Ionizing Radiation Ebooks Catalog

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Effect Of Ionizing Radiation On The Infraslow Potential Oscillations And Electrical Parameters Of The Brain

The sensitivity of tissue to ionizing radiation is generally greater when it is already highly sensitive to chemical factors in the environment. The structures characterized by an auto-oscillatory, infraslow process have high chemical sensitivity as well as radiosensitivity. This principle is particularly applicable to muscle tissue X-irradiation causes greater changes in smooth muscles than it does in skeletal muscles (Aladjalova, 1960a, b). It holds true for changes in both functional and structural properties (judging by the electrical parameters). The chemical sensitivity of muscle tissue is closely connected with the nature of its macromolecular structure. It increases after denervation of muscle and its structural properties change at the same time (Aladjalova, 1950a). The radiosensitivity of denervated muscle increases with the increase of its chemical sensitivity. If the indicator of radiosensitivity of isolated muscle is the critical dose the irradiation of which causes...

Foreword to the First Edition

If the liver has become the key organ to image in the abdomen, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become an indispensable modality for its evaluation. The absence of ionizing radiation, unparalleled soft tissue contrast, inherent multiplanar capability and high temporal resolution in dynamic gadolinium-enhanced imaging are major advantages over other imaging techniques. Furthermore, the introduction of contrast agents with liver specific properties has increased the usefulness of MRI for the detection and characterization of liver lesions.

Environmental factors

Exposure to ionizing radiation and certain toxic chemicals may predispose individuals to leukemia and other problems involving the bone marrow. Many Japanese who were exposed to fallout from the atomic bomb during World War II and some of the people living near the Chernobyl accident in the Ukraine have developed leukemia. However, children exposed to irradiation from the bombs while in the mothers womb did not have an increased risk of developing leukemia. The data are mixed about whether exposure to electromagnetic fields increases the risk of leukemia. Most recent data suggest that if there is an increased risk, it is minimal. For information about the US governments electromagnetic field (EMF) research efforts, including public information materials developed by the EMF Research and Public Information Dissemination (EMF RAPID) program, refer to the EMF RAPID home page on the Internet Additional information on electromagnetic fields is available at the FCC website at www.fcc.gov...

The importance of the early diagnosis of the prostate cancer

Radiation therapy (RT) is another option for treatment of PCa. RT uses high-energy X-rays or other types of ionizing radiation to try to kill the cancer cells in various organs tissues. There are mainly two types of radiotherapy (i) External radiotherapy that uses a source of ionizing radiation that is outside of the body and (ii) Internal radiotherapy that uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer (brachytherapy). The external radiotherapy is a complex procedure and requires the patient to make a number of steps, as (i) positioning and immobilization of the patient, (ii) localization of the tumor, (iii) determination of the size of the tumor, (iv) delineation of the target (tumor) and critical tissues structures in the neighborhood, (v) dose prescription, (vi) type of ionizing radiation, (vii) treatment planning, (viii) simulation and verification of the treatment and (ix) evaluation.Concerning to the...

Magnetic Resonance Imaging

MRI does not require exposure to ionizing radiation. Thus, patients can safely have multiple serial scans without concerns about aggregate radiation dose. MRI, although probably quite safe, is still deemed relatively contraindicated during early pregnancy (Magin et al., 1992), but is preferable to ionizing radiation exposure. Because of the strong magnetic field associated with MRI, the presence of metallic implants of any kind are relative contraindications to MRI (Kanal and Shellock, 1994). Specifically, metal aneurysm clips can be twisted off, shrapnel remnants can be drawn through tissue and heated to scalding temperatures, and cardiac pacemakers can be

Environmental pollution and industrial carcinogenes

Accordingly, at least 150 chemicals and other agents, including ionizing radiation, occupational (workplace) and environmental airborne particles, some drugs, as well as foods and other consumer products, have been listed so far by IARC, as potential carcinogens (American Cancer Society, 2007, as cited in Majnaric-Trtica, 2009 WHO, 2009). It is estimated, for example, that occupational exposure to microscopic airborne particles accounts for 8 of lung cancer, that is the most frequent form of occupational cancer (compared to 12 of deaths due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) (WHO, 2009). The encouraging fact is, however, that the majority of occupational cancers can be prevented, through minimising exposure, substituting safer materials, and or enclosing processes and ventilation. These all are measures within the domain of engineering manipulation, and policy and legislation changes (WHO, 2009).

Hereditary Ovarian Cancer Syndromes Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer

The BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are known to be involved, both separately and coor-dinately, in DNA double-strand break repair. These breaks can occur in response to ionizing radiation or DNA cross-linking agents such as cisplatin, a chemotherapeutic agent. Repair occurs through homologous recombination, by which homologous, undamaged DNA strands are invaded by a damaged single-stranded DNA. Homologous sequences are then paired, resulting in an undamaged double-stranded DNA molecule. The double-stranded break repair pathway is complex and involves numerous other genes in addition to BRCA1 and BRCA2.

Negative consequences of not using a technology

One technology that is only 'emerging' because of its limited application in the market is that of irradiation. Treatment of foods with ionizing radiation has been researched for decades. A report by the World Health Organization concluded that food irradiated to any dose to achieve the intended technological objective is safe to consume and nutritionally adequate (WHO, 1999). However, consumers associate the process with the negative effects of radiation on humans resulting from atomic bombs and the fear of nuclear war and accidents at nuclear power facilities such as those at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island. Activists have viewed the process as a way to mask contamination, and they claim it destroys nutrients and creates harmful chemicals. Consumer misconceptions about the

Content Of And Process For Developing The Science Plan

Risk-related problems deserve special consideration in t.he science plan, because risk assessments should underpin all attempts to prioritize cleanup activities in the weapons complex, For example, cancer risk from low-level exposure to radioactivity (i.e near background levels') has never been documented and must be estimated through extrapolation from high exposure data. Basic research on the health effects of low levels of radiation is particularly relevant to the EMSP. At present., the scope or extent of any radiation exposure over the long term is not well defined. Until estimates of the uncertainties arc derived, it is not possible to assess realistically the calculated risk estimates.

Why Choose Organic Foods

Organic food, is grown with a number of restrictions. For example, organic farmers in the meat industry give no antibiotics or growth hormones to the animals. Organic food also is prepared without conventional pesticides, fertilizers, or ionizing radiation. The National Organic Program is a federal law that requires all organic food products to meet the same standards and be certified under the same certification process. Along with this program, the USDA has developed strict labeling rules to help consumers know the specific content of the organic food they buy. The USDA organic seal means that at least 95 percent of the product is organic.

Other Decontamination Processes

Other processes that have been proposed as potential decontamination interventions, alone or in combination, include irradiation (gamma or electron beam), ultraviolet light, high hydrostatic pressure, infrared technology, electromagnetic fields, pulsed light, sonication, microwaves, bacteriophages, and bac-teriocin-producing bacteria (Sofos, 2008 Sofos & Smith, 1998). Among these, ionizing irradiation is the most suitable and promising technology which involves discharge and translocation of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or a food without inducing radioactivity. The process destroys or injures microorganisms directly (by damaging bacterial DNA) or indirectly (via free radicals that are formed during water radiolysis) (Jay, 2005). In the United States, irradiation of poultry was approved by the FDA in 1990 (FDA, 1990) and by the USDA-FSIS in 1992 (USDA-FSIS, 1992). The irradiation of red meats is approved by the USDA-FSIS since 1999 (USDA-FSIS, 1999b). A...

Specific Occupations And Parkinsonism

Occupational exposure to magnetic fields may be a risk factor for PD (70). A death certificate (population-based) case-control study in Colorado, U.S.A. utilizing a tiered exposure matrix found an adjusted odds ratio of 1.76 for PD subjects exposed to magnetic fields. Occupations included in this study were electronic technicians and engineers, repairers of electronic equipment, telephone and telephone line installers and repairers, electric power installers and repairers, supervisors of electricians and power transmission installers, power plant operators, motion picture projectionists, broadcast equipment operators, and electricians (70). Another study of electrical workers in a similar group of occupations found a nonsignificant, elevated odds ratio of 1.1 for PD compared to controls, but the study lacked power (71).

Imaging Instrumentation For Living Subjects

Although photons emitted in the visible light range of the electromagnetic spectrum face considerable obstacles traveling through layers of tissues, notable advances in light sensor technology have permitted the use of optical reporter genes in intact organisms. There are fundamentally 2 different types of optically based imaging systems a) fluorescence imaging, which uses emitters such as green fluorescent protein (GFP), wavelength-shifted GFP mutants, red fluorescent protein (RFP), ''smart'' near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) probes, and b) bioluminescence imaging, which utilizes systems such as Firefly luciferase-D-Luciferin or Renilla luciferase-coelen-terazine (15,19,20). Each of these systems will be discussed in further detail in a later section. Emission of light from fluorescent markers requires external light excitation while bioluminescence systems generate light de novo after an injectable substrate is introduced and the appropriate conditions are met (Fig. 1). In both...

Endobronchial Ultrasound Needle Aspiration Ebustbnabiopsy [18

Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) utilizes the passage of ultrasound devices attached to a fibreoptic bronchoscope inside the airways and the lung for exploration of the structures of airway walls, the surrounding mediastinum, and the lungs. Histological diagnosis of small peripheral lesions can be achieved more efficiently by EBUS guidance than with blind needle aspiration, without the need for radiological equipment or risk of radiation exposure.

Role of TSGs in Programmed Cell Death Apoptosis

Edged as critical elements in regulation of the cell cycle and gene transcription. One TSG, p53, is central to a cell's response to stress. When faced with the stress of oncogene activation, hypoxia, or DNA damage, p53 is tasked with determining whether a cell will receive the signal to simply halt at the G1 stage of the cell cycle, will be signaled to attempt repair or, will self-destruct via apoptosis. Apoptosis plays a key role in numerous normal cellular mechanisms from embryogenesis to self-policing of DNA damage due to random mutations, ionizing radiation, and DNA damaging chemicals (6-8).

Biochemistry of Apoptosis

In the event of genotoxic stress, resulting DNA damage causes phosphorylation of serines on p53, weakening its binding to mdm2 and destabilizing the p53 mdm2 interaction. Disruption of the bond stabilizes p53, DNA-binding activity increases, andp53, through an array of downstream signals, acts to switch other genes on or off. The finely tuned sequence of biochemical events culminating in cell death requires a functional p53 gene. Induction of apoptosis via the p53 pathway in response to random mutation, ionizing radiation, and other DNA damaging agents will not occur without p53.

Use of Natural Compounds to Increase Drug Accumulation or Reduce Drug Resistance

A similar PKC-dependent effect is seen in cells surviving radiation exposure. Like chemotherapy, radiation is a noxious agent that stimulates multidrug resistance. Ionizing radiation rapidly and transiently activates PKC in a dose-dependent fashion.40 Since PKC activity is important for cell survival following radiation, PKC inhibitors can sensitize cells to radiation-induced kill-ing.42 For example, hypericin, which decreases PKC activity, increased the sensitivity of brain cancer cells to radiation in vitro.43

Treating prostate cancer with PARP1 inhibitors

An early innovative therapy to treat prostate cancer cells was to enforce the binding of DNA strand breaks to a dominant-negative mutant of the DNA-binding domain of PARP. The recombinant plasmid inhibited the function of PARP-1 and sensitized prostate tumor cells to the lethal effects of ionizing radiation or etoposide (VP-16), with a markedly reduction of cell survival and induction of apoptosis 12 . The pharmacological inhibition of PARP-1 by benzamide pharmacaphores mimics the nicotinamide moiety of NAD+, occupying the donor site 147 . For example, the 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) was shown to inhibit DNA excision repair and radiosensitize cells to ionizing radiation through impaired DNA repair 148, 149 . 3-AB is also know to inhibit the family of mono(ADP-ribose) transferases, which can produce non-specific effects independent of PARP-1 inhibition (Milam, 1984). Therefore, more potent and highly specific PARP inhibitors that promote oxid radiation sensitizer enhancement ratios have...

Gene Marking of Tumorinfiltrating T Lymphocytes

Postinfusion used TILs that were radioactively labeled with 111In (44,45). However, this approach requires a high labeling to enhance the detection level and duration, resulting in potentially toxic radiation exposure to cells from the gamma radiation emitted by the isotope. In addition, the half-life of 111In is only 2.8 days, and it is therefore not suitable for monitoring TILs over extended periods of time (46).

Techniques for Liver MR Imaging

Normal Mri Liver

Valuable for sensitive evaluation of the acute and chronic changes of hepatitis, including cirrhosis. Dynamic perfusion analysis is obtained by the acquisition of a series of scans at multiple times (see Chapt. 3). No other imaging technique can provide the comprehensive evaluation of liver disease possible on MRI. Use of contrast-enhanced CT for multiphase examinations is associated with an ionizing radiation burden that is proportional to the number of scans obtained during the study. There are increasing concerns regarding the risks of radiation and the iodinated contrast agents associated with CT imaging of the abdomen. For example, the National Academy of Science has released BEIR VII, the seventh in a series of consensus reports on radiation risks, which includes a section on radiation from diagnostic CT. In brief, assuming the demographic distribution of the U.S. population, a single dose of 100 mSv is associated with an estimated lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for developing...

Laser fluorescence LF

Diagnodent

Laser fluorescence (LF) (Fig. 6) is less widely known and used by dental professionals, though it constitutes a necessary complement to the traditional methods. LF therefore deserves a more detailed description in this Chapter. Fluorescence occurs as a result of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and tissue molecules. When light falls upon the surface of the tooth it penetrates a few millimeters into the tissue, and is reflected towards the tip of a device that measures the fluorescence by means of an electronic system. Two incremental ranges are observed in the fluorescence spectrum one at 430-450 nm, related to demineralization of the tooth, and another at 590-650 nm, related to the presence of bacteria and their metabolites (Lundberg et al., 2007). Furthermore, there are other elements of organic and inorganic origin that can emit additional fluorescence and thus lead to error in the detection of caries fluorosis, hypomineralization, bacterial plaque, calculus,...

Virtual Fluoroscopy Overview and Future Implications

Mri After Pedicle Screw Fixation

C-arm fluoroscopy is an intraoperative imaging technique that is familiar to all spine surgeons. It is routinely employed for real-time intraoperative localization of patient anatomy and surgical instruments in a variety of spinal procedures. Fluoroscopic localization facilitates improved accuracy and in many instances reduces surgical exposure in a variety of spinal procedures such as pedicle screw insertion, interbody cage placement, odontoid screw insertion, and atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation. This imaging technology has also enabled the development of percutaneous spinal procedures, such as vertebro-plasty. Despite the advantages of intraoperative fluoroscopy, there are several limitations. Without a second fluoroscope, only a single projection can be visualized at one time. This limitation makes it necessary to reposition the C-arm during procedures that require multiple planes of visualization. Frequent repositioning of the C-arm is tedious, time-consuming, and...

Literature review Individual TrxG genes 31 ASH2L

Oncosuppressor Proteins

The acetyltransferase MOF (males absent on the first) associates with MENIN, MLL or MLL2, and the core COMPASS proteins (ASH2L, DPY30, HCF1, RBBP5, and WDR5) to form a distinct TrxG complex 90 . MOF specifically acetylates H4K16, a HPTM linked to transcriptional activation 91 . In cancer cells, loss of H4K16ac represents a common event and correlates with general hypomethylation of repetitive DNA sequences 92 . This suggests that MOF activity is inhibited in cancer cells and that MOF therefore functions as an oncosuppressor. Many important growth-regulatory pathways are regulated by MOF, some of which do not require the H3K4 methyltransferase ability of COMPASS-like complexes. First of all, MOF inhibits cancer progression by cooperating with forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3) 93 . FOXP3 recruits MOF and the H3K4 methyltrasferase complex close to the transcription start site of tumor suppressors 93 . The synergistic effect of H3K4 trimethyla-tion by MLL1-2 and of H4K16 acetylation by MOF...

Advanced Decontamination Technologies Irradiation

Irradiation is among the most effective postharvest intervention methods for inactivating food-borne pathogens in meat. Exposing meat products under ionizing radiation such as gamma rays or high-energy electrons can kill pathogens as well as indigenous microflora, and extend shelf life. The major advantages of irradiating foods include (1) potentially toxic chemicals can be avoided and (2) products can be treated after final packaging, and thus, further cross Since Willhelm von Roentgen discovered X-rays in 1895, the use of ionizing radiation to preserve foods by destroying spoilage microorganisms was proposed (Minsch, 1896 Brynjolfsson, 1989) and X-rays were applied to kill Trichina in pork in 1921 (Schwartz, 1921). However, food irradiation was economically unfeasible in the United States until World War II because of the high cost of ionizing radiation sources (Urbain, 1989). The Department of the Army, the Atomic Energy Commission, and private industry sponsored the exploratory...

Inflammatory Autoimmune

Radiation therapy, with or without chemotherapy, has become the primary treatment for oropharyngeal cancer. Primary treatment of head and neck neoplasms with radiation most commonly ranges from 60 to 70 Gy. Radiation exposure greater than 5 Gy may induce some degree of acute and or chronic pharyngitis in nearly all

The Physics of Radioactivity

In Paris in 1896, Henri Becquerel, a physicist born in Paris in 1852, was studying fluorescence, the phenomenon where certain minerals, after exposure to sunlight, emit a faint luminosity when in the dark. Both his father and grandfather were physicists. The year before, he had been appointed Professor of Applied Physics. William Conrad Roentgen in Germany had described electromagnetic radiation that has a shorter wavelength than visible light. Four months later, Becquerel thought that this radiation might be related to the glowing light produced by uranium salts that he had inherited from his father, and glowed when exposed to light.

Marc J Kaufman PhD and Jonathan M Levin MD MPH

MR imaging modalities have several advantages over other clinical brain imaging techniques. They do not use ionizing radiation, are not invasive, and in general offer superior spatial and temporal resolution. Consequently, they are well-suited for human studies. Additionally, their high safety margin makes them particularly advantageous for use in longitudinal studies evaluating treatments designed to diminish drug use, protect individuals from continued drug abuse, and improve brain function in chronic

A continuous and unavoidable threat

E.g., from food, pollutants, cytochrome P-450 reactions some photosensitizing reactions ionizing radiation and as a consequence of the transformation of xanthine dehydrogenase to its truncated oxidase form, which occurs as a result of ischemia. This causes a flood of superoxide to be formed when the oxygen supply is restored. In addition, if free iron is present (as may happen in iron overload, acute intra-vascular hemolysis, or cell injury), there is a risk of a cycle of ROS production via iron-catalyzed 'autoxidation' of various constituents in biological fluids, including ascorbic acid, catecholamines, dopamine, hemoglobin, flavins, and thiol compounds such as cysteine or homocysteine. Preformed reactive species in food further contribute to the oxidant load of the body, and ROS are also produced by pathological processes and agents such as chronic inflammation, infection, ionizing radiation, and cigarette smoke. Breathing oxygen-enriched air results in enhanced production of ROS...

Techniques in Pediatric Liver Imaging

After the administration of a gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agent, GRE images can be acquired at different time points. Typically, these are acquired in the axial orientation and usually with fat suppression. The arterial phase image of liver perfusion in pediatric patients should be acquired approximately 10-15 sec after the start of contrast agent injection. The portal venous phase follows at approximately 20-30 sec post-injection. Generally the acquisition time for the entire liver should be below 15 sec. Since there are no restraints on MRI regarding radiation exposure, the T1-weighted sequence should be repeated continuously 4 or 5 times to reliably achieve all phases of liver perfusion. In addition to dynamic imaging of the liver, steady state imaging should be performed in the equilibrium phase after contrast agent injection. Usually, this is performed using T1-weighted and T1-weighted fat-suppressed imaging sequences 89 .

Involvement of PARP1 in prostate cancer progression

To determine the signaling pathways that are induced by radiation-induced PARP-1 activation, two prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and DU145, which express different levels of EGFR, were exposed to ionizing radiation and EGF 77 . Although the radiosensitivity was much more evident in LNCaP cells, the radiation treatment consistently reduced the clono-genic survival in both cell lines. The addition of EFG or PD184352, a MEK 1 2 inhibitor, had any significant impact on the killing of the cancer prostate cells. In contrast, PJ34, a potent inhibitor of PARP-1 78 , caused a growth arrest and markedly reduced cell death in both cell lines 77 . In support of these data, poly ADP-ribosylation of PARP-1 was also evident in LNCaP and DU145 cells after irradiation or exposure to EGF. These results are supported by findings linking EGF expression to human prostate cancer development 79, 80 , the high levels of EGF secreted by LNCaP and DU145 cell lines 81, 82 , as well as the enhanced invasive...

Choledochal Cyst and Cystic Dilatation of the Bile Duct

Although endoscopic retrograde cholan-giopancreatography (ERCP) has been reported to be safe in infants and small children suspected of having choledochal cyst, CT and MR cholangiog-raphy (MRC) are frequently used as alternative imaging techniques 50 . Of these techniques, MRC is the preferred modality in pediatric patients because it offers similar information to ERCP without the potential complications inherent in the latter procedure and without the need for ionizing radiation 57 .

Overview of Spinal Navigation

There are multiple advantages of image guidance in complex spine surgery. This technology can determine preoperatively the feasibility of performing certain difficult spinal instrumentation procedures and can assist the surgeon in navigating surgical instruments intraoperatively in real time. This technology can improve accuracy in the placement of spinal instrumentation minimizing the risk of neurological and vascular injury. In addition to reducing potential complications, there is an added advantage of achieving optimal bone purchase at each instrumented level. Once the surgeon and operating room team are familiar with the use of image-guided techniques, operating time can be reduced compared with other conventional technologies. Lastly, intraoperative exposure of patient and surgeon to ionizing radiation can be reduced or eliminated depending on the technique used 25 . The advantages of frameless stereotaxis were discussed previously. Instrumentation can be placed more accurately...

Hypercholesterolemia high blood cholesterol

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Magnetic resonance imaging uses radio frequency waves to provide direct visualization and quantification of fat. The sharp image contrast of MRI allows clear separation of adipose tissue from surrounding nonlipid structures. Essentially the same information provided by CT is available from MRI, including total body and regional adipose tissue, subcutaneous adipose, and estimates of various visceral adipose tissue components. The advantage of MRI is its lack of ionizing radiation and hence its presumed safety in children, younger adults, and pregnant women. The minimal present use of MRI can be attributed to the expense, limited access to instrumentation, and long scanning time.

Possible Negative Effects of Computer

There also has been some attention given to the possible risk of exposure to electromagnetic radiation from the computer's monitor. Some people note that such radiation exposure may be greatest at the back and sides of the monitor, which may be important because computer labs in schools are often arranged in such a way as to put a child's head next to or directly in front of another computer's monitor. Once again there is insufficient proof that this is a real threat. According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the risk of exposure to electromagnetic radiation is very low when the user is positioned correctly in relationship to the monitor.

Cervical Techniques with Image Guided Spinal Navigation

Localizers Cervical Spine

The selection of the appropriate screw entry site and trajectory requires a thorough understanding of the atlantoaxial anatomy. Although fluoroscopy provides real-time imaging of the relevant spinal anatomy, the views generated represent only two-dimensional images of a complex three-dimensional anatomic region. Manipulation of the fluoroscopic unit can reduce this problem but these maneuvers can be cumbersome and time-consuming. Other disadvantages include the radiation exposure and the need to wear lead aprons during the procedure. Fluoroscopy cannot provide a view of the spinal anatomy in the axial plane. It is this axial view provided by image-guided navigation that makes it superior to fluoroscopy for spinal screw fixation procedures. The application of image-guided navigation to this procedure adds a significant layer of accuracy for proper screw placement.

Novel Biomarkers in Pancreatic Cancer

Stem cell markers are a promising group of new biomarkers. Solid tumors contain small proportions of cells that are capable of proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation into various cell types. These types of cells (cancer stem cells) are characterized by treatment resistance, especially to ionizing radiation. Therefore, it is a very challenging situation in order to identify these cells, to understand the mechanisms of resistance, and to evaluate the patient therapy outcome regarding the response to treatment. Identifying the markers that characterize cancer stem cells is the main research and a specific pattern regarding cell surface markers is emerging. In breast cancer, stem cells presented a characteristic antigenic pattern, whereas in high-grade gliomas, expression of CD133 on the cell surface selects a population of treatment resistant cells (Woodward & Sulman, 2008).

Qualia Or How Physical Stimuli Produce Perceptual Experiences

In the last chapter I discussed the way in which mental contents like emotions, desires, and attitudes can lead to action. We might think of this as the downward problem of how higher order properties affect lower level actions. The corresponding problem is that of upward causation, of how physical energies and events can produce the mental experiences we have of the world. One way this problem is confronted is around the issue of qualia. A quale is the direct, immediate experience of something, such as the color red in our perception of an apple. While we all know that our experience of red derives from the wavelengths of light falling on our retina (in relation to the wavelengths reflected from other parts of the visual field), we also know that indescribable feeling of redness. The problem is that the two seem to have nothing in common. There seem to be two parallel kinds of stuff, electromagnetic radiation and redness how the two can be connected is difficult to imagine. One way...

What is a barium study or upper GI series

A barium study is painless (unless you get an IV, which is only minimally painful). The amount of radiation is relatively small. When you are flying in an airplane, you are exposed to cosmic radiation your radiation exposure during an upper GI exam is roughly equal to that of two round-trip flights from New York to Los Angeles. This is a small amount of radiation and should not be of concern.

Role of Nucleotide Analogs as Cytotoxic and Antiviral Drugs

Chemical and physical agents, including ionizing radiation and ultraviolet light. Proofreading activities guard against the incorporation of mismatched nucleotides during DNA replication or transcription. In contrast, the use of certain nucleotide analogs as drugs depends on their incorporation into DNA the chemical must be recognized and used by the replication enzymes but must prohibit further elongation of the nucleic acid chain. Analogs used in HIV therapy are incorporated by the reverse tran-scriptase of the virus and bring the reaction to a halt. Toxicity associated with several analogs is known to arise from erroneous incorporation into the patient's mitochondrial DNA because of less stringent proofreading by the mitochondrial DNA polymerase enzyme. Azidothymidine remains one of the most effective and least toxic drugs for AIDS, albeit it is now usually taken in triple therapy.

Dual Energy XRay Absorptiometry DXA

The DXA method evolved from earlier single and dual photon absorptiometry methods for evaluating bone mineral. DXA systems share in common an x-ray source that, after appropriate filtration, emits two photon energy peaks. The attenuation of the two energy peaks relative to each other depends on the elemental content of tissues through which the photons pass. Bone, fat, and lean soft tissues are relatively rich in calcium phosphorus, carbon, and oxygen, respectively. DXA systems are designed to separate pixels, based on appropriate models and relative attenuation, into these three components. There are no known factors, including hydration effects that significantly influence the validity of DXA fat and bone mineral estimates. Excessive or reduced fluid volume would be interpreted as changes in lean soft tissue. The radiation exposure is minimal and can be used in children and adults of all ages. DXA measures in persons who fit within the DXA field-of-view have good reproducibility for...

Southern tickassociated rash illness 461

Solar warning index A daily warning index forecasting the ultraviolet light radiation exposure for major cities in the United States designed to help people avoid skin cancer. The index is issued daily to forecast the amount of dangerous ultraviolet light that will reach the Earth's surface at noon the next day. The scale is one to 10 in most areas, rising to one to 15 in regions that receive stronger solar radiation. The higher the number, the greater the danger.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Computed Tomography

The use of computed tomography (CT) has had limited application in body composition research due primarily to radiation exposure. Its use has primarily been limited to single slice acquisitions in the abdomen and mid-thigh whereby information on adipose tissue distribution and muscle cross-sectional area have been derived. The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has resulted in important advances in body composition phenotyping. MRI studies are safe and instruments are available in most hospital or related facilities. Expense is a limiting factor. The importance of both CT and MRI is that both methods acquire cross-sectional images of the body at pre-defined anatomic locations. Image analysis software then allows estimation of the adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and organs based on pixel intensity. Acquiring images at predefined intervals and integrating the area between slices allows reconstruction of an entire organ of interest such as skeletal muscle mass. A significant...

Series Introduction

Normal metabolism is dependent on oxygen, a free radical. Through evolution, oxygen was chosen as the terminal electron acceptor for respiration. The two unpaired electrons of oxygen spin in the same direction thus, oxygen is a biradical, but is not a very dangerous free radical. Other oxygen-derived free radical species, such as superoxide or hydroxyl radicals, formed during metabolism or by ionizing radiation are stronger oxidants and are therefore more dangerous.

Resonance

How exactly do human perceivers manage to pick up the invariant information supplied by the visual world According to Gibson, there is a process of resonance, which he explained by analogy to the workings of a radio. When a radio set is turned on, there may be only a hissing sound. However, if it is tuned properly, speech or music will be clearly audible. In Gibson's terms, the radio is now resonating with the information contained in the electromagnetic radiation.

Irradiation

One of the newer methods of food processing is irradiation - the exposure of foods to ionizing radiation such as gamma rays, X-rays, or electron beams. Radiation extends shelf-life by delaying ripening of fruits and vegetables or destroying spoilage microorganisms it inhibits sprouting of vegetables such as potatoes and onions and, most importantly for public health, it inactivates many pathogens. Although the benefits of irradiation in making food safer and more plentiful have been studied extensively and the safety of the treated foods has been well established, this process has generated significant negative consumer reaction (WHO, 1988), as will be noted later. The lack of public acceptance has limited the use of an effective food safety tool.

Cancer

Often cancers are hereditary, meaning there is a predisposition to the disease but that it needs to be triggered by an environmental factor. Cancers can develop from free radicals that harm DNA or the immune system. Free radicals are created as the result of an oxidative process triggered by sources such as chemical toxins and certain fats in the diet from viruses, exposure to industrial pollutants and chemicals including pesticides, herbicides, toxins in household products, food dyes and cigarette smoke and as a result of radiation exposure from, for example, X-rays, nuclear waste, electronic instruments and dental enamel caps. No exposure is too small to initiate cellular damage. The cumulative effect from various sources of cancer-causing substances stresses the immune system. It may take 5 to 30 years from the time of exposure to a carcinogen before a cancer actually appears.

Machine Learning

The final learning task we will discuss is unsupervised learning, where the computer is given a collection of objects and is asked to construct a model to explain the observed properties of these objects. No teacher provides desired outputs or rewards. For example, given a collection of astronomical objects, the learning system should group the objects into stars, planets, and galaxies and describe each group by its electromagnetic spectrum, distance from earth, and so on.

Leukemias

Most cases of leukemia are sporadic with no identifiable cause. Certainly, exposure to ionizing radiation and other carcinogens such as certain chemotherapeutic agents can be implicated in some cases. Many recurring genetic lesions have been described that result in the disruption of normal regulatory pathways. Autonomous proliferation may occur as a result of activating mutations. Increased self-renewal, loss of cell-cycle control, escape from apoptosis, and a block of cellular differentiation have all been reported (8). Acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML M3), which frequently presents with a low white blood cell (WBC) count and evidence, either laboratory, clinical, or both, of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), is associated with the t(15 17) in most cases. The resulting fusion transcript promyelocytic leukemia-retioic acid receptor alpha (PML-RARa) predicts responsiveness to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), which has been used along with chemotherapy to manage this...

Food Irradiation

Food irradiation is the treatment of foods by ionizing radiation in the form of beta, gamma, or X-rays. The purpose of food irradiation is to preserve food and to prolong shelf life, as other processing techniques such as heating or drying have done. For regulatory purposes irradiation is considered a process, but in many countries it is considered to be an additive. This inconsistency in the interpretation of food irradiation results in great obstacles to the use of this process and has slowed down its application considerably. Several countries are now in the process of reconsidering their legislation regarding irradiation. Depending on the radiation dose, several applications can be distinguished. The unit of radiation is the Gray

Place and the NDE

Another field theory has been postulated by Jacobo Grinberg-Zylberbaum at the National University of New Mexico, who suggested that the electromagnetic fields which are produced in the brain by the passage of nerve impulses in some way interact with the fabric of space. This interaction between fields and space allows the transmission of an effect from one brain to the next. However, he argues that the transmission is strongest when two people are in similar states, for example, in people who have strong emphatic feeling for each other. His theory supports the view that the activity of the mind can influence activity in the world beyond the brain.

Molecular Forces

Thermal as well as quantum mechanical fluctuations of electromagnetic fields in the space between and within the interacting molecules conformation-fluctuation forces from thermal gyrations by the macromolecule when thermal agitation pushes against the elastic energy resistance of the molecule and confinement imposed by neighboring macromolecules (16).

Good vs Evil

For example, the world doesn't contain colors. We perceive colors because matter reflects electromagnetic energy of different waves lengths from the sun. Our eyes and brain convert this energy to the consciousness of color. The brain also makes us conscious of smells. Without the brain, there would be no red color or sweet smells. As we view events in the environment, our eyes flit from place to place, focusing on what attracts our attention. Perception involves countless numbers of neurons. Perceptions are integrated with the knowledge provided by neurons that are active in working memory. Information perceived from an enormous amount of sensory data from the past is integrated with short-term memory to provide a feeling of self. For example, visual cortical area IV is activated when a person views a scene or when he only imagines it (Stephen, 1994).

Summary

The first to react to ionizing radiation are the nerve elements with ISPO that are sensitive to change in the chemical factors of the environment. These include the dendrites of the neurons. Aladjalova, N.A., (1956c) Changes in infraslow rhythmical potential fluctuations in the brain under influence of ionizing radiation. J. Biophysics, 1, 642. Aleksandrovskaya, M.M., (1958) Data on the influence of ionizing radiation on the structure of the central nervous system in animals. Lectures Inst, higher nervous Activity, 4, 21. Barron, G., (1955) The effect of ionizing radiation on biologically important systems. Radiobiology. Moscow. Kuzin, A.M., and Budilova, E.V., (1954) Change in the structural composition of nucleic acids of the brain and spleen under influence of ionizing radiation. Lectures of the USSR Acad. Sci., 98, 961. Lebedinsky, A.V., (1957a) Some neuro-endocrine aspects of the response of the organism to ionizing radiation. Med. Radiol., 2, 35. Lebedinsky, A.V., (1957b) On the...

Teratogens

The World Health Organization estimates that 15 of all clinically recognizable pregnancies end in abortion. Of these, 50-60 are due to chromosomal abnormalities. In addition, 3-6 of all offspring are malformed. The causes of these malformations can be divided into three categories unknown, genetic, and environmental. Environmental causes only account for 10 of all congenital malformations and can be further divided into maternal conditions, infectious agents, mechanical problems (deformations), and chemicals (including prescription drugs and high-dose ionizing radiation). Chemical environmental causes include consumption during pregnancy of the teratogenic agents discussed later. These account for less than 1 of all congenital malformations but are important in that the exposures to these chemicals may be preventable.