Cyclical Ketogenic Diets Review

The 3-Week Ketogenic Diet

The 3-week ketogenic diet is tested and proven to be a new diet system that not only will guarantee you are losing weight, but it also gives an assurance of you losing excess body fat in the shortest time of just twenty-one days. After the first week of joining the 3-week ketogenic diet, most people notice some changes in their bodies like joint relief, and their bodies begin to be light and more energy in their bodies.The 3-week ketogenic diet requires food supplements that are readily available locally, and at friendly prices, his makes their product to have a better competitive edge as compared to other products. The 3-week ketogenic diet does not limit any users as anybody can join the program regardless of their age or their ethnicities. A diet program guide is provided by Nick to help all the users and when they follow the guidelines strictly, after three weeks weight loss is achieved. Continue reading...

The 3Week Ketogenic Diet Summary

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My The 3Week Ketogenic Diet Review

Highly Recommended

This is one of the best ebooks I have read on this field. The writing style was simple and engaging. Content included was worth reading spending my precious time.

As a whole, this manual contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

Classification of Dietary Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates can be subdivided into several categories based on the such as glucose or fructose. A disaccharide (e.g., sucrose, lactose, and maltose) consists of two sugar units. Oligosaccharides, containing 3 to 10 sugar units, are often breakdown products of polysaccharides, which contain more than 10 sugar units. Oligosaccharides such as raffinose and stachyose are found in small amounts in legumes. Examples of polysaccharides include starch and glycogen, which are the storage forms of carbohydrates in plants and

Eat the Right Percentages of Protein Carbohydrates and Fats

The latest research shows that 30 percent lean protein, 40 percent low-glycemic carbohydrates, and 30 percent acceptable fats work best for metabolic efficiency. These percentages have been tremendously effective in my program for athletes who want to lose fat, build more lean muscle, and improve performance, and for people who are overfat and often suffering from either elevated triglycerides or high glucose levels. A recent article in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition makes a convincing argument for this ratio in people suffering from type 2 diabetes, stating that eating 30 percent dietary protein and 40 percent carbohydrates appears to improve glycemic control without increasing the risk of heart disease. In as little as five weeks, the glucose levels of the study participants dropped an astonishing 40 percent, and blood lipids, especially triglycerides, were significantly lowered.

The first rule of macronutrient ratios Always eat proteins and carbohydrates together

Before we get into specific ratios and percentages, you must first understand the most basic rule of nutrient ratios Your diet should never consist primarily of one food type or one macronutrient type there must be a proper balance between proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Without even doing any sophisticated number crunching, you'll always be in the ballpark simply by having a serving of lean protein and a serving of complex carbohydrate at every meal. If you frequently eat carbohydrates or proteins by themselves, your ratios will be out of balance and your results will be compromised.

Very low carbohydrate high fat high protein

On the other end of the spectrum you have the very high fat, high protein, very low carbohydrate diets. The Atkin's Diet is the most popular. Others include Protein Power, The Carbohydrate Addicts Diet, Sugar Busters, The Ketogenic diet, The Anabolic Diet and a whole host of other programs that impose strict regulations on the amount of carbohydrate you can eat. The basic assumption of the very low carbohydrate approach is that carbohydrates cause fat storage because they increase insulin production. Insulin is portrayed as an evil fat-storing monster that makes everything you eat turn into fat. The objective of these programs is to control insulin by cutting out carbohydrates and this will supposedly cause rapid body fat loss. There is some truth in these arguments, but unfortunately, the information has been distorted and taken to extremes. Contrary to what certain diet gurus tell you, carbohydrates are not fattening. What's fattening is eating more calories than your body can use...

High carbohydratelow fatmoderate protein The bodybuilders diet

The 60-30-10 nutrient ratio is the program I originally used when I first started bodybuilding. When I began training and competing it was the late eighties and early nineties, right in the middle of the fat phobia era. I ate high complex carbohydrates and low fats simply because it was in vogue and widely accepted. All the experts recommended it 60-30-10 (or close to it) was recommended in Keith Klein's Get Lean system, Cliff Sheat's Lean Bodies and Larry North's Living Lean Program. Professional bodybuilders like Lee Labrada and bodybuilding nutritionists such as Chris Aceto and John Parillo also endorsed it.

Benefits of Low Glycemic Index Carbohydrates on Diabetic Control

This is the area in which there is most evidence of clinical efficacy. Two independent systematic reviews of the world evidence demonstrated the efficacy of low glycemic index diets on glycemic control in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Clinical studies have shown that after 3 months of a diet containing low glycemic index carbohydrates, glycemic control is improved in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. With low glycemic diets, postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations decrease in type 2 diabetic subjects, whereas both postprandial glucose values and insulin requirements decrease in type 1 diabetic subjects. Good glycemic control and favorable lipid and fibri-nolytic profiles have also been reported in individuals with either type 1 or 2 diabetes who habitually consume low glycemic index dietary carbohydrates. It remains to be shown whether these diets bestow

Proposed Mechanism by which Dietary Carbohydrates Glycemic Index Influence Insulin Resistance

Adipocyte metabolism is central to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and dietary carbohydrates influence adipocyte function. The previous simplistic view that insulin resistance resulted from the down-regulation of the insulin receptors in response to hyperinsulinemia is being replaced by the hypothesis that high circulating NEFA levels both impair insulin action and reduce pancreatic fi cell secretion. It is plausible that low glycemic index carbohydrates Many of the metabolic benefits associated with low glycemic index carbohydrates can be attributed to their ability to reduce adipocyte NEFA release. Low glycemic index foods have been consistently shown to reduce insulin resistance, and animal studies have shown that improvements in fat and muscle insulin sensitivity are accompanied by decreases in fatty acid synthatase activity, adipocyte size, and lipid storage. Although human studies have shown that low glycemic index diets consumed for 3 weeks increase adipocyte insulin...

Why a high fat diet is no good

After reading chapter six on calories, you now understand that to lose body fat you have to eat fewer calories than you burn each day. One problem with fats is they are more calorie dense than any other food. Each gram of fat contains 9 calories, while each gram of carbohydrate or protein contains only 4 calories. Since each gram of fat contains more than twice the calories, this means eating fat makes it more likely that you'll eat too many calories. Quite simply, a high fat diet is a high calorie diet, and a high calorie diet is a fat storing diet. There are differences between the various types of fats, but ALL fats contain 9 calories per gram. So if you want to lose body fat, you'll need to reduce your total fats in general in order to keep your calories down. 4. A high fat diet doesn't leave room for enough protein or carbohydrates High fat diets are often promoted as effective ways of increasing anabolic hormones and controlling fat storing hormones, resulting in increased...

Protein intake and low carbohydrate dieting

The other time when more than 30 protein is justified is when you're using a low carbohydrate diet, either because you're carbohydrate sensitive or you're preparing for a bodybuilding or fitness competition (Or photo shoot). A high protein, low-carbohydrate diet may not be appropriate (Or healthy) for year-round maintenance, but there's no question that eating more protein and less carbohydrates makes it easier for some people to lose body fat. Some people are very sensitive to carbohydrates. When they eat a lot of carbohydrates, their bodies overreact. There's an unusually large surge in their blood sugar and insulin levels, which may increase fat storage and inhibit enzymes that promote the breakdown of stored body fat. One solution to this problem is less carbohydrate and -you guessed it - more protein. The baseline diet of 50-55 carbohydrates, 30 protein and 15-20 fat is without a doubt the healthiest, most balanced way to eat, and most people will lose fat on these ratios just by...

Methods of producing carbohydrates with lower glycemic index

Based on the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 (USDA, 2005), dietary carbohydrates should provide 45-65 of total calories. Dietary carbohydrates, structurally, can be divided into monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. a-1,4- and 1,6-linked glucans (such as starch and maltodextrins) are digestible by human enzymes, while dietary fiber - including some oligosaccharides (like inulin) and non-starch polysaccharides (like pectins, hemicelluloses, cellulose) - cannot be digested by the human body. The majority of starches in cooked and processed foods are rapidly digested and produce high postprandial glycemia. Starches that digest slowly result in a moderated glycemic response and may provide extended energy to an individual. A challenge facing researchers in the public and private sectors is to create such slowly digestible starches with low GI as an ingredient for typically high-GI processed foods, or as new food products, or, through...

What are carbohydrates and what are they for

Unlike proteins, which are used as building materials, carbohydrates are used for energy, particularly for high-intensity exercise. Sports nutritionist Dr. Michael Colgan, author of Optimum Sports Nutrition, calls carbohydrates premium fuel. I've never heard a better definition. Fats are also used for fuel, but the difference is that fats don't burn as efficiently as carbohydrates. It's a common misconception that fat is a more efficient fuel source, but it's not - it's simply a more concentrated fuel source (nine calories per gram for fat versus four calories per gram for carbohydrate). Carbohydrates are the body's preferred and most efficient energy source. Whenever carbohydrates are restricted, energy levels and performance usually decline. Fat is stored in the body as a backup energy source (like a reserve fuel tank). A 185-pound man with 18 body fat has 116,500 calories stored in his reserve tank. Your body can also store carbohydrates, but in much more limited quantities....

The many types of carbohydrates

Eating the right quantity of carbohydrate is important, but the quality of the carbohydrates you choose is equally important. Ultimately, all the carbohydrates you eat end up in the bloodstream as glucose (blood sugar), but you can't lump all carbohydrates together into one category, because they're not all the same. Before we talk about how to calculate your optimal quantity of carbohydrates, you first need to learn about the different qualities of carbohydrates. There are simple and complex carbohydrates, starchy and fibrous carbohydrates, refined and natural carbohydrates, high-glycemic and low-glycemic carbohydrates. Some of these carbohydrates are good and some are bad. The good carbohydrates are your friends they will supply you with energy and nutrients and help you get leaner and more muscular. The bad carbohydrates are your foes they have a greater potential for fat storage, they are nutritionally void and rob you of energy. To lose fat, become more muscular, optimize your...

Simple Carbohydrates monosaccharides and disaccharides

There are two broad categories of carbohydrates Simple and complex. Let's talk about the simple ones first. Simple carbohydrates consist of a single sugar molecule (monosaccharide) or two single sugar molecules linked together (disaccharide). The Monosaccharides include fructose, glucose, and galactose. The two we'll refer to the most are fructose (fruit sugar) and glucose (blood sugar.) Glucose is found naturally in food or it can be produced in the body through the breakdown of complex carbohydrates. Fructose is the type of simple carbohydrate found in fruit. Types of Simple Carbohydrates (sugars) Types of Simple Carbohydrates (sugars)

The natural simple carbohydrates are healthy but ALL simple carbohydrates should be used in moderation during

When we talk about simple carbohydrates, we're often referring to refined sugar and white flour products - these are the bad carbohydrates. But not all simple carbohydrates are bad. Some simple carbohydrates occur in nature. These natural sugars include fructose (found in fruit) and lactose (found in dairy products). Natural sugars are fine when eaten in moderation. There's no reason to cut out all your simple carbohydrates - just the bad (refined) ones, but you should reduce simple carbohydrates overall if you want maximum fat loss. This is one of the many tricks bodybuilders use to get so lean - they cut out refined sugar completely, but they even cut back on natural sugars too, opting for starchy and fibrous carbohydrates instead.

Eat fruit in moderation but focus more on natural fibrous and starchy carbohydrates

Your carbohydrates from fructose is NOT the most efficient fat loss strategy. Fructose is a simple carbohydrate, and you should use all simple carbohydrates in moderation during a fat burning program. On the BFFM program, fruit is best used as a small portion of your carbohydrate calories, not the primary source. One or two pieces of fruit a day is fine, with the remainder of your carbohydrates coming from green fibrous carbohydrates (asparagus, broccoli, etc) and complex starchy carbohydrates (such as oatmeal, brown rice and yams).

Complex carbohydrates should make up the majority of your carbohydrate calories

Complex carbohydrates take longer to digest and absorb than simple carbohydrates. They provide sustained energy levels without the highs and lows in blood sugar and energy levels produced by eating simple carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates contain fiber, which slows down their absorption and helps stabilizes blood sugar and insulin. Complex carbohydrates are more filling, allowing you to feel more full on less food. Complex carbohydrates from natural sources are also the most nutrient dense carbohydrates you can eat, whereas refined (white) sugar is nutritionally void. Complex carbohydrates have a higher thermic effect and they stimulate less insulin production. For all these reasons, complex carbohydrates are the carbohydrates of choice for fat loss. As a general rule, 2 3 or more of all your carbohydrates should be complex carbohydrates, while 1 3 or less should be simple carbohydrates.

Natural vs refined The most important distinction you can ever make about carbohydrates

So far you've learned the difference between simple and complex carbohydrates, starchy and fibrous complex carbohydrates and high GI and low GI carbohydrates. These are all significant factors, but the 1 most important distinction you can ever make about carbohydrates is the difference between natural and refined (or processed) carbohydrates.

Calorie density of carbohydrates

In addition to choosing carbohydrates on the basis of whether they are refined or natural, another criteria you should use for carbohydrate selection is calorie density. Eating more calories than your body can handle at once is the primary cause of fat storage. Therefore, it makes sense that you should choose foods with a low calorie density if you want to lose fat. Refined carbohydrates are more likely to make you fat than natural carbohydrates. If all carbohydrates have four calories per gram, then how can this be It's because refined carbohydrates contain more calories in the same volume of food than natural complex carbohydrates. (They're more calorie dense). Because refined sugars are so highly processed, a lot of calories get packed into a small serving of food. The milling, grinding, bleaching and enriching of grains decreases their complexity and removes much of the nutritional content. The milling of grains into white flour also decreases the particle size while increasing...

Processed and refined carbohydrates are calorie dense but nutrient sparse They are empty calories

Refined carbohydrates provide little or no nutritional value. Sucrose (white table sugar), for example, is 99 pure calories no vitamins, no minerals, no proteins, just empty calories that do nothing for you. Sugar is worse than zero nutrition - it's negative nutrition because it depletes minerals from your body. It's also stored easily as fat and causes fluctuating blood sugar and insulin levels.

The truth about low carbohydrate diets

The popularity of low carbohydrate diet programs has given carbohydrates in general a bad name and caused the widespread misconception that all carbohydrates are fattening. The truth is that carbohydrates are not fattening and most people don't need low carbohydrate diets to get lean. Many low carbohydrate programs are based on the assumption that all people are carbohydrate sensitive or resistant to insulin. My research and experience has proven the opposite - that most people will lose fat simply by lifting weights, doing cardio, eating less than they burn and cleaning up their diets. In other words, low carbohydrate diets should be looked at as last resort diets or peaking diets for special events such as bodybuilding, fitness competition or photo shoots. A low carbohydrate diet is not for year round maintenance. It's a temporary tool for reaching peak condition.

For carbohydratesensitive endomorph types

From my experience working with thousands of clients, I would estimate that about 70 -80 of people will lose fat on a baseline diet without carbohydrate restriction. That leaves 20 to 30 who don't respond well to the conventional high carbohydrate, low fat approach. Even on a low fat, low calorie diet combined with regular exercise, these carbohydrate sensitive people still have a difficult time getting lean (and they're often extremely frustrated with their lack of results despite their honest efforts). For carbohydrate sensitive people, a reduced carbohydrate diet with more protein and fat may be the answer.

Reducing carbohydrates and increasing protein reduces water retention giving you sharper more detailed muscle definition

A high carbohydrate diet tends to increase water retention because every gram of glycogen holds three grams of water. A high protein, low carbohydrate diet has the opposite effect - it tends to decrease water retention, giving you a more defined look to your muscles. Bloating and puffiness from water retention is only temporary and should not be confused with legitimate changes in body composition. However, the improved muscle definition from the high protein, low carbohydrate diet is another reason this type of diet is favored by so many bodybuilders and fitness competitors.

Very low carbohydrate diets are difficult to stay on

By their very nature, low carbohydrate diets are restrictive and difficult to follow. On a very low carbohydrate diet, you are only allowed to eat protein, meat and fat with limited amounts of low calorie carbohydrates such as lettuce, green vegetables and very small portions of natural starches. How long do you think you could comfortably stay on this kind of program Extremely restrictive diets require tremendous willpower and almost always set you up for cravings and bingeing. Many people fail simply because they can't faithfully stay on the wagon.

Very low carbohydrate diets can cause your energy levels to crash

You can increase fat loss by restricting carbohydrates, but your energy levels and performance are going to drop if you cut them too much. That's why virtually 100 of elite athletes follow moderately high carbohydrate diets, regardless of whether their sport is anaerobic or aerobic in nature (Bodybuilders are an exception because their ultimate goal is cosmetic appearance, not physical performance). Because carbohydrates are your body's preferred energy source, the more you reduce your carbohydrates, the less energy you will have. If your workout intensity suffers, your results will suffer.

Low carbohydrate levels affect your mood and mental state

The low carbohydrate diet is infamous for producing brain fog because your brain and central nervous system function almost exclusively on glucose. When you deprive yourself of carbohydrates for any prolonged period of time, you will often become tired, weak, moody, irritable and an all around grouchy S.O.B. Just ask anyone who has ever gone on a strict low carbohydrate diet (or anyone who has lived with a low carb dieter), and they'll tell you - a severe low carbohydrate diet can cause a Jeckyl and Hyde effect.

Low carbohydrate diets may cause muscle loss

When glycogen stores are severely depleted through dietary restriction, your body can also burn protein for energy, converting muscle tissue into glucose through a process called gluconeogenesis. Carbohydrates have a protein-sparing effect - they help ensure that you don't burn up muscle for energy. (Unfortunately, if your carbohydrates are too high, they also have a fat-sparing effect because when carbohydrates are plentiful, you tend to burn more carbohydrate for energy). Advocates of ketogenic and very low carbohydrate diets claim that the very nature of the ketogenic diet prevents muscle loss. In the real world, I have never observed this even once Extremely strict very low carbohydrate diets invariably cause muscle to be lost along with the fat.

Secrets of low carb dieting How to get all the low carb benefits without the low carb side effects

Reading the list of side effects and disadvantages might be enough to make you steer clear of ever using a reduced carbohydrate diet. However, most of these problems occur by using a conventional low carbohydrate diet. Bodybuilders do things a little differently, and the result is often magnificent muscularity and rock bottom body fat levels - without the negative effects There are three secrets to getting all the benefits of low carbohydrate dieting without all the side effects. The first is carbohydrate tapering, which is the practice of eating more carbohydrates early in the day and fewer later in the day. The second secret is using moderate carbohydrate reductions, not the removal of all carbohydrates. The third is carbohydrate cycling. When combined, the results of these three techniques can increase fat loss beyond your wildest dreams and expectations Lets take a closer look at each one.

The low carbohydrate very high protein diet for bodybuilding and fitness competition

For very brief periods, bodybuilders often decrease their carbohydrates to only about 25 of their total calories. This is considered a low carbohydrate diet and is PHASE III in the BFFM program. This type of program would only be appropriate for an extreme endomorph or a competitive physique athlete (That's why it's often called a competition diet.) The Competition Diet (Phase III) Low carbohydrate, very high protein 25-30 carbohydrates 50 protein 20-25 fat. For the average male, the phase III competition diet is about 150 to 200 grams of carbohydrates per day. For the average female, the carbohydrate intake is about 90 to 130 grams. This is just enough carbohydrate to stay alert and fuel high intensity workouts. A larger drop would be overkill. except the world's best bodybuilders, of course - would argue that this is far too much protein, which it probably is if you stayed at this level all the time. However, if you reduce your carbohydrates to 25-30 of your total calories and you...

Why you shouldnt stay on low carbohydrates for more than three days in a row

After three days in a row on low carbohydrates, your glycogen levels will be almost completely depleted. If you were to continue on low carbohydrates for a fourth day, fifth day, or beyond, you would notice your energy and training intensity begin to diminish. You would also notice that your muscles would flatten out and become softer. Your metabolic rate would begin to slow down and your thyroid gland would decrease its output of thyroid hormone. Basically, your diet would become less and less effective the longer you stayed on low carbohydrates beyond the three day period. Your body is so smart, it simply makes changes in physiology and metabolism to compensate for the prolonged lack of carbohydrates (which it interprets as starvation). That's why you have to shake things up and keep your body off guard by throwing in a high carbohydrate day every fourth day.

Low Fat High Carbohydrate Diets of Adults

The chronic diseases of greatest concern with respect to relative intakes of macronutrients are CHD, diabetes, and cancer. In this section, the relationship between total fat and total carbohydrate intakes are considered. Comparisons are made in terms of percentage of total energy intake. For example, a low fat diet signifies a lower percentage of fat relative to total energy. It does not imply that total energy intake is reduced because of consumption of a low amount of fat. The distinction between hypocaloric diets and isocaloric diets is important, particularly with respect to impact on body weight. Low and high fat diets can still be isocaloric. The failure to identify this distinction has led to considerable confusion in terms of the role of dietary fat in chronic disease.

Reasons why you must eat lean proteins and complex carbohydrates together at every meal to maximize fat loss and muscle

To gain muscle and lose fat, it's not only unnecessary to separate carbohydrates and proteins - it's counterproductive. Here are 8 convincing scientific reasons why. Read them and then you be the judge of whether you want to eat a meal without your protein and carbohydrates. 1) To maintain positive nitrogen balance, a state where you are retaining more protein than you excrete, resulting in a net gain of muscle tissue, you must consume protein approximately every three hours. Proteins cannot be stored like carbohydrates. This requires protein feedings with every meal. Eat carbohydrates by themselves without protein, and your body must break down muscle to get the amino acids it needs (You eat up your own muscle tissue ) 2) To get the protein (amino acids) into the muscle cells efficiently requires insulin. Insulin is secreted most readily in response to eating carbohydrates. Therefore, a moderate (but not over-sized) portion of carbohydrate should be eaten with your protein to...

Fibrous carbohydrates green vegetables help you lose fat because they have a low calorie density

Eating fibrous carbohydrates for the health benefits is important, but fiber also plays a major role in a reducing body fat. The reason is because fibrous carbohydrates such as green vegetables don't contain many calories - they have a low calorie density. Low calorie density foods are very important for fat loss because they make it easier to stay full without going over your calorie limits. The starches are much more calorie-dense than the fibrous carbohydrates. Some fibrous vegetables are so low in calories that once the thermic effect is factored in, it could be said that such foods have negative calories. This is the primary reason that a fat reducing nutrition program should be very high in vegetables.

High carbohydrate very low fat

In the 80s and 90s, most diet programs called for very low fat, low protein and extremely high carbohydrate. The Pritkin diet, which recommended 70 carbohydrate, 20 protein and 10 fat, is one example. Other programs falling into this category are the Dean Ornish's Eat More Weigh Less program, Robert Hass's Eat to Win and vegetarianism. If the right types of carbohydrates are eaten, this is probably a healthy way to eat, but it's so lopsided in favor of carbohydrates, you can't really say it's balanced and this approach definitely isn't for everyone. When it comes to shifting body composition from fat to muscle, many people simply don't respond well to high carbohydrates, no matter how carefully they are chosen. Very high carbohydrate, low fat diets are also a bit light on essential fats, and the protein levels are too low to support serious weight training. Some extremely carbohydrate-sensitive people actually see increases in cholesterol and triglycerides when their carbs are too...

Ignore the high fat diet cult

Zero fat is definitely not the answer. Now let's talk about the opposite end of the spectrum - the high fat diet. In the weight loss and bodybuilding world, there is a small cult of high fat advocates who insist that a very high fat diet (40-70 of your calories) is the ultimate method of losing fat, building muscle and improving athletic performance. Why anyone would fall for such tripe is beyond me, but it's probably because it sounds so off the edge, unusual and controversial. Any diet that sounds new and controversial, combined with a ton of marketing is bound to catch people's attention because of its uniqueness. As I mentioned earlier in this manual, it's easy to overlook the fundamentals and disregard common sense in our quest for some esoteric magical formula. Frankly, there are some really stupid things being said about nutrition these days and eating high fats (especially saturated and processed fats) is one of them. The high fat diet is totally without scientific or...

Why do low carbohydrate diet proponents talk so much about ketosis

The goal of some very low carbohydrate diets is to produce the metabolic state known as ketosis. In the absence of carbohydrate, fats burn incompletely, causing by products called ketone bodies to accumulate in the bloodstream. Being in ketosis is a sure-fire indicator that your body has been forced to run on fat for fuel. That's why achieving ketosis is the primary goal of so many low carbohydrate diets. Ketosis can occur when your carbohydrates are dropped below 100 grams, although most people don't stay in ketosis until carbohydrates go below 30-70 grams a day. Ketosis can be detected with a urine test. Paper strips called ketostix are dipped in the urine and when they change to a certain color, this indicates you've achieved a ketogenic state. The high carb gurus often argue that ketogenic diets are dangerous and unhealthy. Ketogenic diets might be dangerous, depending on the parameters of the diet and a person's health status, but no sweeping conclusions can be made about their...

Insulin response and sensitivity to carbohydrates

Some people are more carbohydrate sensitive than others. Your level of sensitivity to carbohydrates will have a direct bearing on your ability to lose body fat, and it's one of the most critical factors in determining the correct nutritional strategy for you. Carbohydrate sensitive individuals who do not adjust their nutrition properly often have an incredibly difficult time getting lean. Their blood sugar rises rapidly with the consumption of even small amounts of carbohydrates. This in turn causes the release of large amounts of insulin. High concentrations of insulin in the bloodstream are lipogenic and anti-lipolytic. This means that when excessive insulin is present, you stop releasing fat from the adipose cells and you go into fat storage mode. This explains why one person can eat a diet high in bread, pasta, potatoes and other carbohydrates and lose body fat easily, while another person will gain body fat and feel terrible on the same diet.

Benefits of Low Glycemic Index Carbohydrates on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

High glycemic index foods induce postprandial hyperinsulinemia, which is a powerful predictor for metabolic risk factors and CVD in epidemiological studies. Both cross-sectional and prospective population studies have shown favorable lipid profiles in association with high carbohydrate diets. Initially, these benefits were attributed to a high fiber content. However, when the glycemic index is controlled for, it is the low glycemic index diets rather than high fiber content that have the greatest influence on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, insulin sensitivity, and fibrinolytic parameters. In a cross-sectional study on more than 2000 middle-aged subjects, the glycemic index was a stronger determinant of HDL cholesterol than any other dietary factor, be it carbohydrate or fat. In this study, the HDL cholesterol of the women whose habitual diet was within the lowest quintile for glycemic index was 0.25 mmol l higher than that for women whose dietary carbohydrate was within...

Health Effects of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are stored in the human body as glycogen mainly in the liver and muscle. The human body has a limited storage capacity for carbohydrates compared to fat. The total amount of carbohydrates stored in tissues and circulating in the blood as glucose is approximately 7.56 MJ (1800 kcal). Diets high in carbohydrate ensure adequate glycogen storage available for immediate energy utilization. Carbohydrates are the preferred energy source for the human brain and have an important role in reducing protein breakdown when energy intake is inadequate. Dietary carbohydrates are absorbed in their hex-ose form (glucose, fructose, galactose) and provide 15.6 kJg-1 (3.75 kcal g-1) of energy. Although sugars and polysaccharides provide similar amounts of energy, they differ in their physiological and metabolic properties. The effects of carbohydrate-containing foods on blood glucose levels during digestion and absorption are variable, depending on the type of dietary carbohydrate....

Complex Carbohydrates

Complex carbohydrates, or polysaccharides, are composed of simple sugar units in long chains called polymers. Three polysaccharides are of particular importance in human nutrition starch, glycogen, and dietary fiber. Starch and glycogen are digestible forms of complex carbohydrates made of strands of glucose units linked by alpha bonds. Starch, often contained in seeds, is the form in which plants store energy, and there are two types amylose and amylopectin. Starch represents the main type of digestible complex carbohydrate. Humans use an enzyme to break down the bonds linking glucose units, thereby releasing the sugar to be absorbed into the bloodstream. At that point, the body can distribute glucose to areas that need energy, or it can store the glucose in the form of glycogen. Pastas and whole-grain breads contain complex carbohydrates, which are long strands of glucose molecules. Nutritionists recommend that 55-60 percent of calories come from carbohydrates, and especially...

Dietary Fiber Complex Carbohydrates and Health Outcomes A Need for Fiber Equivalents

In the large bowel NSPs and RS are fermented by the microflora, yielding metabolic end products, principally short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which may mediate some of the health benefits ascribed to the carbohydrates. Undigested protein (resistant protein) and other nondigested carbohydrates (e.g., OSs) also contribute to large bowel fermentation. These nondigested fractions contribute to dietary fiber via fermentation and could be considered in net dietary fiber intake. This problem could be overcome relatively easily by classifying them (and other non-NSP carbohydrates) as fiber equivalents in which their actions are compared against an agreed standard. This is similar to the situation with other nutrients such as vitamin A, where reti-nol equivalents include carotenoids, which are reti-nol precursors. It follows that classifications based on chemical composition alone appear to be quite inadequate if one considers as improved health and diminished disease risk as the most...

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates, a group of molecules that include sugars and starches, provide energy to the body when the molecules are broken down. All carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They are categorized by size monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. As mentioned earlier, carbohydrates are used for energy. When glucose is broken down, some of the energy released from the chemical bonds is used in ATP molecules. If carbohydrates are not immediately needed, they are converted to glycogen or fat and stored. If not enough glucose is available, the liver breaks down glycogen to release glucose. The liver can convert amino acids into glucose, a process called gluconeogenesis. If sugar is not adequately available in the diet, amino acid supplies will be used to make glucose and not proteins.

Simple Carbohydrates

Simple carbohydrates, or simple sugars, are composed of monosaccharide or disaccharide units. Common monosaccharides (carbohydrates composed of single sugar units) include glucose, fructose, and galactose. Glucose is the most common type of sugar and the primary form of sugar that is stored in the body for energy. It sometimes is referred to as blood sugar or dextrose and is of particular importance to individuals who have diabetes or hypo-glycemia. Fructose, the primary sugar found in fruits, also is found in honey and high-fructose corn syrup (in soft drinks) and is a major source of sugar in the diet of Americans. Galactose is less likely than glucose or fructose to be found in nature. Instead, it often combines with glucose to form the disaccharide lactose, often referred to as milk sugar. Both fructose and galactose are metabolized to glucose for use by the body. Oligosaccharides are carbohydrates made of two to ten monosaccharides. Those composed of two sugars are specifically...

Nutrient Requirements

In the past, the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) or recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) concentrated on ensuring that nutrient deficiencies were minimized by specifying lower limits of intakes. However, it is now clear that many Western diets provide too much of some nutrients such as total calories, simple carbohydrates, saturated fats, and salt. Therefore, recent editions of DRIs (see Table 1 to 5) have

An Ounce of Prevention

High-fat diets can set you up for an increased risk of breast cancer, because fats increase the amount of estrogen in the blood. Estrogen stimulates breast cells in such a way that cancer is more likely to occur and is more aggressive. Plus, diets high in fatty foods lead to obesity, which also causes higher estrogen levels in the blood. However, if you ask any doctor what you should do in order to prevent breast cancer, the response will most likely be to get an annual mammogram, beginning at age 40 or 50. But mammograms do not prevent cancer . . . they only find cancer. Enlightened medical counsel recommend eating a low-fat, plant-based diet to eliminate foods that raise hormones in the blood. Additionally, vegetables and other healthful plant foods are rich in fiber, which helps reduce the risk of breast cancer by naturally decreasing estrogen levels. Add soy to the low-fat, plant-based diet, and you have an opportunity to downgrade the amount of estrogen in the blood even more...

Nutrient Functions And The Indicators Used To Estimate Requirements

Energy is required to sustain the body's various functions, including respiration, circulation, physical work, and protein synthesis. This energy is supplied by carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and alcohol in the diet. The energy balance of an individual depends on his or her dietary energy intake and energy expenditure. The Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) is defined as the average dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of a defined age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity, consistent with good health (Table S-1). In children and pregnant and lactating women, the EER is taken to include the needs associated with the deposition of tissues or the secretion of milk at rates consistent with good health. While EERs can be estimated for four levels of activity from the equations provided, the active physical activity level is recommended to maintain health. Carbohydrates (sugars and starches) provide energy to cells in the...

Digestion and Nutrition

You will read about why we need nutrients. Why do we need a variety of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals If we cannot absorb food until it is made into much smaller pieces, how does it get into the body There is also a discussion of accessory organs that contribute to digestion, such as the liver and pancreas.

The simple procedure you must complete before you begin any diet or exercise program

This might be the most important chapter in this entire book - even though it has nothing to do with calories, protein, carbohydrates, fats, cardio, weights or anything else related to nutrition or training. You see, there is a simple, but critical procedure you must complete before you lift a weight, jog a mile, start a nutrition program or even set foot in the gym. If you successfully complete this procedure, the nutrition and training will come easy and a lean body will soon follow. If you ignore this step - like most people do - you are destined to fail no matter what you do or how hard you try. This crucial first step is goal setting.

Atkins Robert MD 19302003

A tkins first proposed his high-protein, high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet in 1972 in his book, Dr. Atkin's Diet Revolution The High Calorie Way to Stay Thin Forever. This radical approach in the 1970s told dieters they could eat as much red meat, eggs, cheese, and other high-fat foods as they desired but not eat pasta, cereal, bread or other carbohydrates. The diet was relatively popular as a fad diet, but low-carb would not become a buzz word for several decades. Even though it was originally designed as a diet to maintain blood-sugar levels for diabetics, it became a popular weight-loss strategy that started the low-carb movement.

The Science of Success

The problem now, of course, is that we never experience the famine end of that equation, only the feast. As a result, we store fat but never require our bodies to burn it off. Much of our excess weight comes from the carbohydrates we eat, especially the highly processed ones found in baked goods, breads, snacks, and other convenient favorites. Modern industrial processing removes the fiber from these foods, and once that's gone their very nature and how we metabolize them changes significantly for the worse. So my eating plan's first principle was to permit good carbohydrates (fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) and curtail the intake of bad carbohydrates (the highly processed ones, for the most part, where all the fiber had been stripped away during manufacturing). We would thereby eliminate a prime cause of obesity. This was in marked contrast to the Atkins Diet, for instance, which bans virtually all carbohydrates and leaves the dieter to exist mostly on proteins. That regimen...

Importance of de novo lipogenesis assessed by transgenic animal technology

As already mentioned, one important step of DNL is the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA that is catalyzed by ACC (Fig. 1.1). Malonyl-CoA is an important metabolic intermediate that signals to the cell that surplus energy is available (Ruderman et al. 2003). Furthermore, besides being an intermediate in DNL, malonyl-CoA also plays a pivotal role in the control of fatty acid oxidation (Abu-Elheiga et al. 2000). Two isoforms of ACC (ACC 1 and ACC 2) have been identified in animals and humans. ACC 1 is a cytosolic protein that is highly expressed in lipo-genic tissues, such as liver and adipose tissue. ACC 2 is associated with mitochondria suggesting that it is mainly involved in the control of mito-chondrial fatty acid oxidation. In line with this assumption, ACC 2 is expressed in tissues such as muscle and brain, in which little or no DNL takes place (Abu-Elheiga et al. 2000). Whereas the genetic lack of ACC 1 is lethal (Abu-Elheiga et al. 2005), mice lacking ACC 2 have a...

What Makes A Fat Man

By this means, details of the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates, previously shrouded in mystery, have been clarified and with the new information so gained old experimental findings have been given new interpretations and the jigsaw of seemingly contradictory facts about obesity has clicked into a recognisable picture. When Mr Fatten-Easily eats too much bread, cake and potatoes, the picture is entirely different his metabolic rate does not increase. Why does he fail to burn up the excess The answer is the real reason for his obesity BECAUSE HE HAS A DEFECTIVE CAPACITY FOR DEALING WITH CARBOHYDRATES.

Effect of pH values of the bleaching agents on mineral loss of enamel

The physical and chemically soundness of the enamel depends on the pH and the saliva consisting of calcium phosphate and fluoride. Caries lesions develop with the fermentation of carbohydrates by bacteria's, the formation of organic acids and the pH decrease. The critical pH value for the enamel is pH 5.5 and when the oral pH decreases below this value, the bands between the fibrils and apatite of the enamel dissolve and the inorganic structure is affected (Axellson, 2000). In a study (Mcgucking et al., 1992) the enamel surface of bleached teeth were examined with a scanning electron microscope and a profilometer. The results showed that the enamel surface was affected by different concentrated bleaching agents, but these differences were not related with the pH values of the agents. When Tezel et al (Tezel et al., 2011 Tezel et al., 2007) measured the pH values of the bleaching agents used in their study with a pH meter it had been found that the pH was approximately 8 for each...

Susceptibility to Mood Enhancement by Diet

There is another link between macronutrient intake, stress, and mood. Chronic dysfunction of the stress-sensitive hormone cortisol and its controlling hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is associated with depression and anxiety and with abdominal obesity. Moreover, protein-rich meals that prevent a meal-induced fall in arousal also stimulate the release of cortisol in unstressed people, and the degree of this effect is positively correlated with the probability of poor psychological well-being. Chronically, a carbohydrate-rich diet is associated with better overall mood state and lower average plasma cortisol than a high-protein diet. Acutely, a carbohydrate preload, but not protein or fat load, enhances cortisol release during stress. This may be related to findings from both human and animal research that suggest that eating carbohydrate-rich and perhaps high-fat foods can help restore normal HPA axis function and gluco-corticoid stress responses. Raised levels of cortisol in...

Physiology Of The Digestive System

The mixture of ingested material and secretions in the gastrointestinal tract contains water, minerals and vitamins as well as fats, carbohydrates and proteins. The products of digestion, other small dissolved molecules, ions and water are transported across the epithelial cell membranes, mainly in the small intestine. This is the process of absorption. The transported molecules enter the blood or lymph for circulation to the tissues. This process is central to the digestive system, and the other physiological processes of the gastrointestinal tract, such as elimination, subserve it.

The Colon and Drug Delivery

The importance of the colon varies in mammals according to the nature of their diet. Thus true carnivores have a short colon with a small caecum, whereas large ruminants have a high capacity rumen for fermentation. The appendix in humans is vestigial and apparently unimportant in the human nutritional process. On opening the abdomen, the large colon is usually easily visible because the transverse loop has a very antral position in the abdominal cavity and may contain gas. Figure 2.13 illustrates the main physiological features of the colon. The bacterial fermentation of ingested soluble carbohydrates yields carbon dioxide, and in some individuals if the redox potential is low enough, hydrogen and methane.

Digestion and Metabolism

The lower gastrointestinal tract can also be a potentially important site affecting the bioavailability of bioactive substances found in food. In this regard, intestinal bacteria found in the large intestine can influence bioavailability. Bacteria are instrumental in the metabolic conversion of certain phytonutrients into forms that are more readily absorbed. In addition, bacteria likely play an important role in the enhancing effects of prebiotics on mineral bioavailability. Consumption of nonabsorbable carbohydrates, such as inulin, can have a positive effect on mineral absorption. A possible mechanism of this effect is that the nonabsorbable carbohydrates pass the small intestine and enter into the large intestine where they serve as a food substrate for bacteria. The metabolism of these prebiotic substances by intestinal bacteria lowers the pH of the lumen of the large intestine and may thereby

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

Total carbohydrates carbohydrates it has little protein, but contains appreciable amounts of minerals (calcium, iron, magnesium, and phosporus) as well as vitamin C. DSM fruit pulp also has low concentrations of oxalate, phytate, saponin, and tannin (Umaru et al., 2007). Generally, the nutrient and antinutritional factor (ANF) composition of seeds plays a crucial role in defining the beneficial and potentially beneficial effects of the given plant seed in human nutrition and health. Little has been published regarding the nutrient and ANF composition of DSM seeds. The proximate composition, soluble sugars, and starch contents of the seeds are summarized in Table 16.2. The seed has a high carbohydrate concentration but low protein content. As a human food resource, the soluble sugars and starch (both highly metabolizable energy sources) make DSM seeds a potential source of dietary energy. In drought years when conventional crops (cereals) fail to thrive, the highly energy dense seeds...

Very low calorie diets make you lose muscle

Study after study has shown that very low calorie diets without exercise will always cause 40 - 50 of the weight loss to come from lean tissue. Many diets, especially those that are low in carbohydrates, cause large losses in water weight. Between the loss of water, glycogen and muscle, fully 75 of the weight you lose on such plans is not fat The initial weight loss on most diets is very deceiving, giving you only the illusion of success. Even with exercise, if a diet is too restrictive, much of the weight loss will still be lean tissue.

Fats versus Carbs The Debate

How has America done since the low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet recommendations We've gotten fatter and fatter. In addition, adult-onset di In addition, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) diet pyramid was built on a base of the so-called complex carbohydrates bread, pasta, rice. Like most Americans, I took that to mean that I could eat these foods in abundance and still live thin, healthy, and happily ever after. I was taught in medical school that the only bad effect of sugars was tooth decay. If you recall the '70s, you remember how bread, pasta, and rice were made to seem healthy when compared to the supposed evils of meat. It turns out that the United States and the northern European countries with the high fat intake and high heart attack rates also had the lowest levels of fiber in their carbohydrates. By contrast, less-developed countries with high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets had lots of fiber in their carbs. In the 1990s, the Harvard School of Nutrition, under the...

Melons Fruit of the Vine

Melons are an excellent source of minerals and vitamins, but limit your watermelon consumption. Watermelon has a high concentration of carbohydrates. I have seen patients have acute left neck and low back pain due to sugar overload from eating too much watermelon. Cantaloupe, on the other hand, is dense and lower in natural sugar than watermelon. Honeydew is somewhere between. Harvey Diamond, in his best seller Fit for Life, suggests eating melon first, prior to eating other fruit choices. A delicious kid treat blend cantaloupe and honeydew in a food processor, separately, and pour the puree into ice cube trays for an afternoon refresher. Natural Prescription for Health Substitute a wedge of cucumber, a relative to the watermelon, for your potassium instead of a high-carbohydrate banana.

Effects on Energy Metabolism

These modifications of energy metabolism were associated with significant increases in serum free fatty acids, glycerol, and lactate concentrations, whereas inconsistent findings were reported for blood glucose levels. Acute administration of caffeine was shown to decrease insulin sensitivity and to impair glucose tolerance, possibly as a result of elevated plasma epinephrine. However, it is not understood why a large and long-term epidemiolo-gical study associated significant lower risks for type 2 diabetes in both men and women with total caffeine intake. The lipolytic effect is generally explained by the inhibition of phosphodiesterase, the release of catecholamine, or adenosine receptor antagonism. The increased availability of free fatty acids and their oxidation may have a glycogen-sparing effect. However, increasingly more results do not support the hypothesis that caffeine improves endurance performance by stimulating lipolysis, and some of the ergogenic effects in endurance...

Absorption of water and electrolytes

Secretions abruptly brings the pH of the intestinal chyme back up to about 6 in the duodenum, and increases it gradually to 7.4 towards the end of the small intestine (Fallingborg. 1999). The putative anion transporter (PATl, SLC26A6) is responsible for bicarbonate transport into the duodenal lumen in exchange for chloride. The intestinal content becomes slightly more acidic at the beginning of the colon (pH around 5.7) and eventually drops to pit 6.7 again by the time the feces reach the rectum (Fallingborg. 1999). Sodium, hydrogen exchanger 3 (MHE3, SLC9A3) at the luminal side and sodium hydrogen exchanger 2 (NHE2, SLC9A2) at the basolateral side are responsible for most of the pi I adjustments in jejunum, ileum, and colon. Bacterial production of D-lactic acid from fermentable carbohydrates is an important factor for the slightly acidic pH in colon.

Summary of Known Relations between Diet and Cancer

Conducted in diverse populations now shows that diet is an established cause of prostate, breast, digestive tract, airway, and urinary tract cancers. With these rich epidemiological data we can more confidently conclude that some 30 of cancer is attributable to diet. Public health officials have taken the accumulated evidence and developed strategies for minimizing cancer risk. Among these recommendations is a diet high in vegetables, fruits, and legumes and low in red meat, saturated fat, salt, and sugar. They suggest that carbohydrates be consumed as whole grains such as whole meal bread and brown rice rather than as white bread and rice. Any added fats should come from plant sources and should be unhydrogenated, an example being olive oil, which may potentially be beneficial. Given the evergrowing knowledge of the association between diet and cancer, and the subsequent recommended prevention strategies, it is time that researchers and public health officials combined their efforts...

Nutritional Importance

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) expert consultation on carbohydrates use the term 'sugar' to describe monosaccharides and disaccharides. Sugars can be separated analytically from the food matrix by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), high performance liquid chromatography, and enzymatic methods. Sugars are widely used in the food industry as sweeteners and preservatives. They improve the texture, body, palatability, and viscosity of foods and beverages. There are several definitions of fiber, and no consensus exists among international organizations. The Association of Official Analytical Chemists International defines fiber as nondigestible animal and plant carbohydrates, based on the analytical methods for fiber separation using an enzymatic-gravimetric method (Table 5). According to the new definition of the expert panel on macronutrients appointed by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Science (Table 5), dietary...

Glucose Production by the Liver and Kidneys

It is vital that the organism synthesizes glucose for those tissues that are unable to synthesize glucose. In humans, liver glycogen stores can sustain the body for 18 h without the ingestion of dietary carbohydrates. After this period, the liver must produce glucose for transport to other organs. The liver is the main gluconeogenic contributor (90 ), while the kidney contributes gluconeogenically produced glu-

Carrie Amazing Changes in Her Lipid Profile

Carrie was in for some unpleasant surprises. While no one would have considered a 5-foot 8-inch-tall woman to be obese at 158 pounds, Carrie discovered that she had a body fat percentage of 34.5, which put her into a high-risk classification. She thought she knew a lot about good nutrition, but when we evaluated what she was eating, we saw that she was trying to eat mostly vegetarian meals and not doing a very good job of balancing out the three food groups. Her diet consisted mainly of salads mixed with small amounts of tuna, cheese, breads, too many desserts, and pasta, with an occasional chicken breast or omelet thrown in for good measure. When I explained to her why she should be eating 30 percent acceptable fats, 40 percent low-glycemic carbohydrates, and 30 percent lean protein, it was a revelation. She had been suffering from frequent colds and flu and didn't realize how she was compromising her immune system by eating only small amounts of protein.

The glycaemic index of foods and its effect on insulin response and glycaemia

The glycaemic response to a food, which in turn affects the insulin response, depends on the rate of gastric emptying, as well as on the rate of digestion and absorption of carbohydrates from the small intestine (Jenkins et al., 1987). Traditionally, carbohydrates were classified as 'simple' and 'complex' based on their degree of polymerization. Sugars (which are mono- and disaccharides) were therefore classified as simple, whereas starches (poly-saccharides) were classified as complex. However, carbohydrates might be better classified on the basis of their physiological effects, for example their ability to increase blood glucose. The glycaemic response depends both on the type of sugar (e.g. glucose, fructose, galactose) and the physical form of the carbohydrate (e.g. particle size, degree of polymerization) (Augustin et al., 2002).

Objections To High Fat Diets

THE EFFECTIVENESS of high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets in obesity will continue to be surprising so long as people continue to regard body fat as an inert slab of suet stored round the hips and in the other fat depots. Fasting or feeding a high-fat diet abolished lipogenesis (fat formation) in adipose tissue and reduced glucose oxidation markedly lipogenesis increased to the highest levels on a high-carbohydrate, fat-free diet. Utilisation of radio-glucose (glucose tagged with radioactivity so that its metabolism can be followed) by adipose tissue has been investigated under various nutritional conditions. Fasting or feeding a high-fat diet has been found to diminish the formation of fat from carbohydrate. High-fat diets are nauseating and make you bilious. No one could stick to such a diet for long enough to lose weight. High-fat diets cause ketosis and make you ill. High-fat diets may be all right in cold weather but they are too heating in hot weather. High-fat diets are unbalanced...

Association of glycaemic response with satiety and food intake

The rate of hydrolysis of ingested carbohydrate and the rate of gastric emptying are determinants of the rate of glucose absorption, which, in turn, determines the extent and duration of the glucose rise after consumption of a food or meal. Circulating insulin levels are directly determined by p-cell stimulation by absorbed glucose or amino acids. As explained above, the insulin demand is determined not only by the amount of carbohydrate ingested but also by its quality, which will determine the rate of absorption. The GI of foods or meals provides an indication of the rate at which their carbohydrates are digested. Low-GI foods may be considered potential dietary tools to reduce glucose absorption rate and insulin response (Augustin et al., 2002). Slowly digested carbohydrates, which are low GI, may be used to prolong satiety compared with high-GI foods. Studies that have investigated this relationship are summarized in Table 3.3. In one study, the effect of different rice types on...

Macrophages and Cancer

Like NK cells, macrophages do not recognize foreign antigens. In addition, they do not recognize self-proteins. Their activation mechanisms are poorly understood but may involve receptors for certain carbohydrates, complement, and other proteins. Although bacterial products are among the most potent activators, macrophages can also be activated by contact with tumor cells. Macrophages destroy foreign substances by phagocytosis (ingestion) by secretion of proteases, hydrogen peroxide, or other enzymes or radical species or by secretion of certain cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor, as discussed above.

Sources of further information and advice

Additional information about glycaemic carbohydrates and their effect on bodyweight regulation are provided in a recent review by Saris (2003). The different effects of fat and carbohydrates on the thermogenic response and fat deposition are also discussed in this review.

Intestinal Microflora

More than 400 species of bacteria can be found throughout the GIT. The greatest number is present in the distal small intestine and large intestine in man and rabbit 5, 33 . Gastrointestinal bacteria primarily function to hydrolyze carbohydrates and proteins that are not metabolized in the upper intestine. Another important aspect of bacterial metabolism in the intestine is the hydrolysis of glucuronide conjugates these are important components of the enterohepatic circulation of compounds 34 . In guinea pig, rat, mouse, monkey, dog and pig not only are there significant numbers of bacteria in the distal small intestine and colon but also in the stomach and proximal small intestine 5 . An additional observation has been the variability in the types of microorganisms present in these segments 5 . Approaches to target the colon by taking advantage of bacterial metabolism present in this intestinal segment have been most successful for treating local disease (e.g. ulcerative colitis)...

The Nutritional Transition and Its Health Effects

Changes in the dietary intake patterns of Asian countries have been called the nutritional transition, meaning a shift away from the traditional Asian diets to a more varied diet higher in sugars, fats, and processed foods. This new eating trend includes fewer carbohydrates and fiber and is higher in fat and meat. Together with a shift towards physical inactivity, obesity among the Asian population has risen. The nutritional and health effects of these new foods contribute to higher mortality rates due to CVD in many Asian countries.

Fermentable Carbohydrate

Starches are also classed as fermentable carbohydrates because they are partially broken down by amylase in saliva during chewing to maltose and glucose. Residues of starchy foods are frequently caught between the teeth and in the fissures of the molar teeth, where they may be broken down to sugars over long periods. Measurements of the pH of plaque following the ingestion of starches have suggested that the depression of pH may be as great as and last even longer than that produced by some sources of sugars, such as drinks, because of slow clearance. Highly processed starchy products, such Clearly, the wide range of individual dietary choices and eating habits may influence the risk of developing caries. The physical characteristics of fermentable carbohydrates will affect the rate at which they are cleared from specific sites in the dentition. Foods that are inclined to remain for long periods in stagnation sites (for example, between the teeth), such as toffees or raisins, are...

Baby Bottle Tooth Decay

This often happens when infants or toddlers fall asleep while sucking on a bottle. Breastfed infants are usually not at risk, unless they feed for extended periods. The carbohydrates in the drink (lactose in milk, or fructose in fruit drinks) mix with the normal bacteria in the mouth. This bacteria is found in the plaque on teeth and gums. When plaque mixes with carbohydrates, acids are formed that dissolve tooth enamel, causing tooth decay and dental caries. To prevent baby bottle tooth decay, a child should not be put in bed with a bottle and the bottle should be taken away as soon as mealtime is over. Further, only formula or water should be put in a bottle juices and sweet drinks should be offered in a cup. see also Infant Nutrition Oral Health.

Central and nutritional control of adaptive thermogenesis

Although feeding in general stimulates thermogenesis, not all macronu-trients are equally effective in triggering this response. The thermic effect of protein is 20-35 of energy consumed, and this number falls to 5-15 for carbohydrates the thermic effect associated with fat is generally even lower than that associated with carbohydrate (see reference 46). The differences are attributed mainly to the fixed component of the thermic effect

Interpreting your progress chart

Nothing is happening either way you're at a standstill and you need to make some adjustments to get yourself moving again. First, increase your cardiovascular activity level. You can increase the number of days per week as well as how long you are exercising at each session. If you don't lose body fat within the next week, then you can reduce your caloric intake systematically by 100-200 calories at a time, provided you do not drop below your maximum allowable calorie deficit. Keep your nutrient ratios the same unless you've been stuck for more than two weeks. If you've been stuck more than two weeks, you might want to experiment with a moderate or low carbohydrate diet and or zig-zag carbohydrate cycling (see chapter 12 for details).

Conclusion Let your results dictate your approach

I always suggest letting your results dictate your strategy. If you can eat bagels and pasta all day long and get ripped, that's great - keep eating them. If you can eat 70 of your calories from carbohydrates and 20 from protein and you get leaner - great, keep eating all those carbohydrates. If you can eat heavy meals late at night and you still get leaner great - keep doing it. If you can get lean with just diet and almost no cardio at

Fiber in the Digestive Tract

Food is conveyed progressively through the alimentary tract, stored at intervals, and broken down mechanically as required, by a tightly controlled system of rhythmic muscular contractions. The digestive enzymes are released into the lumen at the appropriate stages to facilitate the decomposition of carbohydrates, proteins, and complex lipids. By definition, the polysaccharides that comprise dietary fiber are not digested by endogenous enzymes, though they are often fermented to a greater or lesser degree by bacterial enzymes in the large intestine.

Evidence Considered in Estimating the Average Requirement

The amount of glucose produced from obligatory endogenous protein catabolism in children is not known. Therefore, this information was not considered in the derivation of the EAR for children. Children ages 2 to 9 years have requirements for carbohydrate that are similar to adults. This is based on population data in which animal-derived foods are ingested exclusively (e.g., Alaska and Greenland natives), as well as in children with epilepsy who have been treated with ketogenic diets for extended periods of time (Swink et al., 1997 Vining, 1999). In these children, the ketoacid concentration was in the range of 2 to 3 mmol L (i.e., similar to that in a starving adult) (Nordli et al., 1992).

Stress Can Make You

Stress has become a condition in which we accept a short-term level of heightened performance at the expense of long-term health. Whether physical or emotional, stress has many negative effects on the body. One of them is the accumulation of a hormone called cortisol. When faced with a stressful situation, the body produces an adrenaline rush that releases fat and glucose as an energy source to help deal with the stressor. Once the crisis subsides, cortisol becomes active and stimulates the appetite so that we can replenish our fat stores. Since most of us don't reach for an apple or a chicken breast when we feel hungry, the release of cortisol usually leads to grabbing a quick carbohydrate snack such as a slice of pizza, a donut, a candy bar, or some type of high-carbohydrate fast food. Unfortunately, living with a high level of daily stress causes the body to produce a consistently high level of cortisol, leading to a vicious cycle of stress, frequent overeating, and fat gain.

Adults Ages 19 Years and Older Evidence Considered in Estimating the Average Requirement

DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES SUGARS AND STARCHES 287 DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES SUGARS AND STARCHES 289 Diets contain a combination of carbohydrate, fat, and protein, and therefore available glucose is not limiting to the brain unless carbohydrate energy intake is insufficient to meet the glucose needs of the brain. Nevertheless, it should be recognized that the brain can still receive enough glucose from the metabolism of the glycerol component of fat and from the gluconeogenic amino acids in protein when a very low carbohydrate diet is consumed.

Dietary Fiber Obesity and the Etiology of Diabetes

Diarrhea Colonic SCFA absorption stimulates fluid and electrolyte uptake in the colon and thus can assist in reducing diarrhea. Complex carbohydrates may also play a role in modifying the colonic microflora thus reducing the number of pathogens. An etiological role for fiber is unknown, but there is good evidence that RS can act to minimize the fluid losses that occur in serious conditions such as cholera.

Special Considerations

Individuals adapted to a very low carbohydrate diet can perform adequately for extended periods of time at power outputs represented by exercise at less than 65 percent O2 max (Miller and Wolfe, 1999). For extended periods of power output exceeding this level, the dependence on carbohydrate as a fuel increases rapidly to near total dependence (Miller and Wolfe, 1999). Therefore, for such individuals there must be a corresponding increase in carbohydrate derived directly from carbohydrate-containing foods. Additional consumption of dietary protein may assist in meeting the need through gluconeogenesis, but it is unlikely to be consumed in amounts necessary to meet the individual's need. A requirement for such individuals cannot be determined since the requirement for carbohydrate will depend on the particular energy expenditure for some defined period of time (Brooks and Mercier, 1994).

Highfat diets cause ketosis and make you ill

Kekwick and Pawan in their studies on human subjects found that very high fat diets were well tolerated and that ketosis was not a complication in their obese patients. So there are degrees of ketosis and the effects of the severe ketosis of diabetes are quite different from the mild ketosis of a fasting person or the even milder ketosis of a person on a high-fat diet. It is still very widely believed, by doctors as well as dieticians, that the ketosis produced by a high-fat diet is harmful, and that fats can only be utilised properly by the body in the presence of carbohydrate. This has been expressed, in a catch phrase for medical students as, Fat burns only in the flame of carbohydrates. In other words, if you eat a lot of fat you must also eat a lot of carbohydrate or you will not be able to use up the fat and will develop harmful ketosis. Fat is burned down by the body to carbon dioxide and water, but to do this, there must be carbohydrates present. Otherwise, the breakdown is...

Insulin Sensitivity and Type 2 Diabetes

DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES SUGARS AND STARCHES GI. There are well-recognized, short-term effects of high versus low GI carbohydrates on several key hormones and metabolites. In particular, compared to regular consumption of low GI carbohydrates, regular consumption of high GI carbohydrates results in high concentrations of circulating glucose and insulin (Table 6-8). In healthy individuals, there also appears to be an amplification of glucose and insulin responses to consumption of high GI foods with repeated consumption (Liljeberg et al., 1999). Based on associations between these metabolic parameters and risk of disease (DeFronzo et al., 1992 Groop and Eriksson, 1992 Haffner et al., 1988b, 1990 Martin et al., 1992 Rossetti et al., 1990 Warram et al., 1990), further controlled studies on GI and risk factors for diabetes are needed. Furthermore, studies are needed on the extent to which consumption of high GI diets might influence the development of diabetes compared to other putative...

Maternal Protein Consumption

Recently, evidence has been provided suggesting that taurine supplementation to the maternal low-protein diet may benefit the health outcomes of the rat offspring. Maternal taurine supplementation was found to restore and normalize the vascularization of the offspring's endocrine pancreas. Despite these findings, there is little evidence to suggest that a maternal high-protein intake has overall beneficial effects on the metabolic health of the offspring. Some human epidemiological studies and human trials involving high-protein dietary supplementation have in fact demonstrated that the consumption of a high-animal-protein, low-carbohydrate diet throughout late pregnancy can lead to metabolic disturbances in the offspring when they reach adulthood. It has been suggested that these high-protein diets stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and cause maternal cortisol levels to increase. As a result, the developing fetus is presented with the metabolic stress of being exposed...

Maternal High Fat Consumption

In today's Western, more affluent society, the in utero environment is likely to be influenced by maternal nutritional insults such as excess fat consumption. There is little dispute regarding the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet. It is well documented that a diet high in fat has played a fundamental role in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, reaching the epidemic proportions that is seen today. Both human epidemiological studies and experimental animal investigations have demonstrated clear associations between the consumption of a high-fat diet and the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. In light of this, a high-fat diet can increase the risk of a pregnant woman developing gestational diabetes. As will be discussed later, it is well established that offspring of diabetic mothers are themselves at an increased risk of developing the disease at an early age. Consumption of a high-fat diet may not only therefore cause...

Physical Activity

Although consumption of high GI test foods increases glucose oxidation and suppresses the availability of free fatty acids (Ritz et al., 1991), for factors that would be predicted to have an adverse effect on the capacity for endurance exercise there are conflicting reports on whether consumption of high GI diets prior to exercise results in measurably adverse exercise performance. Some studies report a negative effect of consumption of high GI carbohydrates prior to exercise compared with consumption of low GI carbohydrates (DeMarco et al., 1999 Gleeson et al., 1986 Okano et al., 1988 Thomas et al., 1991), while other studies report no effect on exercise performance (Chryssanthopoulos et al., 1994 Decombaz et al., 1985 Febbraio et al., 2000 Hargreaves et al., 1987 Sparks et al., 1998). It is possible that the level and duration of exercise and amount of test food have critical influences on the results obtained in such studies. Since the DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES SUGARS AND STARCHES 319

Absorption in the small intestine

The primary function of the small intestine is the absorption of nutrients from chyme. It receives up to eight litres of chyme per day and passes only 5001000 ml to the large intestine. The remaining fluid is absorbed by the columnar cells of the villous epithelium. Most substances are absorbed in the proximal small intestine. The duodenum is the primary site of iron and calcium absorption, and the jejunum is the site where absorption of fats, carbohydrates and proteins takes place. Finally, only a few substances such as vitamin B12 and bile salts are actively absorbed in the ileum. There are a number of barriers to transport from the intestinal lumen to the blood the luminal plasma membrane, the cell's interior, the intercellular space, the basement membrane of the capillary and the cell membranes of the endothelial cell of the capillary or lymphatic vessels.

Chronic Restrained Living

If you think this sounds exactly like a diet, that's because it is. While CRE doesn't feature some of the more outrageous claims of the classic low-carbohydrate or low-fat or low-sugar diets all of which contradict each other the idea at the core of CRE is exactly the same as that endorsed by all diets Eat less than you want to eat, and don't eat many of the things you would most like to eat at all. At bottom, CRE is a product of the fact that, in the wake of several generations of almost total failure, the diet industry has discovered diet is becoming a four-letter word and so they are busily coming up with euphemisms for diets, diet books, diet foods, and so forth.

Absorption of electrolytes in the small intestine

Carbohydrates are broken down by digestive enzymes in the intestine into simple sugars (glucose, galactose and fructose), which are then absorbed into the bloodstream via the intestinal mucosa, using either active transport or facilitated diffusion. Proteins are hydrolysed by proteolytic digestive enzymes into amino acids, which are absorbed by active transport.

Rationale for Definitions

Nondigestible carbohydrates are frequently isolated to concentrate a desirable attribute of the mixture from which it was extracted. Distinguishing a category of Functional Fiber allows for the desirable characteristics of such components to be highlighted. In the relatively near future, plant and animal synthetic enzymes may be produced as recombinant proteins, which in turn may be used in the manufacture of fiber-like materials. The definition will allow for the inclusion of these materials and will provide a viable avenue to synthesize specific oligosaccharides and polysaccharides that are part of plant and animal tissues. health benefit specifically attributable to the fiber in foods. Thus, it is difficult to separate out the effect of fiber per se from the high fiber food. Attempts have been made to do this, particularly in epidemiological studies, by controlling for other substances in those foods, but these attempts were not always successful. The advantage, then, of adding...

Other food and food components of interest

Anthocyanins are phenolic phytochemicals used for the coloring of foods and widely distributed in human diets through crops, beans, fruits, vegetables and red wine. In one study,180 it was found that dietary supplementation with anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-O-P-D-glucoside-rich purple corn color) suppressed the development of high-fat-diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice the effect was not due to reduced energy intake or fat absorption, and was accompanied by reduced expression of key enzymes and transcription factors for fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis in both liver and WAT. These results suggest that anthocyanins may constitute functional food factors of benefit in the prevention of obesity and diabetes, probably by targeting lipogenesis (effects on energy expenditure thermogenesis were not addressed in the above study, and remain to be investigated).

Pathophysiology Of The Small Bowel

The presence of pathological conditions in the small intestine can affect absorption of nutrients of the affected region. It is therefore important to consider the location of the disease to understand fully the impact it can have upon nutrient absorption. Duodenal disease may result in deficiencies of calcium and iron, whereas a diseased jejunum can reduce absorption of fats, carbohydrates and proteins. Vitamin B12 deficiency and bile acid malabsorption can result in ileal disease.

Five Key Reasons for Following This Nutritional Plan

The Fat-Burning Metabolic Fitness Nutritional Plan meets all of the criteria above, plus it is designed to support and work in tandem with the Fat-Burning Metabolic Fitness Exercise Plan to help you lose the maximum amount of fat. The duration and intensity of each exercise module in chapter 13 has been carefully planned to work in synergy with the balanced energy (caloric) deficit of my meal plans. The timing of when you eat and when you exercise is also very important. Exercising before a meal increases metabolism, elevating your fat-burning capacity even hours after the exercise is over. This is known as the thermic effect of food. For example, a recent article in the International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism shows how resistive exercise enhances the body's ability to metabolize foods, especially carbohydrates. Cardiovascular exercise, when done at the proper intensity for the proper amount of time, has the same effect. See chapter 12 for a thorough...

Nutrition for People with Cancer

People with cancer often have increased nutritional needs. As such, it is important for them to consume a variety of foods that provide the nutrients needed to maintain health while fighting cancer. These nutrients include protein, carbohydrates, fat, water, vitamins, and minerals. Nutrition suggestions for people with cancer often emphasize eating high-calorie, highprotein foods. Protein helps to ensure growth, repair body tissue, and maintain a healthy immune system. Therefore, people with cancer often need more protein than usual.

Health and nutritional benefits of plantains

Plantains are a good source of carbohydrates and dietary fiber. The green fruit contains higher hemicellulose content (approximately 6 ) than most fruits and vegetables. In addition to dietary fiber, green bananas contain a high amount of essential minerals such as potassium and various vitamins, such as A, Bi, B2, and C (Chandler, 1995). The quantities of nutrients in M. paradisiaca and M. sapientum are very similar, except that the former contains more starch. They are both significantly high in potassium, 400 mg 100 g pulp, and have a trace amount of sodium (approximately 1 mg) and iron. Musa paradisiaca is richer in B vitamins, including thiamine, niacin, and riboflavin, as well as vitamin A, compared to M. sapientum (Chandler, 1995). Plantains are rich in vitamin C, providing approximately 20 mg for every 100 g of flesh (Chandler, 1995).

Digestion and Absorption

Carbohydrates must be digested and absorbed in order to transform them into energy that can be used by the body. Food preparation often aids in the digestion process. When starches are heated, they swell and become easier for the body to break down. In the mouth, the enzyme amylase, which is contained in saliva, mixes with food products and breaks some starches into smaller units. However, once the carbohydrates reach the acidic environment of the stomach, the amylase is inactivated. After the carbohydrates have passed through the stomach and into the small intestine, key digestive enzymes are secreted from the pancreas and the small intestine where most digestion and absorption occurs. Pancreatic amylase breaks starch into di-saccharides and small polysaccharides, and enzymes from the cells of the small-intestinal wall break any remaining disaccharides into their monosac-charide components. Dietary fiber is not digested by the small intestine instead, it passes to the colon unchanged.

Presentday Cultivation And Usage

Cumin seeds contain up to 14.5 lipids (Wealth of India, 2001). The ASTA Standard specification for cumin seeds indicates the contents to be ash 9.5 , acid-insoluble ash 1.5 , volatile oil 2.5 , and moisture 9 . The proximate composition shows water 6.0 g, food energy 460 kcal, protein 18.0 g, fat 23.8 g, carbohydrates 44.6 g, ash 7.7 g, calcium 0.9 g, phosphorus 450 mg, sodium 160 mg, potassium 2100 mg, iron 47.8 mg, thiamine 0.730 mg, riboflavin 0.380 mg, niacin 2.5 mg, ascorbic acid 17 mg, and vitamin A activity 127 retinal equivalents, respectively, per 100 g (Donna & Antony, 1993).

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Atkins Low Carb Diet Recipes

Atkins Low Carb Diet Recipes

The Atkins Diet is here. Dr Atkins is known for his great low carb diets. Excluding, Dr Atkins carb counter and Dr Atkins New Diet Revolution.

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