. If our gifted mesomorph friend would go with 50-55 carbohydrates, 30 protein and 15-20 fat, he would get even better results. An ectomorph should almost never restrict carbohydrates. The ectomorph usually isn't concerned with losing body fat. Usually their goal is to gain muscle, and for gaining muscle, a diet composed of 50-55 complex carbohydrates with 30 protein and 1520 fat would be ideal. It's the endomorph that needs to pay the most attention to nutrient ratios. Endomorphs are often insulin resistant and carbohydrate sensitive, so the high carbohydrate approach is usually out of the question. A better starting point for an endomorph might be around 50 carbohydrates. Then based on results, they may need further reductions to...

Background and Definition

In 1939, Conn and Newburgh noted how different carbohydrate-containing foods could have the same macronutrient composition but different glycemic responses. Insulin responses elicited by different carbohydrates also vary. These observations led to the first classification of carbohydrate foods according to their glycemic response, which then allowed different dietary carbohydrates to be exchanged within a meal without altering postprandial glucose levels. The 'glycemic index' was introduced as a means of quantifying the glycaemic response of different dietary carbohydrates. Glycemic indices of several foods are published in international nutritional tables, the most recent of which was published in 2002. Methodology on their derivation is available from previous reviews. Gly-cemic index of a food is a measure of postprandial glucose response after a 50-g load of available carbohydrate from the food (Figure 1) and provides a standardized comparison of a carbohydrate's 2-h postprandial...

Avoid extremes on either end of the spectrum

Reducing carbohydrates and increasing protein can give you some interesting hormonal and metabolic advantages when it comes to fat loss. Although a high protein, low carbohydrate diet may cause quicker fat loss, the downside is that it's much more difficult to follow, and using low carbohydrates for prolonged periods can cause decreased energy, loss of muscle, dehydration, nutrient deficiencies and metabolic slowdown. The more you reduce your carbohydrates, the greater the side effects and the more difficult it will be to maintain your fat loss after you've reached your goal. A zero or very low carbohydrate diet is simply not necessary for fat loss. A better approach is to reduce carbohydrates moderately, not cut them out completely. A slight reduction in carbohydrates, particularly in the evening, will accelerate fat loss without the negative side effects of high protein, zero carbohydrate diets. It's always wise to steer away from anything extreme. That rules out the very low...

The 321 method for calculating nutrient ratios

A very simple way to estimate your nutrient ratios is to follow the 3-2-1 rule. Here's how it works Imagine your plate divided into six sections like slices of a pie. Fill up three slices (3 6 or 50 ) with natural carbohydrates like potatoes, yams, oatmeal, whole grains, fruits and vegetables. Fill up two sections (2 6 or 33 ) with lean proteins like egg whites, chicken or fish. Finish with one section of fat (1 6 or 17 ). This simple method puts you very close to the optimal ratios for a baseline diet and you don't need to be a math whiz to figure it out.

What is the Glycemic Index

How fast the fuel enters the system can promote or deplete life. The term glycemic index (GI), is simply a ranking of carbohydrates based on their immediate affect on blood glucose (blood sugar levels). Carbohydrates that are slow to break down during digestion have a low GI. Carbohydrates that break down quickly during digestion have a high GI. This state can be likened to throwing gasoline on a fire resulting in a quick, hot, explosive state only to quickly cool. These highs and lows tend to stress the status quo. There is a Glycemic Index provided for you at Appendix B. You can be on a roller coaster of health with peaks and valleys with headaches, depression, anxiety, pain, dizziness, digestive distress, and more depending on the carbohydrates you choose to eat. A low GI diet results in a smaller rise in blood glucose after meals promoting weight loss, staying fuller longer, and prolonging physical endurance. The fuel you put in your machine...

The importance of a varied balanced nutrition program

The other benefit of the 55-30-15 ratio is long-term maintenance. These ratios are balanced and healthy for long-term use. A balanced diet in these ratios using a wide variety of foods is important to make sure you get the right balance of all the essential nutrients, including protein, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. A wide variety will also guard against excesses of potentially toxic substances. A truly balanced diet is one that you can comfortably maintain as your new lifestyle. The BFFM program fits the bill perfectly.

Chemical composition

Seed spices contain a variable amount of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, fibres, minerals and vitamins. However, owing to the very small quantity used in the foods, their contribution to nutrient requirements is not significant. Proteins, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins are thus less important in delineating the quality of spices. Coriander green leaves contain 87.9 moisture, 3.3 protein, 0.6 fat, 6.5 carbohydrates and 1.7 mineral matter. The mature dry seeds are tan to brownish-yellow and have 6.3-8.0 moisture, 1.3 protein, 0.3-1.7 volatile oil, 19.6 non-volatile oil, 31.5 ether extract, 24.0 carbohydrates, 5.3 mineral matter and vitamin A 175 IU per 100 g.

Safty aspects of probiotics

Although probiotics can affect most important caries pathogens, lactobacilli may correlate with caries development. Some strains of Lactobacillus spp., together with S. mutans, play a key role in development of dental caries. The production of organic acids from dietary carbohydrates is also a main factor in dental caries progression. If lactobacilli taken orally are able to adhere or temporarily establish themselves in the oral environment, their metabolism and acid production should not support caries induction. Studies addressing sugar fermentation has shown a strain dependent

Brain Function and Hypoglycemia

The brain is often thought of as being incapable of using metabolites other than glucose as a source of energy. This is untrue. It has been known for more than 30 years to be able, under certain circumstances including prolonged fasting, to utilize the 'ketone bodies,' 3-hydroxybutyrate and aceto-acetate. Under these circumstances the need for glucose and its supply through gluconeogenesis is drastically reduced. The survival value of this ability is immense as it permits fat stores rather than structural muscle and other tissue proteins to be utilized for maintenance of vital processes under these stressful conditions. Only when fat stores have become completely exhausted and plasma ketone levels fallen to below normal fasting levels does the brain's demand for glucose rise above the ability of gluco-neogenesis to provide it. Only at this point does hypoglycemia intervene and portend death from starvation or inanition (see later).

What the worlds leanest natural bodybuilders do

If you were to selectively pick your fats very carefully, a diet as high as 25-30 fat wouldn't necessarily be a bad idea either. Lean proteins and complex carbohydrates are more thermic than fats, which would favor a lower fat intake. What's even more important than the number of fat grams or the percentage of calories from fat is the type of fat you eat.

Inborn Errors of Metabolism

Type I liver glycogen storage disease is due to a defect in glucose-6-phosphatase activity and produces a severe form of fasting hypoglycemia. Fortunately, this responds to dietary therapy in the form of continuous feeding with slowly absorbed starch solution through a nasal or gastrostomy tube, especially during the night when the body normally has to resort to glycogenolysis to maintain the supply of glucose to the brain. Hypoglycemia in untreated type I patients produces hypoinsulinemia and high to very high plasma ketone levels. Children with abnormalities of fatty acid metabolism, on the other hand, are characterized by hypoglyce-mia, hypoinsulinemia, and hypoketonemia. As with children with liver glycogen disease, treatment is to ensure that they are constantly supplied with carbohydrates and are never fasting for more than a very short period.

Flaxseed oil one of the few supplements you cant go wrong with

Many people believe that fish is the richest source of EFA's. However, Flax has about twice as many Omega 3's as fish. Fresh Flaxseed oil is one of the best ways you can ensure that you meet your EFA requirements. You can get Flaxseed oil from any good health food store. One tablespoon a day is a fantastic way to get your EFA's although some people use as many as 3-5 tablespoons per day, depending on their caloric needs and the amount of carbohydrates they use in their diet.

Why you must eat complete proteins every three hours

Carbohydrates have a storage depot in the body called glycogen. Glycogen can be stored in the muscles and liver and then drawn upon hours or even days later when it's needed. Proteins can't be stored in the body. There's only a very small and transient amino acid pool in the bloodstream. To maintain the optimal environment for muscle growth (positive nitrogen balance), complete proteins must be eaten with every meal. This explains part of the rationale behind the common bodybuilding practice of eating six protein-containing meals per day (One every three hours or so.)

Complete proteins must be consumed at every meal to keep you in positive nitrogen balance and to build and maintain

Because protein can't be stored for later use like carbohydrates, it's necessary to consume a complete protein in every meal to stay in positive nitrogen balance. Complete proteins are the highest quality proteins that contain all of the essential and non-essential amino acids. Your goal on this program should be to include a source of complete protein with every meal and to eat five to six meals per day. Generally speaking, the most complete proteins are those that come from animal sources such as eggs, milk and meat.

Salads and Salad Entrees

Nutrition Facts Calories 200 I Protein 5 g I Carbohydrates 30 g I Fat 7 g Nutrition Facts Calories 390 I Protein 34 g I Carbohydrates 20 g I Fat 19 g Nutrition Facts Calories 290 I Protein 15 g I Carbohydrates 33 g I Fat 11 g Nutrition Facts Calories 265 I Protein 10 g I Carbohydrates 48 g I Fat 4 g Nutrition Facts Calories 360 I Protein 18 g I Carbohydrates 40 g I Fat 15 g Nutrition Facts Calories 280 I Protein 17 g I Carbohydrates 38 g I Fat 7 g Nutrition Facts Calories 310 I Protein 18 g I Carbohydrates 47 g I Fat 9 g Nutrition Facts Calories 375 I Protein 32 g I Carbohydrates 25 g I Fat 15 g

Isnt too much protein bad for you

Following these guidelines, many male competitive bodybuilders or people on low carbohydrate diets consume as much as 250-350 grams of protein per day or more. Women often consume as much as 175-225 grams per day. This often raises the question, Isn't this much protein bad for you If you have any kidney problems, you should avoid high-protein diets and you should always check with your physician before making any major changes to your diet. However, the idea that a high-protein diet is bad for you is a myth. It's a myth that never seems to go away, so let's take a closer look at the truth of the matter.

Protein and dehydration

One legitimate concern for the healthy person when following a high-protein diet is dehydration. Metabolizing protein requires more water than fats or carbohydrates, so it's extremely important to consume extra water if you increase your protein. The standard recommendation is eight to ten 8 oz glasses per day (64 - 80 oz). However, the higher your protein intake, the more water you should drink beyond the standard guideline. For bodybuilders on high-protein diets, a gallon a day (124 oz) is more like it. If in doubt, drink even more

Pinpointing your perfect carbohydrate intake

In a previous chapter, you learned that the two extremes - very low or very high carbohydrate diets - are not the most effective approaches for permanent fat loss. That leaves a lot of room in the middle. The goal of this chapter is to help you narrow down this wide gap and pinpoint the perfect carbohydrate intake for you based on your goals and your body type. In this important chapter, you'll also learn about the various types of carbohydrates and which ones are best for increasing energy and losing body fat. You'll learn that some carbohydrates are beneficial and some are harmful. You'll learn how to distinguish processed carbohydrates from natural carbohydrates, fibrous carbohydrates from starchy carbohydrates and simple carbohydrates from complex carbohydrates. You'll read about the dangers of processed carbohydrates and the virtues of natural carbohydrates. Finally, you'll learn exactly how many grams of carbohydrates you should eat and what percentage of your total calories...

Effects of Diet on VLDL Metabolism

It is well-known that diets high in simple carbohydrate increase hepatic secretion of VLDL. This carbohydrate induction of hypertriglyceridemia is the source of the current controversy regarding the optimal diet for subjects at high risk for cardiovascular disease. Some authors have demonstrated that the increased hepatic triacylglycerol secretion induced by high-carbohydrate diets was not accompanied by parallel increases in apo B-100 secretion. In other words, the consumption of low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets did not affect the number of particles but resulted in larger, more triacylgly-cerol-enriched VLDL particles.

Intestinal Absorption

Absorption by formation of insoluble complexes in the intestinal tract. Negative effects of a high intake of dietary fiber have often been reported, but these actions have certainly been overestimated. In fact, only the impact of purified fiber was considered, but fiber-rich diets are a major source of Mg and roles of the intestinal fermentation and the large bowel in mineral absorption were neglected. It was demonstrated in animal models that fermentable carbohydrates (oligosaccharides and resistant starch) enhance Mg absorption in the large bowel and that a similar effect exists in humans. Other nutrients may influence Mg absorption but these effects are important only at low dietary Mg intake.

Alcoholic Liver Disease Role Of Free Radicals

Other hand, compounds which inhibit cytochrome P4502E1 such as chlomethiazol or diallyl sulfide 90,91 , also inhibit lipid peroxidation, radical production and result in an improvement ofhepatic morphology. Obviously, the degree of induction of cytochrome P4502E1 is of predominant importance with respect to ALD. It is, therefore, concluded that the ROS produced by this pathway may be especially important. This induction is diet dependent and enhanced with unsaturated fatty acids such as corn oil and low carbohydrates. In addition, iron, an important compound in the production ofROS, plays a significant role. Iron supplementation increases liver disease and administration of an iron chelator decreases ALD. Although, the administration of vitamin E to rodents inhibits ALD to some extent, data in humans are not very encouraging. The approach of administering vitamin E together with selenium and zinc to patients with alcoholic cirrhosis did show an improvement in mortality, but the number...

Fat Malabsorption Fat and Fat Soluble Nutrients

Historically, patients with pancreatic insufficiency due to cystic fibrosis (CF) were told to minimize symptoms of steatorrhea by limiting dietary fat. However, epidemiologic studies confirmed that this advice led to negative energy balance, undernutrition, and higher mortality rates compared to communities in which CF patients were treated with high-energy, high-fat diets. The introduction of effective pancreatic replacement therapy has been heralded as one of the

Food Availability and Diet Quality

Moreover, children can become anorectic when fed monotonous diets, and this can be compounded when superimposed on frequent and repeated bouts of infections. A high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet with a low energy density also precipitates undernutrition in children. Protein deficiency per se is not the major cause of growth retardation, but little is known about the specific effects of essential fatty acid deficiencies on growth. Micronutrient deficiencies, particularly zinc deficiency, cause growth retardation. Zinc supplementation can increase body weight and length height, but the effect is modest compared with the growth deficit usually observed in growth-faltered children. Children in poor communities are likely to have multiple micronutrient deficiencies, and the combined effect of these coupled with inadequate fat and energy intake will affect growth patterns.

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