Prevention Of Tropical Diseases

Personal protection is the first line of defense against these diseases. For travelers heading to the tropics, the national Centers for Disease Control and Prevention advises that the following guidelines be adhered to. At least six weeks before departure Get current health information from the CDC on regions to be visited (other sources may include local health departments, physicians, or travel agencies). Avoid rural areas when possible. When outdoors wear a hat, long-sleeved shirt tight at...

When To Call The Doctor

Call your doctor with these warning signs fever of 101 degrees F or above that stays up after fever medication has been given fever of 102 degrees F in children any fever that lasts more than three days difficulty breathing, very rapid breathing, shortness of breath, wheezing or stridor (rattling or crackling noises in the chest or high-pitched sounds when inhaling) blue or dusky color around mouth, nail beds, or skin extreme pain (ears, headache, throat, sinuses, teeth) white or yellow spots...

Impetigo staphylococcal

Most lesions occur on exposed areas, such as the face, scalp, and extremities. The red and itchy sores blister briefly, then begin to ooze for the next few days, leaving a sticky crust. Untreated, the infection will last from two to three weeks. It is most prevalent during hot, humid weather. Treatment Parents shouldn't let impetigo run its course but instead get treatment for children immediately to avoid spreading the infection to other children. Oral antibiotics that kill strep...

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy

Medical name for MAD COW DISEASE, an infectious illness of cows that may have emerged in the human population. BSE was first identified in Britain in 1986, and is one of a group of similar neurologically degenerative diseases that occur in several animal species. The dis-eas is thought to have been transmitted to a dozen people via contaminated meat and bone meal. Eleven human deaths from this disease in Great Britain were traced to exposure to beef that contained a piece of protein called a...

Dengue hemorrhagic fever shock syndrome

Dengue was called break-bone fever by 18th-century doctor Benjamin Rush during a Philadelphia epidemic in 1780, because of the severe bone pain others called it break-heart fever because of the depression that often follows the illness. Through September 1996, 140,000 cases of classic dengue have been reported in Latin America dozens have died from hemorrhagic dengue. During the mid-20th century, mosquito-eradication efforts almost wiped out dengue in much of the Americas. Population growth and...

Encephalitis Eastern equine

(disease passed from animals to humans) and carried by many different types of mosquitoes, which catch the virus from and give it to both squirrels and chipmunks in wooded areas. La Crosse encephalitis is carried by the Aedes triseriatus mosquito. The infected mosquitoes remain infected for life because the virus is not present in human blood, it is not possible to transmit the virus between humans. Most adults who live in areas where the mosquitoes live are immune because they have antibodies...

Encephalitis Japanese

Of EEE were reported in horses and only five humans contracted the disease. In addition to eastern equine encephalitis and western equine encephalomyelitis, there is a third type Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Eastern equine encephalitis is a severe form of equine encephalitis it lasts longer and causes more deaths and problems than either the western or Venezuelan versions. Venezuelan equine encephalitis occurs in Central and South America, Florida, and Texas. Cause Four different types of...

Fda Safe Antibiotic Ingredients For Topical Usage

The FDA has listed the following antibiotic active ingredients as safe and effective Chlortetracycline hydrochloride Oxytetracycline hydrochloride (only in combination products) polymyxin B sulfate (only in combination products) ria. North Carolina State University researchers have modified a small strand of DNA to interfere with a vital protein-making mechanism used by bacteria and yeasts. Scientists hope this altered molecule will be the forerunner of a new type of antibiotic drug. If they...

T

Tapeworm A parasitic intestinal worm that belongs to the class Cestoda. There are three major species of tapeworms, and all are acquired in humans by eating raw, undercooked, or smoked contaminated meat or fish. In most tapeworm infestations, the animal or fish has ingested eggs, which develop into larvae, invading the animal's muscles and organs. A human acquires the infection by eating the infected animal meat. Beef tapeworm (Taenia saginata) The beef tapeworm is commonly found in undercooked...

Haemophilus influenzae type b

Appear in less than 24 hours, with a sudden high fever (100 degrees F to 106 degrees F) chills, vomiting, stiff neck, intense headache in the front of the head, or a seizure. The neck hurts when the child tries to touch his chin to the chest. There may be muscle spasms and photophobia (eye pain from light). Some children exhibit unusual behavior as the infection begins, including aggressiveness, irritability, agitation, delirium, or screaming, followed by lethargy or coma. Some may experience a...

E

Ear infection The common name for otitis media, this is an infection involving the middle ear (that cavity between the eardrum and the inner ear). A middle-ear infection can produce pus or fluid and cause severe earache and hearing loss. While an ear infection is annoying, it is not terribly serious it is easily treated and there are not usually any long-term complications. Ear infections are most common in children because of their short eustachian tubes (the passage that connects the back of...

Warning Signs For Fever

Any child under age three months with a rectal temperature higher than 100.4 degrees F must see a health care practitioner as soon as possible. Call a doctor if older infants and children have a fever above 102 degrees F that lasts longer than three days, increases after two days, or if any of the following warning signs develop unusual irritability, screaming, tense or stiff arms or legs extreme drowsiness (child hard to wake) confusion, delirium, hallucinations breathing problems (wheezing,...

Scalded skin syndrome

Scalded skin syndrome See staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. scarlatina Another name for scarlet fever. scarlet fever An infectious bacterial childhood disease characterized by a skin rash, sore throat, and fever. It is less common and dangerous than it was years ago. No longer a reportable disease, experts don't know for sure how many cases occur today in the United States, although it is believed that the disease has been on the increase for the past several years. With the spread of...

Herpes simplex type 1 HSVt

Between herpes and cancer of the cervix new studies show that genital herpes probably has no role in cervical cancer. Treatment The antiviral drug acyclovir (Zovirax) became available in the 1980s to reduce the number and severity of attacks, but it is not a cure, since it does not kill the virus. Available in ointment, capsule, liquid, and IV forms, capsules are usually used to treat primary genital herpes or a severe recurrence, or to suppress frequent recurrences. Taking acyclovir at the...

Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis A

Type of food poisoning caused by eating fish or shellfish contaminated with the bacteria V. parahaemolyticus. Sporadic outbreaks of this type of gastroenteritis have occurred in the United States. It is also very common in Japan, where large outbreaks regularly occur. See also DIARRHEA AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE ANTIDIARRHEAL DRUGS TRAVELER'S DIARRHEA SHELLFISH POISONING, DIARRHEIC. Cause The disease occurs when the bacterium attaches itself to a person's small intestine and secretes an...

Streptococcus group B

Cause Invasive GAS disease occurs when the bacteria gets past the body's immune defenses. The germs are spread by direct contact with nose and throat discharge, or by touching infected skin lesions. The seriousness of the infection is greatest when the person is ill or has an infected wound. Health conditions that impair the immune system make infection with GAS more likely. In addition, there are some strains of GAS that are more likely to cause serious disease. Most of the people who come in...

Exanthem subitum See Roseola

Exogenous infection An infection that develops from bacteria normally found outside the body, which is not usually part of the normal human bacterial population. eye infections The most common infection of the eye is CONJUNCTIVITIS, also known as pinkeye. Most of these infections are caused by bacteria (such as staphylococci) or by viruses associated with a cold, sore throat, or illness such as MEASLES. Viral conjunctivitis is the version that often appears in schools, sweeping through...

Typhus epidemic louseborne 283

Typhus Any of a group of infectious diseases with similar symptoms, caused by rickettsiae (microorganisms similar to bacteria) that are spread by insects. (See also RICKETTSIAL INFECTIONS.) In the past, epidemic typhus was the most significant type of this disease, which was spread by body lice. Epidemics of this type of typhus swept across the country, killing hundreds of thousands of people during war, famine, and natural disaster. It is rare today, except in some areas of Africa and South...

Immunizations for kidney disease patients

Anyone undergoing hemodialysis or who has had a kidney transplant should receive the three-dose series of HEPATITIS B, an INFLUENZA vaccine each fall, and the PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINE. See also IMMUNIZATION VACCINE. immunizations for patients with impaired immune systems Anyone with an impaired immune system should receive an INFLUENZA vaccine each fall, and a one-time PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINE with a booster in six years. Those with HIV infection should also receive these two vaccines, plus the primary...

D

Dacryocystitis 70 Damminix 83,264 Dandy fever 70 dapsone 159,317-318 day care See child care centers and infectious disease disease 122-123 deer tick See ticks, and disease use of 71,83,149,165, 167,184 dehydration with C. perfringens infection 52 in cholera 47 with diarrhea 72 whooping cough and 300 delavirdine 4 dengue fever 5,41, 70-71, 191,234 dengue hemorrhagic fever shock syndrome (DHFS) 70,71 U.S. 106,331 Department of Health and with brucellosis 29 dengue fever and 71 in Gulf War...

Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome SSSS

A blistering skin rash in newborns that is caused by toxins on the skin released by staphylococcal bacteria. The disorder primarily affects infants between one to three months of age and occasionally older children and adults. First recognized as a distinct condition in the mid-1800s, this disease has been incorrectly called by many different names, including Ritter's disease, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and pemphigus neonatorum. The fatality rate is less than 4 percent. Epidemics have occurred...

Helicobacter Pylorii

Candida albicans The yeast that causes the infection called candidiasis (THRUSH), often found within the vagina or on other mucous membranes (such as the inside of the mouth). The infection is also known as moniliasis. Because it is so commonly found in the body, it is a problem only when it grows too abundant due to changes in the mucous membranes. It is also the cause of diaper rash, which has nothing to do with a baby's immune system but simply a result of the perfect yeast environment....

P

Pandemic A widespread epidemic occurring throughout the population of a country or the world. papillomavirus, human (HPV) A group of more than 70 viruses that cause warts, including genital warts (See warts, genital), plantar warts, and a host of other types that cause warts on the hands or feet. There is no cure for the HPV virus. paragonimiasis A disease caused by a lung fluke (parasitic flatworm) that is found throughout the Far East, West Africa, South Asia, Indonesia, New Guinea, Central...

W

Warts Generally harmless small, hard round raised bumps, with a rough surface that usually appear on hands and fingers around the knees or on the genitals. Common warts are the ones that appear on backs of hands, fingers, and knees, usually about a quarter inch in size. Sometimes a few of these bumps run together, but they usually appear separately. Tiny black specks in the wart are caused by tiny clots of blood. Common warts usually appear in places that are often injured, such as the face,...

Aids

AIDS & HIV Resource Center Forums, newsletters, message boards, Internet sites, online support AMERICA ONLINE keyword aids The Body-A Multimedia AIDS and HIV Information Resource Articles, discussions, medical and legal advice, new treatments http www. thebody.com Center for AIDS Prevention Studies Fact sheets, forums, articles, programs, bibliography CDC National AIDS Clearinghouse Transcripts, Quicktime videos, searchable database European Information Center for HIV and AIDS Stats, charts,...

C

Calabar swellings 100,164 California encephalitis See encephalitis, California lomatis 117 camp fever See typhus Campylobacter 30,47,72,103 campylobacteriosis 30-31, 104 See also Helicobacter pylori Canadian Public Health Association 332 cancer See also breast cancer aflatoxins and 189-190 in animals, retroviruses and 26 cervical 296-297 human papillomavirus (HPV) and 60 Epstein-Barr virus and 92 pylori and 126 in HIV-infected (AIDS) hepatitis B and 130 hepatitis C and 132 Candida See...

N

Nanophyetiasis The name for a human disease caused by infection with parasitic flat-worms (flukes) it is also called fish flu. Not a great deal is known about this disease. There have been no reported massive outbreaks of the disease in North America the only scientific reports are of 20 individuals referred to in one Oregon clinic. However, a report in the popular press suggests the frequency is much higher. The disease is endemic in Russia, where the infection rate is reported to be more than...

Food Safety At Picnics

Use an insulated cooler with an ice or frozen gel-pack on top, with foods that need to be kept coldest on the bottom Pack food right from the refrigerator Wrap food separately in plastic, and don't place directly on ice that's not drinking-water quality. Separate raw fish, meat, or poultry so drippings don't contaminate other food Keep cooler in the shade, not the trunk keep the lid on Keep utensils and food covered when not in use Keep hot foods hot in an insulated dish or vacuum bottle Take...

Child care centers and infectious disease

Since young children are often vulnerable targets for infectious disease due to their immature immune systems, it stands to reason that grouping many infants and preschoolers together in day care centers should contribute to the spread of infectious disease. The problem is exacerbated by the fact that young children are not particularly concerned with good hygiene and that many day care centers include care for children who are not yet toilet trained. Still, day care centers don't have to be...

Tick Testingidentification

Any tick can be accurately identified and tested for the presence of the bacteria that cause Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) at the Tick Research Lab. Tick identification takes only a few minutes. Testing ticks for the presence of Lyme disease spirochetes can also be done with any tick, alive or dead, at any stage of development. Approximate cost for identification and evaluation of the tick is 45. Tick identification alone costs about 15. For more information write Tick Research Lab,...

Encephalitis St Louis

The same as for other ENCEPHALITIS, with the addition of extreme lethargy and drowsiness. During the major epidemics, about 40 percent of the victims died. Many of those who survived later developed a movement disorder known as post-encephalitic parkinsonism, characterized by tremors, rigidity, immobility, and disturbed eye movements. A few survivors of the last epidemic were still alive in the 1970s when a new antipar-kinsonism drug (levodopa) remarkably improved their condition....

Encephalitis lethargica

Asia are known to have occurred between 1981 and 1992, eight of whom were military personnel or their families. Cause The disease is transmitted by the Culex mosquitoes, usually during the summer and fall as the mosquito season occurs. The mosquitoes breed in ground pools and flooded rice fields and become infected after biting infected domestic pigs and wading birds who are raised near the rice paddies. However, in areas infested with mosquitoes, only a small portion of the insects are...

H

Haemophilus A genus of gram-negative bacteria often found in the respiratory tract of humans and animals. The genus includes H. influenzae, which causes respiratory tract infections and one form of MENINGITIS H. haemolyticus affecting upper respiratory tracts and H. ducreyi, which causes CHANCROID. The Haemophilus genus can usually be treated with cephalosporins, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, quinalones, and monobactanes as well as penicillinase-resistant penicillins. Haemophilus B See...

Vaccine Injury Compensation Program A

Special program, passed by Congress in 1986, that provides compensation for children who have adverse results after receiving vaccines. All claims are reviewed by medical staff, and awards are decided by a group of attorneys of the U.S. claims court. The program is paid for by a surtax on all vaccines, and it applies to DPT, MMR, OPV, and Td, vaccines. To report an adverse event after a vaccine, call the doctor where your child received the shot to report any reactions. Give complete...

Fda Lists Safe Active Ingredients In Antiseptics

ethyl alcohol (48 to 95 percent) ing it with soap and water. If an injury is extensive, it should be taken care of by a doctor. Antiseptics should not be used for cuts that are deep, that keep bleeding, or that require stitches. Antiseptics should not be used for scrapes with imbedded particles that can't be flushed away, large wounds, or serious burns. Over-the-counter antiseptics should not be used for more than one week on an injury if it persists or gets worse, consumers should seek...

Chronic fatigue syndrome

In the 1860s, it was called neurasthenia, and considered to be a neurosis characterized by weakness and fatigue. In the 1960s it was called Icelander's disease. Since then, physicians have blamed the symptoms variously on iron-poor blood (anemia), low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), allergies, or a body-wide yeast infection (CANDIDIASIS). In the mid-1980s, the disease was believed to be caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, after scientists found signs of the EBV antibodies in affected patients. Since...

Legionella Pneumophila Cruises Burning Mouth Syndrome

La Crosse encephalitis See encephalitis. lassa fever A recently discovered viral infection found in the tropical regions of the world, especially West Africa epidemics have been recognized in Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and Zaire. The disease is a major public health concern because it is highly contagious and can cause a severe or fatal illness. The rapid spread of the infection has been clearly identified in the case of hospital outbreaks. Due to the highly contagious nature of this illness and...

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The federal organization charged with the responsibility of preventing and controlling infectious diseases for nearly 50 years. Established as the Communicable Disease Center in 1946 in Atlanta, Georgia, the CDC has led efforts to prevent MALARIA, polio, SMALLPOX, TOXIC SHOCK SYNDROME, LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE, LYME DISEASE, hospital infections, and more recently, HIV AIDS. The center's responsibilities have expanded over the years and continue to evolve as the agency addresses other threats to...

Info

Patients 288 for veterinarians or small animal handlers immunoglobulin 143 immunologic disease 192 immunosuppression 308d cytomegalovirus infection and 68-69 fungal infection and 109 tuberculosis and 277 impetigo 150,161,252,255 bullous 143 common 143-144 staphylococcal See impetigo, bullous streptococcal See impetigo, bullous incubation period 144-145, 308d indinavir (Crixivan) 4 infant botulism See botulism infection 308rf infection control 144 See also hand washing in day care centers 41-42...

Toxic shock syndrome 267

Illness can cause a temporary deafness or an abscess on the tonsil. If symptoms last for longer than 24 hours or if pus is seen on the tonsils, a physician should be consulted. Treatment Tonsillitis can be treated with systemic antibiotics. While a tonsillectomy is still sometimes performed for recurrent cases, this surgical procedure is done much less often today than it was in earlier decades. tonsils The tonsils a mass of oval lymphoid tissue on either side of the back of the mouth are one...

S

Salmonella bacteria The bacteria that cause a type of food poisoning known as salmonellosis. Included in this type are Salmonella enteritidis, S. cubana, S. aertrycke, and S. choler-aesuis. These bacteria are known for multiplying rapidly at room temperature and are often found in raw meat, poultry, eggs, fish, raw milk, and foods made from them and in pet turtles. Proper handling and cooking of contaminated food will kill the Salmonella bacteria. The most dangerous members of the Salmonella...

A

Abortion, spontaneous brucellosis and 29 parvovirus infection and 100 psittacosis and 44 abscess l,307d amebic 6 brain 25-26,78 mastoiditis and 173 breast 173 cryptococcal 65 infilariasis 101 lung, in echinococcosis 80 stye as 251,257 on tonsil 267 in Whitmore's disease 299 acetaminophen (Datril, Temora, Tylenol, Volatile) 313 therapy with 12,34,79, 120-121,196,240,254 Acinetobacter 1 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) 1-5 AIDS dementia in 221-222 associated problems 60,91,144,192,...

Lyme Bartonella Babesia Nodule Eyelid

Babesiosis (babesiasis) A rare, occasionally fatal, disease caused by a tick-borne microorganism similar to both LYME DISEASE and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE). Also known as Nantucket Fever, it is most often seen in the elderly and those with impaired immune systems. Severe cases have been diagnosed in those who have had their spleen removed prior to exposure. Most cases of babesiosis have been reported in summer and fall in the northeastern United States, especially Nantucket, Shelter...

Strep throat streptococcal pharyngitis A

Bacterial throat infection caused by group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, a circular bacterium also known as Streptococcus pyogenes. Only group-A strep causes the infection known as strep throat most kinds of sore throats are not strep. Strep throat occurs all over the world, usually affecting school-age children in winter and spring in the temperate zones of North America. Some people seem to have a tendency toward multiple strep throat infections, while others rarely come down with the...

Ornithosis Herbal Plant Treatment

Obsessive-compulsive disorder, infections and 222 ofloxacin (Floxin) 9,278, 322 onchocerciasis 195 onychomycosis 265 o'nyong-nyong 195 oocysts 66 opportunistic infections 196,294 See also aspergillosis Pneumocystis carinii toxoplasmosis Orabase 32 oral polio vaccine See poliomyelitis orbital cellulitis See cellulitis organ transplantation, cytomegalovirus infection and 68-69 ornithosis 44,196 See also cryptococcosis psittacosis orofloxacin 246 Oroya fever 20 orthomyxoviruses 293 osteomyelitis...

Candida lusitaniae infection

Chicken or when the organisms are transferred from the raw meat or raw meat drippings to the mouth. The bacteria are common among healthy chickens on chicken farms, where they may spread undetected among the flocks (perhaps through drinking water supplies). When the birds are slaughtered, the bacteria are transferred from the intestines to the meat. Other forms of Campylobacter are harder to diagnose and appear to be much more rare than C. jejuni it is not yet clear what the source of those...

Listeria monocytogenes

Combs and brushes should be plunged into very hot water to kill any attached eggs. The National Pediculosis Association discourages the use of lindane products (such as Kwell), because they appear to be potentially more toxic and no more effective than other treatments. Still, no product kills 100 percent of nits. Lice medications are not intended to be used on a routine or preventive basis. All lice-killing medications are pesticides, and therefore should be used with...

Staphylococcal infections 251

A number of recent cases have occurred among nursery workers (especially those who handle sphagnum moss topiaries). The fungus enters the skin through a small cut or puncture from thorns, barbs, pine needles, or wires it can't be spread from one person to another. Symptoms There are several forms of the disorder most patients develop an acute skin condition beginning with a small, painless bump that looks something like an insect bite. It may be red, purple,...

Streptobacillus moniliformis

Also widely used, and can give results within three minutes. Treatment A positive strep test requires antibiotic treatment to prevent complications. Antibiotics (penicillin) given seven to nine days after the illness starts will prevent RHEUMATIC FEVER. Benzathine penicillin G is usually injected, since this type of penicillin stays in the body for 10 days. Oral penicillin V must be taken four times a day for 10 days some studies suggest that oral penicillin may lead to more relapses. Those who...

Shellfish poisoning 243

Reported among women, while gonorrhea and AIDS were reported more often by men. Throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, most STD patients could expect to be cured with antibiotics. But about the same time, doctors began to realize that new infections such as the chronic disease herpes and the occasionally fatal illness hepatitis B could not be cured by drugs. With the spread of AIDS in 1982, doctors realized that STDs were again a serious risk to life, and now consider promiscuous sex to be a...

Sweating sickness English

(including sulfamethoxazole and sulfa-phenazole) are quickly absorbed from the stomach and small intestine and should be taken at regular intervals. Others are long-acting (such as sulfadoxine, used to treat leprosy and malaria) and only need to be taken once a day. Side effects Side effects may include anemia or jaundice, especially if taken for longer than 10 days. More severe side effects include blood disorders, skin rashes, and fever. These drugs are not given during the last trimester of...

Bibliography

Risk of Human Parvovirus B19 Infections, The Journal of Infectious Diseases 168(1993) 361-68. Adler, Tina. Mauling mosquitoes naturally new ways to silence the buzz, Science News 149(April 27,1996) 270-71. Akue, J. P., T. G. Egwant, E. Devaney. High levels of parasite-specific IgG4 in the absence of microfilaremia in Loa loa infection, Tropical Medical Parasitology 45(1994) 246-48. Almond, J. W., et al. Will bovine spongiform encephalopathy transmit to humans British Medical...

Correct Cooking Methods For Safe Pork Products

Cook all pork until internal temperatures reach 171 degrees F or until the meat changes from pink to gray. Don't feed raw garbage to swine don't allow swine access to human feces. Freezing pork kills pork tapeworm and roundworm keep at 5 degrees F for 30 days to kill roundworm cysts for four days to kill tapeworm cysts. Don't eat raw or undercooked pork. On rare occasions (1 in every 5.5 million doses), paralytic polio may develop in a close contact of a person recently immunized with oral...

American Lyme Disease Foundation Inc A

National nonprofit organization created to advance research, treatment, prevention, and public awareness of Lyme Disease throughout the United States. Public and professional education are a major focus of the foundation. The group offers a toll-free information number and an established national physician referral system. In addition, members produce educational videos for both the elementary and junior high school levels. For more information, contact the American Lyme Disease Foundation,...

Symptoms Of Food Poisoning

Abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea one week after poisoning Diarrhea, nausea vomiting appearing 1-6 hours after eating Slurred speech, double vision, muscle paralysis 4-36 hours after meal Cramps, fever, diarrhea, nausea vomiting appearing 1-5 days after eating and lasting up to 10 days Explosive watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, dehydration symptoms begin suddenly 1-5 days after infection Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea within 6-12 hours after eating fish, followed by low...

Genitourinary tract infection See urinary tract infection

Germ The popular term for any microorganism that causes disease. Either a virus or a bacterium is an example of a germ. German measles The common name for rubella, this is a viral infection that is not very similar to measles, although it also causes a rash on the face, trunk, and limbs. Rubella, which causes a mild illness in children and a slightly more problematic one in adults, is really serious only when contracted by pregnant women in the early months of gestation. During this time, there...

Drugs Used to Treat Infectious Diseases

Acetaminophen (Trade names Tylenol, Datril, Temora, Volatile) Over-the-counter painkiller and fever reducer used in many nonprescription pain relievers. Often prescribed for mild to moderate pain or fever, it cannot treat inflammation. It is given by mouth and may cause stomach upsets. Side Effects Allergic reactions. Overdose can cause fatal liver problems. acyclovir (Trade name Zovirax) An antiviral drug prescribed for the treatment of herpes simplex, shingles, and chicken pox that is...

Infectious parotitis See mumps

Influenza (flu) A contagious respiratory infection that often occurs in epidemics. The disease is most dangerous not in itself, but because it can lead to PNEUMONIA, especially among older people and those with impaired immune systems. When complicated by pneumonia, the flu is the sixth most common cause of death in the United States, killing 20,000 Americans. Influenza occurs most often in the winter months. Although illnesses like the flu may occur in summer, these are usually caused by other...

Francisella Tularensis

Pasteurellosis A bacterial disease transmitted by cats or dogs, who harbor the bacteria PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA in the mouths and throats. About 90 percent of cats, and about half of all dogs, are colonized. Cause The disease is usually transmitted by the bite or scratch of an infected cat dog bites are much less likely to cause an infection. About half of the people who are bitten by cats develop the infection. It's also possible (although very unlikely) to pick up this infection simply by...

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

Korean hemorrhagic fever, a problem during the Korean War. Named for the Hantaan River in South Korea, the virus infected 2,500 U.S. troops and killed between 5 and 10 percent of its victims. The related Seoul virus infects domestic rats, and causes a similar (but less deadly) type of fever. Because it is carried by rats, it is more common. Puumala virus affects the bank vole and is found most often in Scandinavia and western Europe. Deer mice carry the United States strains. hantavirus...

Condylomata acuminata

Stances such as contaminated glasses, toys, or water. It may also be transmitted via fleas, flies, mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects. Control of a communicable disease rests on properly identifying the organism that transmits it, preventing its spread to the environment, protecting others, and treating the infected patients. By law, many communicable diseases must be reported to the local health department. Communicable diseases include those caused by bacteria, such as chlamydia, fungi,...

M

Mad cow disease The common name for BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY BSE , a fatal infectious disease of the brain and spinal cord in cows, causing microscopic holes in brain tissue. Scientists believe there is a link between mad cow disease and a similar fatal brain disease in humans known as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mad cow disease, which was identified in British cows in 1986, gets its nickname from the fact that it causes infected animals to be clumsy and nervous. It is one of a group of...

Shellfish poisoning paralytic 245

Associated in particular with eating mussels, oysters, and scallops. Symptoms Symptoms appear between a few minutes to three hours after ingestion, and include gastrointestinal problems accompanied by muscular weakness, chills, headache, and fever. Recovery is rapid and death is rare. Diagnosis Diagnosis is based on observing symptoms and recent dietary history. Treatment There is no antidote for this type of shellfish poison, but most people recover on their own. shellfish poisoning,...