New Home Remedy for Insomnia

Cure Insomnia Six Steps To Sleep

The Cure Insomnia for Good with Six Steps to Sleep is a popular sleep program that persons who are facing the difficulty of having a sound sleep and usually have stressful days undertake; to retrain their body for a night of deep and restful sleep. This program uses a proven six steps sleep hygiene method that will naturally reset your sleep-wake cycle. This puts a stop to sleepless nights giving you a wonderful and energetic feeling in the morning and all day. From the book you will discover a lot which includes; how to fall asleep just within minutes of lying on your bed, how to stop your mind from wandering as you lay on the bed about to sleep, how you can stop the feeling of anxiety and restless when you are about to sleep, how to sleep properly when you are sharing the bed with a partner, how you can sleep soundly in a new environment and how you can get a sound sleep for about 7 hours in the night. This product is available for sale in hard copies and also on the site. It comes together with the book and the six steps to sleep program together with a guide for diet and 4 audio brainwave meditations, all of which contribute to relaxing the mind and body. Continue reading...

Cure Insomnia Six Steps To Sleep Summary

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Contents: 9 Chapters Ebook, Mp3 Binaural Beats Recordings
Author: Peter Litchfield
Official Website: www.sixstepstosleep.com
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Effects on Sleep Quality

Sleep disturbance is common among patients with chronic bronchitis and asthma. Sleep disturbance in children with asthma is associated with psychological problems and impairment of memory (59). Among patients with COPD, 41 reported at least one symptom of disturbed sleep (60), possibly contributing to nocturnal oxygen desaturation, the development of pulmonary hypertension, polycythemia, and cardiac arrhythmias (61,62). A randomized double-blinded study involving 36 patients with moderate to severe COPD showed that ipratropium increased total sleep time, decreased the severity of nocturnal desaturation, and improved the patient's perceptions of sleep quality (63).

Self Help Therapies for Insomnia

This chapter provides the reader with a review of self-help approaches for sleep problems. The primary focus will be on self-help for insomnia. The first half of the chapter will overview the scope of insomnia as a problem in the general and clinical populations. This is followed by a review of current empirically supported methods of assessing and treating insomnia with implications for self-help applications. The second half of the chapter will provide readers with an overview of the empirical evidence on self-help treatment of insomnia. Limitations of this evidence will be discussed along with suggestions for future research. Prevalence of Insomnia Sleep disturbances are very common. In the general adult population, the rate of chronic insomnia is estimated as between 9 and 20 (Ancoli-Israel & Roth, 1999 Ohayon, 2002 Partinen & Hublin, 2000). The variability in prevalence rates is due largely to the inconsistent use of strict diagnostic criteria for defining insomnia. Ohayon (2002)...

Diagnosis for REM sleep behavior disorder

Until recently, the diagnosis of RBD was based on clinical manifestations, namely the presence of limb or body movements associated with dream mentation and at least one of the following (1) harmful or potentially harmful sleep behaviors during sleep (2) dreams that appear to be acted out and (3) sleep behaviors that disrupt sleep continuity. Polysomnographic observations of patients were not necessary for diagnosis according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders-1 (ICSD-1). Eisensehr et al. and Gagnon et al. pointed out the limitations of these criteria because one half of the cases of RBD with PD would have been undetected based clinical interviews alone (Eisensehr et al., 2001 Gagnon et al., 2002). RBD-like features can occur with other sleep conditions such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), sleepwalking, night terrors, and sleep-related seizures (see below 4). In the second version of the ICSD (ICSD-2), PSG findings were required to establish the...

Not enough downtime in deep sleep

Even when you finally fall asleep, you may spend the night tossing and turning in the early sleep stages, and experience an insufficient time in the kind of deep, restorative sleep that your body truly needs. In fact, studies indicate that some people with fibromyalgia suffer from a lack of time in deep sleep. The more you relax (which I know is often not easy ), the more likely you are to achieve a deep, restorative sleep state. Research has shown that, for some people, tricyclic antidepressants, such as Elavil, may help to prolong sleep stages 3 and 4. If tricyclic antidepressants don't work, Prozac (generic name fluoxetine), another type of antidepressant, helps some people. (For more on these medications, check out Taking prescriptions for sleepyland, later in this chapter.)

Estimated Therapeutic and Loael Doses of Melatonin

Melatonin is characterized in this book as an immune stimulant (see Table 1.2), but in addition to immune effects it may also have direct cytotoxic effects against TABLE 22.11 ESTIMATED THERAPEUTIC AND LOAEL DOSES FOR MELATONIN* cancer cells. Therefore, it is interesting to compare doses scaled from animal and human experiments to those calculated from pharmacokinetic and in-vitro data. These doses are in agreement. The required mela-tonin dose from the animal experiments is 10 to 50 milligrams per day, the same as the range used in human studies most of these used 10 to 20 milligrams. The anticancer dose based on pharmacokinetic calculations is similar. As discussed, a 10-milligram dose will produce an average nighttime melatonin concentration of about 14 nM, which is reasonably close to the 1-nM optimal concentration. Under normal circumstances, this 1-nM concentration can be reached in vivo with no external administration of melatonin. Thus pharmacoki-netic calculations suggest...

Sleep Benefit and Sleep Hygiene

Sleep benefit is a common phenomenon of variable duration ranging from 30 minutes to 3 hours in PD and implies improvement in mobility and motor state in the morning and after drug intake at night (98). The mechanism of sleep benefit is unknown, and possible causes include (i) recovery of dopaminergic function and storage during sleep, (ii) a circadian rhythm-related phenomenon, or (iii) a pharmacological response to dopaminergic drugs (7,30). Good sleep hygiene is also useful. Activities such as a hot bath a couple of hours before bedtime, maximizing daytime activity, ensuring bright light exposure, having a hot sweet drink or a light snack at bedtime, use of handrails in bed and or satin sheets to enable easier turning in bed, flexible bed times, a reclining armchair for some, and avoiding stimulants such as tea or coffee at bedtime are part of good sleep hygiene (81). Nocturia remains one of the most common causes of sleep disruption in PD and can be reduced by avoiding diuretics,...

Asarum Homeopathy Insomnia

The classic symptom picture for this remedy is of nervous hypersensitivity and edgy, hysterical behavior even the sound of scratching on cloth becomes unbearable. Other symptoms commonly include nervous exhaustion, restlessness, hand-wringing, severe insomnia, and a sensation of floating and dizziness. Noise may trigger pain in the ears and teeth.

Measuring Sleep Disorders

Until 2002, there were no specific instruments to clinically assess sleep problems of PD in a comprehensive and holistic fashion. Existing sleep scales for other disorders, such as the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Stanford Sleepiness Scale, or the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, are not specific for PD and have problems related to scale clinimetrics in relation to complexity and face validity when these are used in PD (66, 71-73). For instance, the PSQI, although quantifiable, does not specifically address sleep disturbances of PD, such as restlessness of legs, painful posturing of arms or legs, tremors, or fidgeting. The Stanford Sleepiness Scale and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale appear too short for a comprehensive assessment of sleep problems. The gold standards for measurement of physiological aspects of sleep architecture are PSG and MSLT. However, these are tests of sleep structure, need specialized sleep laboratories, and can be expensive. In the United Kingdom, for...

Rapid Eye Movement REM sleep behavior disorder

REM sleep is characterized by a paucity of muscle activity with near complete somatic muscular atonia. REM sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by the intermittent loss of REM atonia due to disinhibition of normally inhibitory mid-brain projections to spinal motor neurons. This, in conjunction with an active dream state, results in behavioural release and the apparent acting out of dreams . Abnormal behaviours include sleep talking, yelling, limb movement, and complex motor activities. Patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder arouse from sleep to full alertness often with complete recall of fearful dream content, which may involve being chased or attacked. The motor behaviour exhibited tends to correlate with dream content. REM sleep periods typically occur in the latter half of the night. The most common symptom at time of presentation is injury of the patient or bed partner. As a result of the behaviors, bed partners often simply move to another bed or room. Also, patients...

Therapeutic management and options to address comorbid sleep disorders in ADHD

The majority of subjective report studies indicate increased parental complaints of sleep disturbance in medicated versus unmedicated ADHD children, irrespective of stimulant type or regimen (Cohen-Zion & Ancoli-Israel, 2004). However, objective studies, whether actigraphic or PSG, show overall conflicting results as far as sleep measures, continuity and architecture, major differences going in opposite directions with regard, in particular, to REM sleep (Chatoor et al., 1983 Greenhill et al., 1983) no influence, though, on specific sleep disorders such as SDB or PLMD. risperidone (Reyes et al., 2006) might be employed to counteract conduct behavior disorders as aforementioned several melatonin trials have addressed rhythmicity disorders and SOI, whereas levetiracetam, an anti-epileptic drug with antimyoclonic properties has been employed eihter in ADHD-RLS+ children or to treat DOA, seizures and related IEDs in ADHD children.

Sleep disorders 41 Insomnia

Chronic sleep onset insomnia (SOI) is a frequent finding in ADHD children (Mick et al., 2000 Smedje et al., 2001 Corkum et al., 2001 Owens et al., 2000a O'Brien et al., 2003a) with a prevalence rate of nearly 28 in unmedicated children (Corkum et al., 1999), almost double than the corresponding rate in the normal child population (Owens et al., 2000b Meijer et al., 2000). Its daytime sequelae heavily impact the cognitive domain of children and, specific to this age group, also behavioral attitude and social conduct. Hyperactivity in fact, rather than overt EDS, is the general marker of insufficient sleep in most children, therefore aggravating the typical features of ADHD (Wiggs & Stores, 1999). SOI in ADHD was demonstrated to co-occur with a delayed dim-light melatonin onset and sleep-wake circadian rhythm, whereas sleep continuity proved unaffected (Van der Heijden et al., 2005). These findings suggest a possible disturbance of the circadian pacemaker which, in turn, would be due to...

Developing good sleep habits

In the first few months, it's common for a pattern to evolve in which a baby is fed and falls asleep in a parent's arms. Many parents enjoy the closeness and snuggling of this time. But eventually this may be the only way the baby is able to fall asleep. When the baby wakes up in the middle of the night, he or she can't fall asleep again without being fed and held. To avoid these associations, put your baby in bed while he or she is drowsy but still awake. If babies fall asleep in bed without assistance when they're first laid down, it's more likely that they'll fall asleep easily after waking in the middle of the night.

Understanding the Importance of Sleep Stages

Experience all the different stages of sleep, ranging from light sleep to deep sleep. Some researchers believe that people with fibromyalgia don't spend enough time in the very deep sleep levels. A lack of quality deep sleep may inhibit an adequate production of important protective hormones that are normally made while we sleep, such as growth hormones and prolactin. Prolactin is the same hormone that's released by nursing mothers (although sleep releases much less of it), but scientists aren't sure exactly what function prolactin fulfills in nonlactating people. In 2001, researchers reported on their study of the nighttime hormone levels of women with and without fibromyalgia in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. They found that women with fibromyalgia (who agreed to take no medication during the study) had significantly lower levels of both nocturnal growth hormone and prolactin. This result provides even more proof that fibromyalgia is real It also serves as...

Sweet Dreams Combating Sleep Disorders

Understanding sleep and its importance for people with fibromyalgia Knowing about sleep stages and their relevance to fibromyalgia syndrome Discovering common sleep disorders for those with fibromyalgia Considering lifestyle changes that enhance sleep Treating sleep disorders with medications and alternative remedies All three have been diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), although the severity of their disease and how they cope with it are very different for each person. They all share one common denominator, though Juanita, Bob, and Darlene have serious sleep problems, each averaging only about four to six hours of sleep nearly every night. The majority of people with fibromyalgia (at least 55 percent) have sleep difficulties, whether they have trouble getting to sleep in the first place or frequently wake up after falling asleep. (Some people have both problems.) Of course, solving sleep disorders doesn't automatically cure your fibromyal-gia. But in many cases, a good...

Sleep Deprivation

In studies of normal persons deprived of sleep, and colleagues at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, and the Division of Nuclear Medicine of Johns Hopkins, examined the effect of 24, 48, and 72 h of sleep deprivation on the regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (CMRglu), young, normal, Brain glucose utilization decreases when alertness and cognitive performance are impaired by sleep deprivation, especially in the prefrontal cortex, a region involved in alertness, attention, and higher order cognitive processes and in the thalamus, a subcortical structure involved in alertness and attention. Absolute and relative regional glucose use decreased after 48 and 72 h of sleep deprivation in the same areas that showed decreases after 24 h of sleep deprivation. The decrease in glucose use in the prefrontal-thalamic network by prolonged sleep deprivation was proportional to the decline in alertness and cognitive performance, whereas the...

Deep sleep

During deep sleep, your heart slows down and your breathing becomes regular and relaxed. Your body also releases a small amount of growth hormone, which helps rebuild damaged tissue. Other hormones are also released, such as prolactin and melatonin. If you don't have enough sleep and, consequently, don't spend enough time in deep sleep, the biochemical processes that are supposed to occur are aborted or may not happen at all. This is probably a key reason why the pain is worse for an FMS sufferer who's slept very little. If you have trouble sleeping, one tactic that may help is simulating the breathing of a very deep sleep. Doing so may induce your tired body to slip into a sleep state. Try this Lie down in a comfortable and quiet place. Take in a deep breath and let it out very slowly. Repeat several times. Concentrate only on your breathing and on nothing else. Don't worry about falling asleep, about your fibromyalgia, or work or family problems. Just breathe. Breathing is all that...

REM sleep

The body may release Cortisol in this stage (although cortisol can be released anytime during sleep). Cortisol is a hormone released by the adrenal glands. It controls blood pressure, blood sugar, and other key body functions. Some people with FMS may have overly low levels of cortisol in the daytime, leading to excessive fatigue, and overly high levels at night (causing insomnia). Cortisol production peaks early in the morning, shortly before you awake.

Melatonin

Animal studies have reported that at doses applicable to humans, or larger ones, melatonin caused an antioxi-dant effect and protected normal cells from the adverse effects of chemotherapy drugs. At the same time, mela-tonin treatment did not reduce the antitumor activity of Oral administration of melatonin (at about 48 milligrams per day, as scaled to humans) improved the antitumor activity of doxorubicin in mice with transplanted Ehrlich ascites cancer cells. Melatonin also improved the antioxidant status of the heart.14 Oral administration of melatonin (at about 20 milligrams per day, as scaled to humans) reduced damage to auditory neurons caused by cisplatin in rats.193 Intraperitoneal administration of 4 mg kg melatonin reduced oxidative damage in the heart induced by doxorubicin treatment in mice and decreased mortality after doxorubicin treatment.17 The equivalent human oral dose is about 300 milligrams. Subcutaneous administration of 2 mg kg melatonin reduced oxidative damage...

Sleep Disorders

Methylcobalamin supplementation led to a significant decrease in daytime melatonin levels, improved sleep quality, shorter sleep cycles, increased feelings of alertness, better concentration, and a feeling of waking up refreshed in the morning. It appeared that methylcobalamin was significantly more effective than cobalamin.

Insomnia

Insomnia may be caused by anxiety, stress, depression, too much caffeine, overeating, numerous health conditions, and the use of stimulating drugs. Food allergies can cause insomnia and narcolepsy, a condition in which an individual falls asleep suddenly, at any time, and anywhere. Eating carbohydrates 30 minutes before bedtime increases production of serotonin, a neu-rotransmitter that can reduce anxiety and promote sleep. For some individuals, warm milk has a sedative effect. As we age, the body requires less sleep. Natural progesterone may be helpful for PMS and menopause-related sleeplessness as a hormone imbalance can cause irritability and sleep disturbances. Exercise in the late afternoon or early evening can promote better sleep. Mela-tonin is only effective if there is a deficiency or body levels are low.

Sleep Problems

Sleep problems take various forms depending on the age of the child. Most parents know when their children are having sleep prob-lems particularly when the children have difficulty falling asleep or are getting up at night. Another sign of sleep disturbance is sleeping too much. If your child usually sleeps ten hours at night but suddenly can't get out of bed in the morning and wants to nap right after school, he or she may be clinically depressed. Your child needs professional help if you have tried to address sleep issues without success.

Sleep Disorder Areas

A recent survey on sleep disorders in the general population indicated rates of 56 in the US, 31 in Western Europe and 23 in Japan. About 50 of subjects with sleep disorders had never taken any steps to resolve them and the majority of respondents had not spoken to a physician about the problem.29 The implications of insomnia are a reduced quality of life, decreased productivity and increased absenteeism.30,31 These patients experience significantly more limited activity than those without insomnia and are a greater burden on health services overall, annual costs attributable to insomnia in the US have been estimated between 92.5 billion and 107.5 billion.32,33 As particularly the elderly are affected by sleep disorders, accurate screening and appropriate therapy could improve general health and well-being provided pharmacotherapy is used cautiously and conservatively.34 It is therefore possible for a physician to be asked to treat such disorders with non-conventional methods such as...

Some basic neurobiological characteristics of sleepwake cycles

A study conducted by Qiu and colleagues in 2010 presented the main overall neurobiological activity of basal ganglia neurons associated with the sleep-wake state. The differences in firing patterns across the basal ganglia suggest multiple input sources, such as the cortex, thalamus, and the dopamine system, as well as some other intra basal ganglia inputs, such as the globus pallidus-subtalamic nucleus, and striatum-globus pallidus interactions. The largest nucleus striatum of the basal ganglia is mostly comprised of y-aminobutiric acid ergic spiny neurons, whose activity is influenced by excitatory glutaminergic projection from the neocortex and thalamus, and dopaminergic projection from the midbrain ventral tegmental area and other known parts. The striatum receiving cortical inputs projects to the globus pallidus, which then projects to the cerebral cortex directly ore by the thalamus (mainly the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus). It was suggested that the lesion of globus pallidus...

Epworth Sleepiness Scale ESS

The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) of Johns (1991) is very often used as a screening method for detecting the global daytime sleepiness and fall asleep in sleep disorders, especially used in hypersomnias. It is asked retrospectively, how high is the probability to fall asleep in eight everyday situations. The scale has a 4-step response format, in which values between 0 and 3 (0 never to 3 strongly agree) must be marked and results are added up a total maximum value of 24.

Maintenance of Wakefulness Test MWT

Chair or on the bed and will be asked to refrain movements (e.g., grimacing, shaking), which may prevent falling asleep to refrain (Hartse et al. 1982, Mitler et al. 1982). Three to four times a day electrophysiological recordings (C3 A2, C4 A1, EOG and EMG) are recorded in 2-hour intervals of 20 minutes. The earliest start of the first test procedure should be scheduled two hours after waking. As with the MSLT test history is filmed with a video camera. Evaluated will be the sleep latency from the moment light off until the onset of the first two epochs of sleep stage 1 or 2.

Nonergotderived dopamine agonists

Ropinirole acts as a dopamine agonist primarily on the D3 as well as D2 & D4 receptors. It was originally studied in the early 1990s for Parkinson's Disease and later found to be beneficial for RLS. Ondo studied 16 RLS patients in an open-label trial of ropinirole. Three patients discontinued ropinirole use. Of the remaining 13 patients, the average duration of use was 3.9 months and there was a 58.7 improvement in symptoms (Ondo W, 1999). Further studies reinforced the safety and efficacy of ropinirole in RLS. The TREAT RLS 1 study (Therapy with ropinirole efficacy and tolerability in RLS 1) was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of 12 weeks duration. 146 subjects were randomized to the ropinirole group and 138 to the placebo group. The key endpoint was the IRLS severity score which showed significant improvement in the ropinirole group over the placebo group at week 12 (p 0.0036). The researchers concluded that ropinirole improves RLS compared with placebo and...

Mayo sleep questionnaire

Boeve et al. also assessed the validity of the MSQ by comparing the responses of patients' bed partners with the findings (REM sleep without atonia) on PSG. The study subjects were 176 individuals (150 males median age 71 years (range 39-90)) with the following clinical diagnoses normal (n 8), mild cognitive impairment (n 44), Alzheimer's disease (n 23), dementia with Lewy bodies (n 74), and other dementia and or parkinsonian syndromes (n 27). Sensitivity and specificity for question 1 on the MSQ for PSG-proven RBD were 98 and 74 , respectively. They concluded that the MSQ has adequate sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of RBD among aged subjects with cognitive impairment and or parkinsonism (Boeve et al, 2011).

RLS and other neurologic disorders

227 Charcot-Marie Tooth disease patients compared to 234 controls with a 5.6 prevalence. RLS severity was correlated with worse sleep quality and reduced health-related quality of life measures. Variation in prevalence was not observed between subtypes of Charcot-Marie Tooth disease, but women were more severely affected by RLS than male patients (Boentert M, et al 2010). A series of 28 patients with Friedreich's Ataxia were surveyed for prevalence of RLS with 32 meeting diagnostic criteria (Synofzik M et al, 2011). In a population of 28 chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), a prevalence of 39.3 for RLS was found, compared to 7.1 prevalence in age and gender matched control patients. Isolated case reports of RLS symptomatology following development of hyperparathyroidism (Agarwal P et al, 2008), administration of interferon therapy (LaRochelle JS, et al, 2004), development of multifocal motor neuropathy (Lo Coco D, et al, 2009), and Guillain-Barre syndrome have...

Sleepdisordered breathing disorders in neurological diseases

Generation of respiratory movements (neuromuscular disorders). Vascular damage to the respiratory center may lead to central respiratory disturbances. Neurodegenerative disease can damage the respiratory center (Cormican, 2004), as well as demyelinating lesions (Auer, 1996) located within the respiratory center. Damage of the axons projecting from respiratory center to spinal cord a-motoneurons (cervical spine trauma, demyelinating plaques in multiple sclerosis) can cause respiratory disorders. Damage to the a-motor neurons of the spinal cord (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, post-polio syndrome) leads to respiratory failure (Aboussouan, 2005). Similarly, peripheral nerve conduction abnormalities (Guillian-Barre syndrome and congenital polyneuropathy) may lead to hypoventilation and respiratory failure. Disorders of the neuromuscular transmission (myasthenia gravis, botulinum toxin poisoning) and primary muscle disorders (myopathies, muscular dystrophy) can cause respiratory disorders....

MSLT and MWT criticism

Although MWT and MSLT are often used in practice, since years there is the assumption that its operationalization does not correspond to the tonic activation. Johns (1998) excludes that the MSLT is suitable as a predictor of daytime sleepiness in everyday situations, regardless how strict are implementation and evaluation standards. Although have the sleep latency on both tests satisfactory correlations as Sangal and colleagues (1992, 1997a) showed in subjects with various sleep disorders (r .41, p .001) and in Narcolepsy patients (r .52, p .001). However, the tests clarify maximum of 20-25 of common variance, indicating that the test methods measure different constructs of daytime sleepiness. Reasons for the average correlations according to Sangal et al. (1992) are that patients with pathological MSLT values were able to stay awake in the MWT, while others who fell asleep in the MWT were able to stay awake in the MSLT.

Multiple Sleep Latency Test MSLT

For a long time the MSLT has been considered a gold standard for the investigation of daytime sleepiness (Carskadon et al. 1986). The MSLT (as well as the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT)) is often used to determine the alertness with expert's investigations, e.g. to assess the driving ability (Poceta et al. 1992). Five times a day electrophysiological recordings (C3 A2, C4 A1, EOG, EMG) are performed in 2-hour intervals. The first time of measurement should be from 1.5 to 3 hours after waking. The patient lies in a darkened room and is asked to fall asleep. During the test procedure, the patient is monitored with a video recording. A pathological fall asleep exists, when the medium sleep latency is 5 minutes (Richardson et al. 1982). The gray area is between 5-10 minutes and 10-20 minutes is a normal finding. But are also divergent standard values of 5-8 minutes thereby establishing of normal values is equivalent to a kind of rule of thumb (Guilleminault et al. 1994, van den...

Neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system and SDB 41 Alzheimer disease

Searching for links between Alzheimer's disease and sleep-disordered breathing has already started in the eighties. Cognitive deficits observed in individuals with SDB was seen as a preliminary stage in the development of dementia. Cognitive deficits in individuals with impaired respiratory function were found on both verbal, spatial and executive functions as well as short-term memory (Naegele, 1995 Alchanatis, 2005). A number of pathomechanisms may contribute to cognitive impairment in patients with respiratory disorders. The important part play episodes of hypoxia and subsequent oxidative stress resulting in impaired cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system (Gibson, 1981 Shimada, 1981). Another pathomechanism may be associated with changes in cerebral blood flow, observed during sleep -significant hypoperfusion after an episode of apnea. Studies using magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed a decrease in metabolism in the frontal lobes in people with severe respiratory...

Sleepdisordered breathing SDB in patients with ischemic stroke

2.1 Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) as a risk factor for ischemic stroke The first studies concerning the sleep-disordered breathing in patients with ischemic stroke, with a quantitative assessment of respiratory dysfunction, were conducted in the 90s. It was shown that among 47 patients with ischemic stroke 72 have breathing problems during sleep (defined as AHI 10), 53 of patients in this group have had AHI 30, and 30 of patients have had AHI 40 (Good 1996). Mohsenin and Valor (1995) showed that, among patients with ischemic stroke SDB (AHI 10) occur in 80 of patients. Another studies (Bassetti, 1996, 1997, 1999), conducted on 128 patients with ischemic stroke and 28 in the control group, showed the incidence of SDB (AHI 10) in 62 of patients with ischemic stroke, compared with 12,5 in the control group. It has been also shown that the incidence of apneas is similar and significantly higher in patients with ischemic stroke and TIA than in the control group (Bassetti, 1996). These...

Causes of parasomnias

Parasomnias occur due to abnormal transitions between the three primary states of being wake, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. These different states may overlap or intrude into one another, and it is the overlap of wakefulness and NREM sleep that gives rise to confusional arousals, and the intrusion of REM sleep into waking that produces REM sleep behaviour disorder (Matwiyoff et al, 2010). Parasomnias may have genetic basis, but occurrence is usually triggered by heavy physical activity, febrile illness, sleep deprivation, excessive caffeine drinks, hypnotics, and emotional stress. Intake of alcohol increased occurrence of confusional arousal, night terror, and sleepwalking, while heavy intake of caffeinated drink increased occurrence of sleep walking in a population study (Oluwole, 2010). Parasomnias usually associated with REM sleep Impaired sleep-related penile erections Sleep-related painful erections REM sleep sinus arrest REM sleep...

Sleep Apnea Syndromes and neuropsychological disorders

In addition to nocturnal Sleep Apnea Syndrome symptoms there are a lot of daytime symptoms. It is assumed that the reduced sleep quality, arising out of deep sleep or REM- It is also assumed that the OSAS accompanying Insomnia and sleepiness influence cognitive functions (Jennum et al. 1993). As reported by Schwarzenberger et al. (1987) that patients with EDS have complaints and problems in situations of physical rest and during prolonged monotonous concentration tasks. A study by Kales (1985) showed that 76 of OSAS patients have cognitive deficits in the areas of thinking, learning ability, memory, communication and the ability to learn new information. Naegele et al. (1995) were able to establish in Sleep Apnea Syndrome patients that they were reduced at executive functions when these tasks involve the acquisition of information to memory processing. Another study by Cassel et al. (1995) showed that Sleep Apnea Syndrome patients have a reduced non-verbal performance and processing...

Vigilance and attention in patients with Sleep Apnea Syndrome 31 State of research

Proposed relationship between sleep quality and sleepiness-related restrictions during the day Divided attention describes the capacity for serial and parallel information processing and the flexibility of selecting to switch back and forth at least two different sources of information (Sturm and Zimmermann 2000). Relevant stimuli can each occur in one or two sources of information to which the person have to respond as quickly as possible. Divided attention can be measured with dual-task activities (e.g. using the subtest Divided attention of the TAP). As with many sleep-related disorders, such as hypersomnias and dyssomnias, the victims suffer from, in addition to their nocturnal symptoms, increased daytime sleepiness and the tendency to fall asleep (B ttner et al. 2004b). These difficulties are in turn associated with attention-related deficits and limitations (including Gerdesmeyer et al. 1997, M ller et al. 1997, Randerath et al. 1997, 1998, Wee 1997, Wee et al. 1998a b,...

The need for screening and screening methods for RBD

PSG is clearly necessary for establishing the diagnosis of RBD, but the procedure requires appropriate monitoring equipment, including time synchronized video recordings, specially trained technologists, bed availability in a sleep laboratory, and clinicians who can interpret the data. The procedure is costly, especially for patients with limited insurance coverage. Subjects must be willing and able to sleep in a sleep laboratory and undergo monitoring. Some patients with coexisting neurologic disorders are too cognitively or physically impaired to tolerate and undergo an adequate study, are too uncooperative to permit all of the monitoring equipment to remain in place, are at risk for falls during the night, or are institutionalized. RBD cannot be accurately assessed in the home. Due to the limited number of sleep disorder centers in many countries, PSG is not possible even when clearly medically warranted. As it is impractical to perform PSG in large numbers of subjects in...

Other pharmacological treatments for RLS

A number of other therapies have be evaluated for RLS including opioids, gabapentin and pregabalin, clonazepam, and case reports of melatonin, buproprion, and other agents. Overall, there is a long experience with opioids and those drugs have been especially useful in dopaminergic resistant RLS with augmentation problems. Clonazepam has also been widely used but is not particularly efficacious and now has been largely replaced by dopaminergic agents. In April 2011, the FDA approved extended release gabapentin for use in moderate to severe RLS. This anticonvulsant agent has recently been shown to be beneficial in RLS and may be especially useful when dopamine agents provide incomplete resolution of RLS symptoms and or augmentation issues arise. Please remember that the extended release form of gabapentin gives different concentrations of drug than the shorter acting form. Finally, it is important to note that all epilepsy drugs carry a suicide warning label including gabapentin.

Treatment

Treatment options for UARS include lifestyle changes, Continous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP), oral appliance therapy and surgery. All patients with UARS should be counseled about the potential benefits of therapy and the risks of going without therapy. Obesity is a modifiable risk factor associated with OSAS so weight loss should be recommended to all overweight or obese. However, patients with UARS are often not obese, so this recommendation has less value in them. As in the treatment of OSAS, within conservative measures are recommended sleep hygiene and avoiding the supine position. Just like in OSA is advisable to multidisciplinary treatment.

Discussion

The analysis of sleep behavior in different groups showed that migraineurs took more time to fall asleep and awake more frequently during night with a reduced global sleep satisfaction. In conclusion, if compared to controls, migraineurs seem to sleep worse but to breathe better. However, the hypothesis that there is an allostatic function of migraine and allodynia could also be made the presence of these conditions might inhibit deep sleep, and thus avoid prolonged apneas. The observation that allodynic patients complain of a poor subjective satisfaction by sleep with frequent awakenings and difficulties in starting sleep may be the time when an allostatic load (episodic migraine) becomes an allostatic overload (allodynic migraine), or it may correspond to a further allostatic adjustment to maintain an equilibrium migraine is sufficient until the metabolic unbalance is such, that allodynia is needed. Allodynia is more frequently observed among subjects with chronic transformed...

Intech

Sleep and Pregnancy Sleep Deprivation, Sleep Disturbed Breathing and Sleep Disorders in Pregnancy 1 Sleep Disorders Diagnosis and Management in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) 31 Elemental Mercury Exposure and Sleep Disorder 47 Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Neurological Diseases 95 Chapter 12 Screening Methods for REM Sleep Behavior Disorder 181 The chapters in this book reflect leading edge ideas, reflections and observations. Even though the modern era of sleep research evolved from Aserinksky's observations of rapid eye movements in the sleep of babies, most work is nonetheless done in adults. There is much less formal work done in youngsters and virtually none in utero and pregnancy itself is virtually unexplored. So, Dr Miller et al's chapter reviewing sleep in pregnancy is particularly welcome as it incorporates current thinking in how disordered sleep impacts other adult pathological processes. Dr Tomoda and Dr Yamakazi's data-driven chapter on...

Other parasomnias

Sleep bruxism is the third most common parasomnia and it can be bothersome to the bed partner. Bruxism is not a dangerous disorder. However, it can cause permanent damage to the teeth and uncomfortable jaw pain, headaches, or ear pain. Approximately 8.2 of people experience it at least once a week. Sleep apnea and anxiety disorders are the most prominent risk factors for bruxism. Bruxism could be a reflex to open the airway after an apneic or hypopneic event. Bruxism may improve with treatment of sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure. Sleep bruxism does not have a definite cure. The goals of treatment are to reduce pain, prevent permanent damage to the teeth, and reduce clenching as much as possible. Stress reduction, relaxation, biofeedback, hypnosis and improvement of sleep hygiene have been tried with no persistent or significant improvement. To prevent damage to the teeth, mouth guards or appliances (splints) have been used since the 1930s to treat teeth grinding,...

Symptoms

Although OSAS and UARS share common symptoms, in most cases the clinical manifestations are different (Stoohs 2008). The most common symptoms of SAHS patients include chronic loud snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, personality changes, depression and deterioration of quality of life (Pichel 2004). Hypersomnolence is the principal daytime manifestation of sleep disordered breathing. Excessive sleepiness resulting from increased breathing effort and sleep disruption is the guide symptom of UARS patients (Guilleminault 1993, 2001a). Drowsiness related to general exhaustion has a negative impact on quality of life. As in OSAS, snoring is a common symptom, predominantly in males, although the absence of snoring has also been described in this syndrome, the so-called silent UARS (Kristo 2005). In recent years, several studies have demonstrated strong associations between UARS and functional somatic syndromes, such as chronic fatigue syndrome, chronic insomnia, chronic pain, irritable...

Conclusion

A lack of sleep is known to affect both our physical and mental health. The few studies that have investigated sleep in pregnancy have found both an increase in total sleep time and an increase in daytime sleepiness in the first trimester whereas the third trimester appears to be associated with a decrease in sleep time and an increase in the number of awakenings. Sleep has an important impact on maternal and foetal health. It has been associated with an increased duration and pain perception in labour, with a higher rate of caesarean delivery and with preterm labour. Some pregnant women develop sleep disorders such as RLS or OSA or insomnia and others develop postpartum depression. Longitudinal studies are required to fully evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation on maternal and foetal outcome.

ADHD and sleep

Items more often referred to by subjective studies on sleep and alertness in ADHD include (Cortese et al., 2006) bedtime resistance, sleep onset insomnia, night awakening, sleep duration, restless sleep, parasomnias, problems with morning awakening, sleep disordered breathing (SDB) excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). No major differences between adolescents with ADHD and controls were detected (Mick et al., 2000) after excluding confounding factors such as medications and psychiatric comorbidity. As for ADHD children, significantly over reported by comparison with controls were EDS (Marcotte et al., 1998, Owens et al., 2000), whether or not sleep disordered breathing (SDB) related, movements during sleep (Corkum et al., 1999, Owens et al., 2000). Also a longer sleep duration with increased night awakenings and parasomnias were observed upon comparison with controls (Owens et al., 2000). Despite the fact that bedtime resistance and sleep onset insomnia did not come across as...

Sleep nasendoscopy

Tonsil Nasendosocpy

Drug induced sleep is different from natural physiological sleep but one could argue that the drug used for sedation has the same effect on the different segments of the pharynx thus it would allow us to compare the proportionate obstruction caused at each anatomical level in a similar manner that may exist in natural sleep. early, the muscle relaxation effect of the drug may be over emphasised and if the patient is assessed too late then important anatomical aspect of the obstructive episodes may be missed. Thus the depth of sedation during which the assessment is conducted should be as close to the levels of depth of natural sleep. Evaluation only occurs as a snap shot of a patients whole sleep cycle. However, combining it with BIS values of patients undergoing natural sleep allows a more accurate assessment of sleep disordered breathing. Finally, a couple of studies have compared awake assessment with SNE in the same group of patients and advocate that SNE is superior further...

Rbdsq Questionnaire

Item 5 asks about self-injuries and injuries of the bed partner. Item 6 consists of four subitems that assess nocturnal motor behavior more specifically, e.g., questions about nocturnal vocalization, sudden limb movements, complex movements, or items around the bed that fell down. Items 7 and 8 deal with nocturnal awakenings. Item 9 focuses on disturbed sleep in general and item 10 on the presence of any neurological disorder. The maximum total score for the RBDSQ is 13 points. The RBDSQ was applied to 54 RBD patients (mean age 53.7 years, range 19-79) who had been clinically diagnosed with iRBD (n 19), narcolepsy (n 33), early PD (n 2)) and 160 patients without RBD (age 50.8 years, range 20-83) who had been diagnosed as having RLS (n 73), narcolepsy (n 27), OSAS (n 21), hypersomnia (n 10), PLMD (n 8), insomnia (n 4), sleepwalking (n 4), epilepsy (n 3), nightmares (n 1), sleep bruxisum (n 1), or depression. (n 1). Also studied were 133 healthy subjects (mean age 46.9 years,...

Sleep and pregnancy

2.1 Sleep deprivation Adverse sleep changes in pregnancy quantity and quality Due to the lack of good longitudinal studies there is still little information on what constitutes normal sleep quality and quantity both during pregnancy and in the period following delivery. In a recent study however Signal et al quantified the change and variability in sleep duration and quality across pregnancy and post-partum in 8 healthy nulliparous and 11 healthy multiparous women (Signal et al, 2007). The women wore an actigraph and completed a sleep diary for seven nights during the second trimester, one week prior to delivery, and at one and six weeks post-partum. They observed that compared to multiparous women, nulliparous women generally had less efficient sleep, spent more time in bed and had greater wake after sleep onset in the second trimester, and spent less time in bed and had fewer sleep episodes a day at one week post-partum. The largest change in sleep however occurred during the first...

Epidemiology

Generally parasomnias, particularly those that are associated with non-REM sleep are commoner in childhood, but studies showed that non- REM parasomnias are not uncommon in adults. Parasomnias have been reported in approximately 4 of the adult population (Ohayon et al., 2000). Nightmares are frightening dreams that usually awaken the sleeper from REM sleep. Between 10 and 20 of children experience nightmares that disturb their parents while 50 of adults have occasional nightmares and 1 have one or more nightmares per week. Sleepwalking occurs more frequently in children with an estimated prevalence of up to 40 per cent in this age group. Prevalence among adults is about 4 per cent. Prevalence of RBD is estimated to be about 0.5 per cent13. REM sleep behaviour disorder tends to affect older adults, with a mean age of onset of 50 to 60 years, predominantly affecting males.

SDB in epilepsy

Synchronization of brain bioelectrical activity, triggered by physiological stages of sleep (Gigli, 1992). The phases of sleep in which there is greatest risk of seizures include the phases associated with a higher probability of awakening - mainly phase I and II NREM sleep type. Phase of sleep associated with EEG desynchronization - REM is characterized by a lower risk of seizures. The probability of awakening during sleep increases the risk of seizure in the case of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (Bonakis, 2009). A similar mechanism was proposed in focal and secondarily generalized seizures (Manni, 2005). Also in these types of epilepsy light sleep phase (I and II NREM) may initiate abnormal synchronous epileptic discharges. The EEG patterns associated with arousal (K complexes) trigger pathological EEG hypersynchrony in the second phase of NREM sleep. Seizure during sleep is associated with the interruption of the continuity of sleep and disorder of its architecture. Seizure,...

Conclusions

Despite the time elapsed since its initial description, UARS remains controversial as it has yet to be accepted as its own entity. However, the literature continues to reflect interest in this disorder. Perhaps SAHS and UARS share the same pathophysiological mechanism, although their clinical expression and pathophysiologic consequences are different. We could say that UARS and OSAS are distinct entities in the spectrum of sleep-disordered breathing. SAHS is one of the most common sleep disorders in clinical practice. It is associated to cardiovascular morbidity, and has become regarded as a public health problem. UARS is an underdiagnosed disorder with low prevalence of sleep units. It has special implications on sleep structure, especially sleepiness and tiredness, and is associated to chronic somatic diseases such as chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromialgia, irritable bowel syndrome, and tension headache. The correct diagnosis of this syndrome is essential to allow the best choice of...

Materials methods

- Sleep behavior was evaluated through semi-structured ad hoc questionnaire exploring the mean latency of sleep onset (more or less of 30 min), the frequency of nights with nocturnal wake-up (3 nights month) and the subjective perception of sleep quality (satisfied not-satisfied).

Diagnosis

UARS is defined as daytime sleepiness associated to a sleep disordered breathing and arousals related to respiratory effort (RERA) but without sufficient apneas hypopneas for OSAS. The diagnosis is based on the association of clinical symptoms and polysomnographic findings. RERA is the most important event in UARS patients. In early studies, the definition of UARS included the presence of frequent arousals, indicating an RERA index 10 h as a diagnostic criteria. Owing to their relation, treating RERA tends to improve excessive daytime sleepiness. This index was established as a treatment criterion. UARS has not found its way into the International Classification of Sleep Disorders Diagnostic and Coding Manual, which is one of the main problems for the acceptance of UARS as a specific entity (AASM 1999 Iber 2007). RERA has been accepted by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine Task Force (AASM, 1999) but it has yet to be standardized. According to the AASM and a number of authors...

State of research

Jenkins & Dallenbach (1924) could show for the first time that learning tasks which are presented before sleep could be keep better than tasks that are presented before wakefulness. This was confirmed in other studies (Hennevin et al. 1995, Smith 1996). The discovery of REM sleep (Dement & Kleitman 1957) was the start for a more specific research program in which certain stages of sleep each were assigned specific roles for the memory processes. As follow on one hand, REM sleep, was attributed partly memory-favouring effects because of its particular physiological changes, on the other hand, as well as the Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) was attributed the same effects (Hobson & McCarley 1977, Crick 1983, Wilson & McNaughton, 1994, Karni et al. 1994, Squire & Alvarez 1995). One of the studies on cognitive deficits in the thinking, memory, communication and the ability to learn new information in OSAS patients comes from Kales (1985). In this study 76 of OSAS patients show cognitive deficits in...

Sleep architecture

Confounding factors such as the effect of medications, co-morbid neurological and psychiatric conditions and, above all, primary sleep disorders. In fact, ADHD children could be generally subdivided in children without sleep disorders, probably less than 50 according to most estimates, and children with sleep disorders. Whether or not an adaptation night is performed, it may enable the exclusion of the effects of first night sleep deprivation and adaptation to the lab conditions. Kirov et al. (2004), instead, noticed an increased duration of REM sleep and of the number of sleep cycles in ADHD children compared to controls. Also, REM latency resulted shorter in his subjects as already previously reported by Kahn (1982) and Greenhill (1983), as if a forced REM initiation may have produced a longer REM sleep duration along with an increased number of sleep cycles. A decreased dopaminergic activity in ADHD may be responsible for cortical dysinhibition of the motor frontal cortices, which...

Treatment options

Relaxation training and guided imagery may be helpful strategies for some patients, especially those with disorders of arousal or rhythm movement disorders. When the events are frequent or particularly dramatic, medication with a long- or medium-acting benzodiazepine, such as clonazepam, at bedtime is effective therapy in most cases of non-REM disorders of arousal and REM sleep behavior disorder. In non-REM disorders, pharmacologic agents that have been used with some success include paroxetine and trazodone and low-dose benzodiazepines. Typically, medication should be used in combination with nonpharmacologic treatments after such techniques have been tried and found to be ineffective and only when the sleep disorder is affecting daytime function.

Summary

In the western and eastern industrial countries, the number of sleep disturbed subjects increased over the time. Undiagnosed and untreated, sleep disorders caused on one hand often by subjective suffering among those affected individuals and on the other hand, due to decreased attention and increased daytime fatigue or daytime sleepiness, to an increased risk of accidents in road traffic and workplace (e.g. Peter et al. 1995, Gerdesmeyer et al. 1997, Randerath et al. 1997, 1998, B ttner et al. 2000a b). These performance restrictions or impairments affect the affected subjects, both professionally and in their ability to drive motor vehicles (Findley et al. 1988a b, 1989b, 1990, 1991, 1995, Mitler et al. In 1988, Cassel et al. 1991a b, 1993, 1996 , ATS 1994, Gerdesmeyer et al. 1997, Krieger et al. 1997, Randerath et al. 1997, 1998, 2000, Wee 1997, Wee et al. 1998a b, B ttner et al. 2000a b, B ttner 2001). Consequences of this reduced performance are therefore often accidents or nearly...

Sleepwalking

It affects mostly children aged 6-12 years, and episodes occur during stage 3 or stage 4 sleep in the first third of the night and in REM sleep in the later sleep hours. Despite widespread prevalence of these disorders and the recognition that they may arise from incomplete arousal, their pathophysiology is not well understood. Evidence for a strong genetic background of sleepwalking was shown in epidemiological surveys as in twin studies. Further evidence for heredity of sleepwalking is documented by the 10-fold increased prevalence of sleepwalking in relatives of patients suffering from sleepwalking. Sleepwalking in elderly people may be a feature of dementia. Idiosyncratic reactions to drugs (eg, marijuana, alcohol) and medical conditions (eg, partial complex seizures) may be causative factors in adults. During an episode of sleepwalking, a person may appear agitated or calm and behaviour may range from simple ambulation with a glassy stare to more complex activities such as...

Results

More than 80 of our patients with sleep disorders showed a tendency of a day night reversal life style, especially in the period right after termination of school social life. An overnight EEG study revealed a decrease in deep NREM sleep and delayed latency of the REM sleep phase (unpublished data). Most of them need about 10 hours sleep to keep awake for the rest of the daytime. These data suggest a deteriorated quality of night sleep. Even though sleep disorders are considered to begin in childhood and adolescents, there have been no in depth reports on this problem. We have studied the hormonal circadian secretion rhythm, such as for melatonin, cortisol and P-endorphin. Each of them showed abnormal behavior, that is, a delayed peak secretion time and a decrease in the secreted amount. As to cortisol secretion in the patients, the area under the curve (AUC) was significantly smaller than in normal controls. In addition, the cortisol peak secretion time was significantly delayed.

Nightmares

Nightmares are vivid nocturnal events that cause feelings of fear and terror, with or without feeling anxiety. In most cases, a person having a nightmare will be abruptly awakened from REM sleep and is able to give a detailed account of what he dreamt about. Also, the person having a nightmare has difficulty returning to sleep. Episodes typically occur in the latter half of the night. Following the awakening, the individual becomes fully alert and profoundly anxious. There is vivid recall of the preceding dream as well as difficulty returning to sleep. Compared to sleep terrors, there is less autonomic activation, and tachycardia and tachypnea, if present, are not as severe. Episodes can be precipitated by

Bipolar Depressive Phase And Mixed States Depressive Phase

Psychomotor retardation, with or without hypersomnia, is generally considered the hallmark of the uncomplicated depressive phase of bipolar disorder 136 . Onset and offset are often abrupt, though gradual onset over several weeks can also occur. Patients may recover into a free interval or switch directly into mania 137, 138 switching into an excited phase is not infrequently associated with somatotherapy (e.g., ECT, sleep deprivation, and antidepressants).

Dosage And Administration

Amobarbital may be given orally, intramuscularly, or intravenously for the treatment of insomnia or anxiety. The adult dosage for sedation is 15 to 50 milligrams but 65 to 200 milligrams for sleep. For treating convulsions, the adult dose is 65 to 200 milligrams, with a maximum dose of 500 milligrams.

Effects On The Body And Therapeutic Uses

Barbiturates affect all excitable tissues in the body. However, NEURONS are more sensitive to their effects than other tissues. The depth of central nervous system depression ranges from mild sedation to coma and depends on many factors including which drug is used, its dose, the route of administration, and the level of excitability present just before the barbiturate was taken. The most common uses for the barbiturates are still to promote sleep and to induce anesthesia. Barbiturate-induced sleep resembles normal sleep in many ways, but there are a few important differences. Barbiturates reduce the amount of time spent in rapid eye movement or REM sleep a very important phase

How To Minimize And Manage The Different Types Of Fatigue

Normal fatigue in people with MS can be managed by getting adequate rest at night and by napping at strategic times during the day. If you are experiencing insomnia, talk to your physician about medications that will help you sleep. In addition, training programs are available to help you relax and sleep. Many of these programs are offered through local medical centers and may require a referral from your physician. If sleep deprivation is caused by frequent awakening to urinate (nocturia), bladder management should be pursued with your physician. Bladder management strategies are discussed in Chapter 7 in this book, and will assist those of you experiencing problems with elimination to have adequate rest and sleep. In addition, there has been recent evidence that MS can cause sleep disturbance. Therefore, it is important that you discuss your concerns with your physician for appropriate management.

What Types of Medications are Used to Treat Bipolar Disorder

Drugs often are classified according to the purpose for which they first got approval for use in the United States. Although many drugs are found to have a variety of uses in addition to this first use, the original name sticks. Because of this, doctors often use drugs classified as antidepressants to treat anxiety and drugs called anxiolytics to treat insomnia. For this reason, it is extremely important for you to know the purpose of a medication, not just its name. It helps to try to have a sense of humor with the well-meaning people who may question your medications because they take these classification terms at face value. For example, a family member may wonder why you are taking a medication for anxiety when you have bipolar disorder. Similar questions about your medication may arise when you pick up your medications at the pharmacy, when you share the names of the medications with your friends or family, or even when you see your primary care physician. When there are...

Baby Bottle Tooth Decay

This often happens when infants or toddlers fall asleep while sucking on a bottle. Breastfed infants are usually not at risk, unless they feed for extended periods. The carbohydrates in the drink (lactose in milk, or fructose in fruit drinks) mix with the normal bacteria in the mouth. This bacteria is found in the plaque on teeth and gums. When plaque mixes with carbohydrates, acids are formed that dissolve tooth enamel, causing tooth decay and dental caries. To prevent baby bottle tooth decay, a child should not be put in bed with a bottle and the bottle should be taken away as soon as mealtime is over. Further, only formula or water should be put in a bottle juices and sweet drinks should be offered in a cup. see also Infant Nutrition Oral Health.

Lifestyle Modification

One of the aims of therapy is also to make the patient aware of allostatic loads (i.e., chronic and often subtle life stresses that exert harmful consequences on the individual over a certain amount of time). Examples may be excessive work loads, lack of awareness of the longer time that increasing age requires for recovering from demanding days, inability to protect oneself from requests that exceed one's potential, and inappropriate sleeping habits. Such awareness (and the resulting lifestyle implementation) is pursued in all phases of psychotherapy, but particularly with WBT. Patients are given instructions in the diary as to this implementation. For instance, patients are encouraged to modify their work overcommitments, to refuse inappropriate requests from relatives and colleagues, and to dedicate more time to pleasurable activities.

Cardiac arrest studies

Some of the above observations carry within them an implicit belief in the complete efficacy of the EEG as a mirror of cerebral activity. It is possible that in the future, the EEG may be seen as a rather primitive measure and that more advanced methods may reveal considerable and complex activity during some periods currently described as 'flat line EEG'.9 In this context, it is of interest to note that the phenomenon known as 'night terrors' arises during four well-defined stages of sleep, known as non-REM (NREM) (Rechtschaffen and Kales 1968), when there is relatively little EEG activity, and not during REM sleep (Hobson et al. 2000 Solms 2000). One variety of night terrors involves semi-awaking with the belief that one is in a space with no coordinates and no time, or buried alive, which leads the person It is of interest to note that the mind, or the minds of some people, appears to be able to experience states which are described as similar to this, while the EEG is relatively...

Primary and Adjunctive Drugs

Drugs that are beneficial for component symptoms that are common in, but not diagnostic of, bipolar disorder, plus ones that may augment response to a primary or mood-stabilizing drug are better viewed as secondary, or adjunctive drugs. Examples include supplementation of antidepressant regimens with thyroid medications or other adjuncts such as pindolol or pramipexole. Others are medications that control anxious symptoms, and or improve sleep. These are principally benzodiazepines, or similar agents with GABAergic mechanisms. These are quite important, given the high comorbidity of anxious disorders with bipolar disorder, the high prevalence of anxious symptoms in manic states, and the frequency of sleep disturbance, especially in manic states. This last has probably contributed to early positive reports of antimanic effects of clonazepam and gabapentin 10,11 . More systematic tests of these drugs has failed to provide evidence of monotherapy effectiveness in mania 12, 13 . It is...

Special Situations Sleep

Disturbed sleep is a common, and pathophysiologically important component of bipolar disorder. Persons with bipolar disorder often escalate their interest, elation and energy levels in the evening hours, into the early hours of the next day. It is important to counsel patients regarding this diurnal phase disturbance, but medications are often needed. No systematic studies have been conducted regarding comparative benefits of various strategies. Benzodiazepines are most commonly employed. Benzodiazepines vary along dimensions of speed of onset and half-life. It is best to tailor the drug in a trial-and-error fashion to the patient's unique sleep problems. Some patients may have side effects from benzodiazepines, principally carryover sedation, or less frequently disinhibition of affect and action. In such instances, alternative medications can be used. Despite lack of direct testing for insomnia, gabapentin, at doses of 100 to 400 mg, is often helpful for sleep induction. Although...

The Impact Of Adolescent Pain On Quality Of Life

In the Roth-Isigkeit study, 54 of adolescents who reported pain also had problems with sleep and appetite, 49 had long-term absences from school and 47 were unable to meet friends (7). A separate outpatient survey showed that 72 suffered impairment in sports activities, 51 reported absence from school, 40 experienced limitations in social functioning, and 34 had problems with sleeping (77). Sleep disorders with frequent nocturnal arousals or daytime somnolence are common in children suffering juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (76) similar sleep disturbances are seen in adolescents with chronic pain. In the German cohort study, 41 of the young people reported sleep disturbances attributable to pain. This significantly increased with age. Restrictions at school, absenteeism, and problems with school activities are widely reported in this population.

Key Areas Affected by Persistent Pain in Adolescents

Fatigue in any pain condition can be overwhelming. Continual pain, sleeplessness, and reduced fitness all contribute to an associated chronic fatigue problem. Sleep disturbances among adolescents affect many areas of their lives, including school attendance and performance, emotional state, and relationships with family members and friends. Initially, constant pain is the main factor in an adolescent's poor sleep pattern. Positioning in the bed is difficult and, with no distractions, the pain intensity increases. Over time the young person also has reduced physical activity in the day and a marked lowering of mood. These two elements are key in further deterioration of the sleep routine. The time getting to sleep gets later and there are frequent episodes of wakefulness throughout the night. It is not uncommon for a young person to fall asleep at 3 a.m. and to wake each hour following this. Catnapping in the day compounds this problem.

Specific Pain Measures for Adolescents

I go to bed at 11 but don't fall asleep until 3. I keep waking up. I go to bed at 11 but don't fall asleep until 3. I keep waking up. Recently, however, the Bath Adolescent Pain Questionnaire has been developed (52). This is a validated multidimensional measure that evaluates the impact of pain on a young person's life. It includes anxiety, disability, mood depression, somatomization, and sleep disorder. From this measure it is possible to specifically direct rehabilitation and prospectively monitor progress.

Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy

Another approach to staying healthy is to decrease behaviors or experiences that may make symptoms more likely to occur. Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) focuses on reducing risk factors that could contribute to relapse. For example, there is strong evidence that sleep deprivation can trigger manic symptoms (Colombo et al. 1999). There is also good evidence that stress and interpersonal conflict can trigger depressive symptoms for a person with bipolar disorder (Johnson 2005a). In IPSRT, you learn strategies for reducing these risk factors. Research shows that when IPSRT is combined with medication, it is helpful for decreasing symptoms of depression and preventing future depressive episodes (Miklowitz et al. 2003 Frank et al. 2005). the body's daily processes, such as sleeping and waking. IPSRT includes strategies to help you recognize events that can disrupt your schedule, such as traveling to another time zone, doing shift work, or not having a regular daily routine....

My legs ache and Im constantly moving them

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is an uncomfortable, aching sensation that is relieved if you constantly move your legs. RLS occurs in the evening or at night when you're resting. The sensations are described as an irresistible urge to move as twitching, burning, stabbing, creeping and crawling, aching, heaviness, and tension felt deep in the calf muscles or even the bones. Occasionally, the sensation spreads to the feet or the thighs, but rarely to the arms or hands. The only relief is to get up and walk, which for someone with PD can be difficult. Insomnia often follows, leading to more problems with a lack of sleep, anxiety, or depression.

Is depression part ofPD

Approximately 50 of people with PD suffer from depression. In some, depression is the first symptom of PD. People with PD may suffer from an endogenous depression, a depression unrelated to any external event. Such depressions are part of the chemical imbalance underlying PD, and some studies have shown that the PD drug Mirapex can also act as an anti-depressant in some people with this kind of biochemical depression, even if they don't have PD. People with PD can also suffer from an exogenous depression, a depression related to external events such as job loss, retirement, or knowledge of a relative with advanced PD with fear of becoming as disabled as the relative. In some people, depression is associated with anxiety, and in some, the anxiety is so overwhelming that agitated depression is a result. Depression is sometimes associated with a sleep disorder an inability to fall asleep at night, prolonged sleeping during the day, or a combination of both. In some, depression is...

Monitoring The Future See High

MONOAMINE A monoamine is an amine that has one organic substituent attached to the nitrogen atom (as RNH2). SEROTONIN is such an amine, one that is functionally important in Neurotransmission. Chemically, monoamines include the catecholamines (derived from tyrosine) and the indoleamines serotonin and melatonin (derived from the amino acid tryptophan). Acetylcholine also has only a single (but trimethylated) amine, while histamine (a diamine formed from histidine) stretches the condition only slightly. Neurotransmitters in this class share several prop-erties nanomolar concentrations milligram protein neurons (nerve cells) that contain thin, generally unmyelinated axons to many brain regions and their receptors (except for the cholinergic nicotinic receptor and one of the ten or so subtypes of serotonin receptors) employ second-messenger coupled transduction. Monoamine neurotransmitters are often involved in the action of mind-altering drugs and have been well studied.

Self Guided Care Sleep

Given what I know about my sleep habits. I recommend to myself Never compete to get to sleep. If you find that you are having difficulty sleeping, do not try harder. Trying hard to get to sleep often has the opposite effect it wakes a person up with feelings of frustration and anger. Instead, try to enjoy being in bed and Give yourself time to umvind before sleep. Make sure the last hour of activity before bedtime is relatively passive. Do not pay bills, do not work out life problems, and do not plan your workday, save these activities for earlier in the day when you are fresher. Before sleep, choose activities that are pleasant and take very little effort (e.g., television, reading, talking). Go to bed only after you have had a chance to unwind and feel more like sleeping. Use a regular daytime cycle to help with nighttime sleep. Avoid taking naps during the day. Use regular exercise (at least three hours before bedtime) to help increase sleep and induce normal fatigue. Reduce...

What Is Successful Adaptation To Advanced Cancer

The extant literature on patients with metastatic cancer focuses almost exclusively on two indicators of psychological adjustment depression distress and QOL. Reports of the prevalence of emotional distress among individuals living with AC vary depending on the method of assessment and the nature of the sample.29 Several large studies and literature reviews estimate the prevalence of depression in AC to be approximately one-quarter to one-third of patients.29-35 Studies using self-report instruments generally report higher prevalence rates than those using structured psychiatric interviews to diagnose depression,29 and rates may be inflated if measures include somatic symptoms of depression (e.g., fatigue, insomnia).36 Estimates based on the perceptions of caregivers or physicians may also inflate the prevalence of distress, as one study based on palliative care social workers' assessments of patient functioning found that 63 of patients were anxious and 54 were depressed.28 In...

Conclusions and Future Directions

The preceding review indicates that self-help materials for insomnia are efficacious in helping individuals to reduce time to fall asleep, decrease the duration and frequency of awakenings, and increase sleep quality. The magnitude of change is not as large as in-person treatment for insomnia but posttreatment improvements are sustained at follow-up assessments. Furthermore, most sleep parameters show additional improvement over time. Self-help therapy for insomnia is also associated with clinically significant changes as reflected in two important areas of sleep functioning. First, many treated participants demonstrate sleep patterns in the normal range (Currie, Clark et al., 2004 Mimeault & Morin, 1999). Second, self-help treatment can help individuals to wean off sleep medication by providing alternative coping strategies (Currie, Clark et al., 2004 Oosterhuis & Klip, 1997). These findings suggest that self-help treatment for insomnia is a potentially cost-effective and easily...

Neurotransmitter Depletion and Depression

The two major neurotransmitters involved in preventing depression are serotonin (converted from the amino acid L- tryptophan) and norepinephrine (converted from the amino acids L- phenylalanine and L-tyrosine). You can resupply the vital neurotransmitter precursors and reverse depression by taking daily amino-acid supplements. Your symptoms will determine which amino acid you will take for depression L-tryptophan if your symptoms are sleeplessness, anxiety, or irritability L-tyrosine or L-phenylalanine if your symptoms are lethargy, fatigue, sleeping too much, or feelings of immobility.

Too many wakeup calls Youre constantly waking

Another problem many people have is that they fall asleep okay, but they keep waking up. Someone flushes the toilet, and they wake up. They hear a bird chirp, and the sound acts as an untimely wake-up call. It almost seems like a leaf could fall off a tree and wake them up. If you have this problem, you're clearly not getting enough deep sleep.

Mood Disorders Depression Anxiety Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Anxiety is a symptom that may include physical or psychological feelings of distress and worry, changes in heart rate, skin temperature, and myriad other features. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder that presents as excessive, uncontrollable, and often irrational worry about everyday problems for at least six consecutive months. This worry limits people's ability to work, go to school, and function in the community. People with GAD are more symptomatic than people with anxiety as a symptom. They may anticipate disasters, exhibit catastrophic thinking, have fatigue, fidgeting, headaches, muscle aches, trembling, sweating, and insomnia.

Analyzing Your Sleep A Self Test

On most nights, falling asleep takes me an hour or more. 2. After I fall asleep, I sleep at least seven or eight hours. If I wake up, I fall back to sleep again easily. Lisa was diagnosed with fibromyalgia about a year ago, and she says that on most nights, she just lies in bed and can't sleep. The hours pass from 11 p.m. to 2 a.m., but she feels almost more wide awake than she did at noon. She wonders what's wrong with her. Part of Lisa's problem may be that she's just trying too hard to fall asleep. Ironically, the harder she tries, the angrier and more frustrated she gets and the less likely she is to fall asleep. Ease up, Lisa She (and maybe you) needs to try some of the sleep remedies provided later in this chapter. If you answered true to question 3, you need to break this habit as soon as possible. One glass of beer or wine may be a good way to get to sleep for some people. But having more than one glass of beer or wine, as well as drinking any other forms of alcohol, is...

Adjusting Your Lifestyle to Cope with the Problem

Medications can help you fall asleep and sleep peacefully through the night (I discuss drugs in the next section, Slipping into Slumber Using Medications and Other Remedies ). But you can also make simple changes in your life that will often help carry you off into the wonderful world of sleep. The following are some good lifestyle options

Consuming soporific suppers

If you suffer from insomnia, avoid eating a fashionably late dinner stop eating at least three hours before bed. Also, be sure to take other basic steps that can facilitate sleep. For example, avoid all caffeine (coffee, tea, cola drinks, and chocolate) starting six to seven hours before bedtime, so your system won't be overstimulated when it's time to fall asleep. Consider eating foods that are known to be rich in natural tryptophan, a chemical that induces sleep. Turkey's packed with it. Milk also has this substance, although in lower quantities than turkey has. Eating a few pieces of turkey or a turkey sandwich, combined with a glass of milk, an hour before you want to go to sleep may relax you enough to help you nod off without (or with less) difficulty. Of course, be sure not to overeat, which can defeat your purpose because you may get a stomachache and find it even more difficult to fall asleep. And be sure not to rationalize to yourself that a slice of pizza or a dish of ice...

Historical Cultivation And Usage

Longan was cultivated as a native fruit and Chinese traditional medicine for more than 2000 years before spreading to India and other South Asian countries from the 18th century onwards. Currently, over 300 cultivars are known. The longan cultivated in Guangxi, Yunnan, Guangdong, Fujian, and Sichuan provinces is the same as the wild litchi found throughout China. Its fruit can be eaten fresh, or dried for preservation to be used in a tonic called Guiyuan. In traditional Chinese medicine, this fruit has been used for the treatment of anemia, heart palpitations, insomnia, forgetfulness, neurasthenia, and postpartum frail embolism, as well as for promoting beauty and longevity.

Who diagnosed you Did you see many different providers before getting a correct diagnosis

My older sister was diagnosed with FM many years ago, so at least I knew enough to eventually ask to be checked for it. Even so, I didn't get diagnosed right away. I saw a naturopath for years and was able to get some help but never completely resolved the problems. I complained to my primary-care doctor about my insomnia and pain levels, and she referred me to pain and sleep clinics without attempting to find out what might be the base cause of those problems. A nurse from the pain management class at the sleep clinic finally referred me to another doctor who diagnosed me with FM.

Duane C McBride Revised by Jonathan Caulkins

It is difficult to discuss the safe use of illegal drugs, because foes of those substances regard them as ''drugs of abuse'' that cannot possibly be consumed in nonabusive ways. This attitude is unhelpful. Whether a drug is used or abused has little to do with whether a drug is legal or illegal it depends, rather, on the relationship an individual forms with it. One can as easily find examples of abusive use of legal drugs (TOBACCO, ALCOHOL, and OVER-THE-COUNTER medications) as of safe use of illegal ones. Take for example, the majority of coffee drinkers in our society who are addicted to the CAFFEINE in coffee (meaning they will have a withdrawal reaction on sudden cessation of intake). Many of these people also experience adverse effects on health as a result of their coffee addiction (cardiac arrhythmias, stomach and intestinal problems, irritation of the urogenital tract, tremors, insomnia, mood swings, and more). Many users of MARIJUANA, however, consume that drug moderately and...

Taking Your Emotional Temperature

L Nearly every morning, I feel like crying or screaming. If you wake up sad, you may be depressed. If you feel so anxious that you want to scream, you may have an anxiety disorder. When you have fibromyalgia, the pain and insomnia may be making you down or anxious. Or you may have FMS symptoms and depression or anxiety. Talk to your doctor.

Treating Emotional Problems with Medication

Insomnia or sedation loss of sexual desire in men and abnormal orgasm in women 1 People with fibromyalgia often don't get enough restorative sleep. Anti-depressants or sleep remedies may help resolve this problem. (Read Chapter 14 on sleep problems and what to do about them.)

N Miscellaneous 1 D Medications

This chapter includes medications that are commonly used in psychiatric practice but that do not fall into the conventional categories of psychotherapeutic drugs. Many medications used in general medical practice have side effects such as sedation, stimulation, or anxiolysis. These side effects are often exploited in psychiatry to target specific symptoms (e.g., insomnia, anergia). Other drugs, such as psychostimulants, have precise indications for psychiatric usage. Many more medications than are discussed here are included in the psychiatric armamentarium.

Summary of Research and Conclusions

At least 41 in-vitro studies have been conducted on the cytotoxic effects of melatonin against cancer cells.190-194 These studies suggest that a number of cell lines, particularly breast cancer, are inhibited at peak physiological concentrations of melatonin (about 0.1 to 1 nM). Thirteen animal studies reported anticancer effects against a number of different can Twenty-eight human studies have been conducted on melatonin alone or in conjunction with interleukin-2.200-204 Seven were randomized controlled studies, and all reported that melatonin or melatonin plus IL-2 increased the survival of patients as compared to those given supportive care or IL-2 alone. In addition to the above, a number of reviews on the anticancer effects of melatonin have been published.205-209 Lastly, still other in-vitro, animal, and human studies have demonstrated that melatonin increased the effectiveness or decreased the adverse effects of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. These are discussed in Chapter 23.

Centralnervoussystem Effects

The actions of the ephedra alkaloids on the central nervous system depend on their ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Ephedrine, similar to amphetamine, readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, and produces a range of central nervous system effects from increased alertness and mood elevation to euphoria, insomnia, and even psychosis. Studies in humans and animals have shown that ( )-ephedrine is a more potent central nervous system stimulant than ( + )-pseudoephedrine (24,43). The anorexigenic effects of ephedrine and norephedrine are believed to be related to a1 activity in the satiety center of the hypothalamus. The mechanism of action of the other central nervous system effects is not entirely clear, but may be related to indirect release of brain norepinephrine and dopamine (44). Insomnia is a well-known side effect of ephedrine taken by patients with asthma. Chronic use and misuse of ephedrine to ''get high'' has also been associated with addictive behavior (45), and...

Sleep Dreaming And Drugs

Reference to the effects of drugs and Alcohol on sleep and dreaming are also found in popular literature. It was a mixture made from poppies that caused Dorothy and her companions to fall into deep sleep in the Wizard of Oz (Baum, 1956). After ingesting a series of pills and liquids, in Through the Looking Glass, Alice finds herself in ''Wonderland,'' where she has a conversation with an opium-smoking caterpillar who is sitting on a magic mushroom that alters the state of one who eats of it. After returning to the reality of her home in England, Alice realizes that she had, of course, fallen asleep and been dreaming (Carroll, 1951). Modern study of the effects of drugs and alcohol on sleep and dreams dates to the mid-1950s. With the use of electrophysiological machines, including electroencephalograms (EEGs), electrooculo-grams, and electromyograms, the state of sleep most closely associated with dreaming was discovered, studied, and named REM, for the rapid eye movements unique to...

Timothy A Roehrs Thomas Roth Revised by Ron Gasbarro

The prescription medications are much stronger. They include barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and a number of other compounds. However, due to the risk for fatal overdose, especially in combination with alcohol or other CNS depressants, the barbiturates are no longer widely prescribed for this indication. In general, the shorter-acting sleeping pills are used to help one relax enough to get to sleep, while the longer-acting ones are used to help prevent frequent awakenings during the night. Long-term or inappropriate use can cause Tolerance

Prevention of Adverse Effects

For all individuals initiating an exercise program, emphasis should be placed on the biological principle of stimulus followed by response. Hence, easy exercises must be performed regularly before more vigorous activities are conducted. Similarly, exercise participants need to rest and recover from previous activities prior to resuming or increasing training load. Also, as already noted, conditions of chronic soreness or acute pain and insomnia could be symptoms of over-training. Hence, activity progression should be discontinuous with adequate recovery periods to minimize chances of injury and permit physiological adaptations to occur. Those adaptations are elicited during exercise but occur during recovery. Thus, physical activity recommendations for healthful living, whether a minimum of 30 minutes for most days, as recommended in the Surgeon General's report (HHS, 1996), or 60 minutes a day, should not be construed as the starting point for an adult wishing to change from a...

Steep situation 4 How long is too long

How long does it take you to get to sleep If you lie restless in bed for more than 30 minutes or so, we recommend that you get up. What Get up when you want to sleep Getting up may sound counterproductive, but it's important for your brain to associate your bed with sleep. So if you lie in bed too long without actually sleeping, your brain will only get more mixed up. Furthermore, when you get up and do something boring such as pay bills, your brain will associate unpleasantness with getting up. Just don't do something stimulating. And if you do pay your bills in the middle of the night, please check your addition in the morning. HtVNG If you don't feel rested after six to eight hours of sleep, you may have a serious sleep problem known as sleep apnea. Sleep apnea involves a series of episodes in which your breathing stops while you sleep. You awaken momentarily to gasp for air, and then you fall back asleep, only to have your breathing cease yet again. Sleep apnea results in very...

Stages States and Cycles

Two sleep states have been identified rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep. REM sleep is a state of heightened arousal characterized by uneven breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure intense electrical brain activity loss of muscle tone and darting eye movements. NREM sleep is marked by reduced brain activity regular patterns of heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure and general body quiescence. Because infant sleep patterns do not approximate adult patterns until well into the first year, infant sleep states are described differently. Infants slip easily back and forth among several states of arousal that include three awake states (crying, waking activity, and quiet alertness), a transitional state (drowsiness), and two sleeping states (active and quiet sleep). Quiet sleep resembles NREM sleep in adults, but might include occasional startle movements or sucking. Active sleep, although similar to adult REM sleep, is characterized by much movement of the...

Anxiety And Psychological Stress States

A randomised study found that low-dose valerian (100 mg) reduced situational anxiety without causing sedation (Kohnen & Oswald 1988). Positive results were also obtained in a smaller open study of 24 patients suffering from stress-induced insomnia who found treatment (valerian 600 mg day for 6 weeks) significantly reduced symptoms of stress and insomnia (Wheatley 2001). Another randomised trial compared the effects of a preparation of valepotriates (mean daily dose 81.3 mg) with diazepam (mean daily dose 6.5 mg) and placebo in 36 outpatients with GAD under double-blind conditions (Andreatini et al 2002). After 4 weeks' treatment, all groups had significant reductions in Hamilton anxiety (HAM-A) scale scores however, only those receiving valepotriates or diazepam showed a significant reduction in the psychic factor of HAM-A.

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