Standardized Extracts of Indian Herbs used in India

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Botanical name/ Part used

Common use/Activity

Form, Chemical marker(s)

Abies webbiana leaf

Expectorant

Powder/Paste, Alkaloids >0.5%

Abroma augusta root

Emmenagogue

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 0.15%, Tannins 2.4%-4%

Abrus precatorius seed

Abortifacient

Powder: Glycosides 15%, Alkaloids 1%

Abutilon indicum seed

Diuretic, Nervine tonic

Powder: Mucilage 10%

Acacia arabica bark

Astringent

Powder: Tannins 40%

Acacia catechu gum

Astringent

Powder: Tannins 60%, Catechins 20%

Acacia concinna pods

Detergent

Powder/Paste: Saponins 10%-20%

Achillea millefolium seeds

Stimulant, Antispasmodic

Powder: Bitters 3%

Achyranthes aspera plant

Alterative, Diuretic

Powder/Paste: Saponins 3%

Aconitum heterophyllum plant

Antiperiodic, Antiemetic

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 1%-1.5%

Aconitum sp. root

Antipyretic

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 2%

Acorus calamus rhizome

Antispasmodic

Powder/Paste: Vol. Oil 1%

Adhatoda vasica leaf

Expectorant, Bronchodilatory

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 0.5%-2.5%

Aegle marmelos leaf

Anti-diabetic

Powder: Tannins 7.5%

Aegle marmelos unripe fruit

Haemostatic, Anti-dysenteric

Powder/Paste: Tannins 5%, Mucilage 10%-15%

Albizia lebbeck bark

Anti-inflammatory

Powder/Paste: Tannins 15%

Allium cepa bulbs

Hypolipidemic, Hypocholesterolemic

Powder/Paste: Quercetin 5%

Allium sativum bulbs

Hypocholesterolemic Antirheumatic

Powder/Paste: Alliin 1.5%-2.5% by HPLC

Aloe vera leaf

Purgative

Powder/Paste/Gel/Gum: Aloin 1.5% (3:1), Polysaccharides 50% (200:1)

Alpinia galanga rhizome

In bronchial catarrh

Powder/Paste: Shagaol >4% by HPLC

Alstonia scholaris bark

Alterative, Astringent

Powder: Alkaloids 0.3%

Botanical name/ Part used

Common use/Activity

Form, Chemical marker(s)

Anacyclus pyrethrum flowers

Stimulant, Sialogogue

Powder: Alkaloids 0.5%

Andrographis paniculata plant

Hepatoprotectant, Antiviral

Powder/Paste: Andrographolides >10%

Anethum sowa seed

Carminative

Powder/Paste: Vol.Oil 3%

Aphanamixis rohituka bark

Astringent

Powder: Tannins 10%

Apium graveolens seed

Carminative

Powder/Paste: Vol. Oil 5%

Argyreia speciosa root

Alterative, Nervine tonic

Powder: Resin 4.5%

Asparagus adscendens root

Nervine Tonic, Galactogogue

Powder: Saponins >10%

Asparagus racemosus root

Galactogogue

Powder/Paste: Saponins >15%

Asteracantha longifolia herb

Antirheumatic

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 0.35%

Atropa belladonna leaf

Antispasmodic, Sedative

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 0.95%-1.6%

Atropa belladonna root

Antispasmodic, Sedative

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 3%

Azadirachta indica bark

Astringent

Powder: Bitters 1%

Azadirachta indica leaf

Blood purifier

Powder/Paste: Bitters 2.5%

Bacopa monnieri herb

Brain Tonic

Powder/Paste: Bacosides 15%-50%, Alkaloids 5%

Barleria prionitis herb

Lymphadenitis, Toothache

Powder: Tannins 5%, Alkaloids 0.5%

Bauhinia variegata bark

Alterative, antileprotic

Powder, Tannins 25%

Berberis aristata root

Emmenagogue, Cholagogue

Powder/Paste: Berberine >8%

Bergenia ligulata root

Antiurolithiatic

Powder/Paste: Tannins 10%

Boerhavia diffusa root

Diuretic, Hepatoprotective

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 0.01%-0.08%

Boswellia serrata gum

Antiarthritic

Powder/Paste: Boswellic acids >50%

Butea frondosa flowers

Astringent

Powder/Paste: Glycosides >8%

Caesalpinia bonducella nut

Antipyretic

Powder/Paste: Bonducin 2.5%

Calotropis gigantea root

Emetic, Antiperiodic

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 0.3%

Botanical name/ Part used

Common use/Activity

Form, Chemical marker(s)

Camellia sinensis

Antioxidant

Powder/Paste: Polyphenols >45% by HPLC

Capparis spinosa root

Analgesic, Antirheumatic

Powder: Glycosides 15%

Capsicum sp. fruit

Antirheumatic

Powder/Paste: Capsaicin >3%

Cassia angustifolia leaf

Laxative

Powder: Sennosides 15%

Cassia angustifolia pods

Laxative

Paste: Sennosides 2.5%

Cassia fistula fruit

Oxymethyl-anthraquinones >1%

Cassia occidentalis fruit

Oxymethyl-anthraquinones 1.2%

Cedrus deodara wood

Antirheumatic

Powder/Paste: Vol. Oil 1%

Celastrus paniculatus seed

Antirheumatic, Tranquilizer

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 0.1%

Centella asiatica

Leprostatic, Memory tonic, Sedative

Powder/Paste: Asiaticosides >10%,

Asiatic acid 2%

Cephaelis ipecacuanha root

Emetic

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 1%

Cephalandra indica leaf

Antidiabetic

Powder: Resin 2.5%

Cicer arietinum seeds

Nutritive

Powder: Protein 15%

Cichorium intybus seeds

Liver and spleen tonic

Powder/Paste: Bitters >1%

Cinchona ledgeriana bark

Antimalarial

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 4%

Cissus quadrangularis stem

Bone healing

Powder: Ketosterones >5%

Citrullus colocynthis fruit

Purgative

Powder: Bitters 4.5%

Citrullus colocynthis root

Purgative, Antirheumatic

Powder, Bitters 5%

Citrus aurantium peel

Antioxidant

Powder/Paste: Flavones >4%, Vol. Oil 1%

Citrus medica peel

Antiscurvy

Powder: Acidity as citric acid 2%, Flavones 5%

Colchicum luteum corms

In uric acid diathesis

Powder: Alkaloids >0.5%

Coleus forskohlii root

cAMP stimulator, Hypotensive

Powder: Forskolin >2.5%, 10% & 20% by HPLC

Commiphora mukul gum

Antarthritic, Antilipemic, Anticholesterolemic

Powder/paste: Guggul sterones 2.5% to 10% by HPLC

Botanical name/ Part used

Common use/Activity

Form, Chemical marker(s)

Commiphora myrrha gum

Mouthwash, Astringent

Powder: Vol. Oil 5%

Coriandrum sativum seeds

Carminative

Powder/Paste: Vol. Oil 1%

Crataeva nurvala bark

Lithotriptic

Powder: Saponin >2.5%

Cucumis sativus seeds

Diuretic

Powder: Mucilage 24%

Cuminum cyminum fruit

Carminative, Stimulant

Powder/Paste: Vol. Oil 1%

Curcuma amada rhizome

Carminative, Hypolipidaemic

Powder/Paste: Vol.Oil 10%

Curcuma longa rhizome

Anti-inflammatory, Stomachic

Powder/Paste: Voil. Oil >10%, Curcumin >10%

Curculigo orchioides root

Uresis, Skin diseases

Powder: Saponins 20%, Mucilage 30%

Cynodon dactylon herb

Astringent

Powder: Tannins 5% Alkaloids +ive

Cyperus scariosus root

Intestinal antiseptic, Anti-inflammatory

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 0.15%-0.5%

DGL Deglycyrrhizinated Liquorice

Antiulcer, Antacid

Powder: Flavones 1%, Glycyrrhizin<3%

Dashmool (The Ten Roots)

Antirheumatic

Powder/Paste: Tannis 2%

Datura stramonium leaf

Antispasmodic, Expectorant

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 0.5%-0.7%

Daucus carota seed

Abortifacient

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 0.4%, Flavones 5%

Dolichos biflorus seeds

Diuretic

Powder: Saponins 20%

Eclipta alba plant

Antihepatotoxic

Powder/Paste: Nor-wedelolactone >3%

Embelia ribes seed

Anthelmintic

Powder/Paste: Tannins 1%, Embelin 1%

Emblica officinalis fruit

Antioxidant, Source of Vitamin C, Antacid, Astringent

Powder/Paste: Tannins >20%, Ellagic acid >5%

Enicostemma littorale herb

Bitter tonic, Laxative

Powder/Paste: Bitters 4%

Ephedra vulgaris herb

Stimulant

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 0.2%-0.5%

Eugenia jambolana seed

Antidiabetic

Powder: Saponins 4%, Alkaloids 0.4%

Botanical name/ Part used

Common use/Activity Form, Chemical marker(s)

Euphorbia hirta herb Evolvulus alsinoides plant Ferula foetida resin Ficus racemosa leaf Ficus racemosa bark Foeniculum vulgare fruit Fumaria Officinalis herb Garcinia cambogia rind

Glycyrrhzia glabra root

Gossypium herbaceum root

Gymnema slyvestre leaf

Hemidesmus indicus root

Holarrhena antidysenterica seed

Holarrhena antidysenterica bark

Hydrastis Indian root

Antispasmodic Memory tonic Carminative, Stimulant Astringent Astringent

Carminative, Spasmolytic Diaphoretic In obesity

Expectorant, Anti-inflammatory

Emmenagogue, Galactagogue

Antidiabetic

Alterative, antiseptic Antidysenteric

Antidysenteric, Anthelmintic

Emmenagogue

Hyoscyamus niger herb Antispasmodic, Sedative

Hypericum perforatum herb

Indigofera tinctoria plant Inula racemosa root

Juglans regia bark Lawsonia alba leaf

Leptadenia reticulata herb

Lobelia nicotianaefolia leaf Mangifera indica bark

Antidepressant

Antiseptic, Astringent

Antirheumatic, In chronic bronchitis

Astringent, Antiseptic

Antimicrobial, Anti-inflammatory

Spermatogenic, Galactagogue

Antispasmodic

Astringent

Powder/Paste: Flavones >6%

Powder/Paste: Bitters >2.5%

Powder: Vol.Oil 1.5%

Powder: Tannins 5%

Powder: Tannins 10%

Powder/Paste: Bitters >1%

Powder/Liquid: HCA 50% by HPLC

Powder/Paste: Glycyrrhizin by Garratt method >15%/24%

Powder: Alkaloids 0.4%, Flavones 1.5%

Powder: Gymnemic acids 25%-75%

Powder/Paste: Saponins 7.5% Powder: Alkaloids 3%

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids >4%

Powder/Paste: Hydrastin 1%

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 0.28%-0.3%

Powder: Hypericin 0.3%

Powder: Saponins 10%

Powder/Paste: Alantolactone 2.5% by HPLC

Powder: Tannins 12%

Powder/Paste: Tannins >5%

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 0.5%

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 0.5% Powder: Tannins 20%

Botanical name/ Part used

Common use/Activity

Form, Chemical marker(s)

Matricaria chamomilla flower

Antiseptic

Paste: Vol. Oil 1%

Mentha spicata

Carminative, Stimulant, Spasmolytic

Powder/Paste: Flavones >2%

Mesua ferreafruit & flower bud

Astringent, Styptic

Powder/Paste: Bitters >2.5%

Mimusops elegni bark

Astringent

Powder: Tannins 10%

Momordica charantia fruit

Antidiabetic

Powder: Bitters >2.5%

Morinda citrifolia fruit

Stimulant

Powder/Liquid: Morindin 15%, Scopoletin 0.17%

Moringa oleifera bark

Emmenagogue

Powder: Glycosides >5%

Moringa oleifera leaf

Anti-inflammatory

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 0.1%

Mucuna pruriens seeds

Antiparkinsonian, Aphrodisiac

Powder: L-Dopa by IP method >15%

Myrica nagi bark

Astringent, Carminative

Powder: Tannins 5%

Myristica fragrans fruit

Hypocholesterolemic, Carminative

Powder/Paste: Vol. Oil 4%

Nardostachys jatamansi root

Sedative

Powder/Paste: Vol. Oil 0.1%-0.5%

Nelumbo nucifera seed

Stimulant

Powder: Saponins 30%

Nigella sativa seed

Anthelmintic, Carminative

Powder/Paste: Bitters 3%, Saponins 15%

Nyctanthes arbortristis leaf

Antirheumatic, Anthelmintic

Powder, Alkaloids 0.15%

Ocimum basilicum leaf

Carminative, Vermifuge

Powder/Paste: Tannins 5% Vol. Oil 1.5%

Ocimum sanctum herb/leaf

Immunomodulator, Expectorant

Powder/Paste: Tannins >7%, Ursolic acid >2%

Oldenlandia corymbosa plant

Heptoprotective, Febrifuge

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 0.35%

Onosma echioides root

Anticutaneous

Powder/Paste: Alkamine 1%

Operculina turpethum root

Purgative

Powder: Resin >10%

Opuntia dillenii herb

Antispasmodic

Powder: Tannins 10%

Orchis mascula tubers

Nervine tonic

Powder: Saponins 4%, Mucilage 20%

Botanical name/ Part used

Common use/Activity

Form, Chemical marker(s)

Phyllanthus niruri herb

Antihepatotoxic, Antiviral

Powder/Paste: Bitters 1.4%-2%

Picrorhiza kurroa root

Antihepatotoxic, Bitter tonic

Powder/Paste: Kutkin 4%-6%, Bitters >6%

Piper cubeba fruit

Carminative, Expectorant

Paste, Vol. Oil 8%, Piperine 10%

Piper longum fruit

Carminative, Bioavailability enhancer

Powder/Paste Vol. Oil 10%, Piperine 5%

Piper nigrum fruit

Carminative, Bioavailability enhancer

Vol. Oil 7%, Piperine >10%

Pistacia integerrima galls

In bronchitis

Powder/Paste: Tannins 20%

Plumbago indica root

Anticutaneous

Powder: Alkaloids 0.08-0.15%

Podophyllum emodi rhizome

Purgative

Powder: Resin >20%

Polygala chinensis root

Anticatarrhl

Powder/Paste: Saponins 5%

Pongamia glabra seed

Anticutaneous

Powder/Paste: Fixed Oil 10%

Prunus serotina bark

Astringent

Paste: Tannins 10%

Psoralea corylifolia seed

Antipsoriatic

Powder/Paste: Psoralen >5%

Pterocarpus marsupium wood

Antidiabetic

Powder: Alkaloids 0.4%, Pterostilbene 4%-5%, Flavones 5%

Pterocarpus santalinus bark

Astringent, Antidiarrheal

Powder/Paste: Santalin >3%

Pueraria tuberosa root

Demulcent, Nervine tonic

Powder/Paste: Flavones 6%

Punica granatum rind

Astringent

Powder: Ellagic acid by HPLC >8%, Tannins 10-20%

Putranjiva roxburghii berries

Antiviral

Powder: Alkaloids 0.5%

Pyrus malus fruit

Nutritive. Natural source of Iron

Powder/Paste: Iron 4%

Quercus infectoria galls

Astringent

Powder/Paste: Tannins 40%

Randia dumetorum fruit

Antioxidant, heptaprotectine

Powder/Paste: Oleonolic acid

>5%

Rauvolfia serpentina root

Hypotensive

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids >8%

Rheum emodi root

Blood purifier, Liver protectant, Laxative

Powder/Paste: Oxymethyl anthraquinones >5%

Ricinus communis leaf

Antiheptatoloxic, Anti-inflammatory

Powder: Alkaloids 2.5%

Botanical name/ Part used

Common use/Activity

Form, Chemical marker(s)

Ricinus communis root

Laxative

Powder: Alkaloids 0.5%

Rubia cordifolia root

Anticutaneous

Powder/Paste: Tannins >2%

Salacia reticulata root

Anticutaneous, Antirheumatic

Powder: Glycosides >15%, Flavones >5%

Santalum album wood

Coolant, Antibacterial

Powder/Paste: Vol. Oil 2%

Saraca indica bark

Uterine tonic

Powder/Paste: Tannins >2.5%

Saussurea lappa root

Antispasmodic, Carminative

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids >0.2%

Sida cordifolia root

Nervine Tonic

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids >0.1%

Silybum marianum seeds

Hepatoprotectant, Diuretic.

Powder: Flavones >50%, Silymarin 50%

Solanum nigrum berries

Expectorant, Liver tonic

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 0.2%, Bitters >1%

Solanum xanthocarpum plant

Antiasthmatic, Expectorant

Powder/Paste: Solasodin >1%

Strychnos nux vomica seeds

CNS stimulant, Analeptic

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 3%-6%

Swertia chirayita plant

Blood purifier

Powder: Bitters 4%

Symplocos racemosa bark

Uterine tonic

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids 0.5%

Taraxacum officinale herb

Hepatic stimulant

Powder/Paste: Bitters 2.5%, Alkaloids 0.5%

Tecomella undulata bark

Astringent

Powder: Tannins 10%

Tephrosia purpurea plant

Antioxidant, Antihepatotoxic

Powder/Paste: Rutin 2%-6% by HPLC

Terminalia arjuna bark

Cardio vascular support, Antiarrhythemic

Powder/Paste: Tannins >25%, Arjunic acid >1%

Terminalia bellirica fruit

Detoxificant , Spasmolytic

Powder: Tannins >10%

Terminalia chebula fruit

Detoxificant, Purgative

Powder: Tannins 20%-40%

Tinospora cordifolia root

Hepatoprotective

Powder/Paste: Bitters >1.5%

Trachyspermum ammi fruit

Carminative

Powder/Paste: Vol. Oil 10%

Tribulus terrestris fruit

Spermatogenic, Diuretic, Nephroprotective

Powder/paste: Saponins 15%-45%

Trichosanthes dioica leaf

Antidiabetic

Powder: Saponins 10%

Trigonella foenum-graecum seed

Antilipemic, Anticholesterolemic

Powder: Saponins 15%-40%

Botanical name/ Part used

Common use/Activity Form, Chemical marker(s)

Trikatu: Dry ginger, Long pepper and Black pepper

Triphalaa The Three Myrobalans

Triticum sativum bran

Triticum sativum germ Tylophora indica leaf Urginea indica bulbs

Valeriana wallichii root Viburnum sp. bark Viola odorataflowers/leaf Vitex negundo leaf Vitis vinifera fruit/seed

Increases bioavailability of Powder/Paste: Vol. Oil >1%, drugs Piperine >2%

Detoxificant Powder: Tannins >25%

Nutritive

Anticutaneous

Antiasthmatic

Cardiac stimulant, Diuretic

Sedative

Emmenagogue

Expectorant, Antiseptic

Anti-inflammatory

Antioxidant

Wedelia calendulacea herb Hepatoprotective

Withania somnifera root

Woodfordia floribunda flowers

Zingiber officinale rhizome

Immunomodulator, Antioxidant

Antileucorrhoeic

Anti-inflammatory,

Carminative,

Antinauseant

Powder: Vit B1= 40 mcg/g B2= 6.28 mcg/g B5= 1130 mcg/g

Powder/Paste: Alkaloids >0.1%

Paste: Glycosides 10%

Powder/Paste:

Powder/Paste:

Powder/Paste:

Powder/Paste:

Powder/paste: by HPLC

Powder/Paste: Saponins 2%

Powder/Paste:

Valeric acid 0.8% Tannins >1.4% Saponins 2.5% Alkaloids 0.15% Polyphenols >20%

Tannins 5%,

Withanolides

Tannins 7%

Powder/Paste: Gingerols by HPLC >5%

(continued)

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