Immune Systems Ebook

The Immunity Crisis in America

Have you ever wondered WHY you get sick from different things, sometimes seemingly for no reason? Haven't you ever wished that you could find some way to stop yourself from getting sick and stay healthy all the time? Well, that might be more possible than you thought at first! Your immune system is an odd system, that many scientists are still struggling to understand. However, there have been some amazing breakthroughs! Once you get access to this detailed and helpful book, you will be able to find REAL and Applicable ways to improve your immune system and keep yourself from getting sick all of the time. This book teaches you everything that you never learned about your immune system Start learning what you can Really do to improve your immune system's health and keep your body healthier for longer! It's not hard at all Get started today! More here...

Immunity Crisis Summary

Rating:

4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: Nicholas St Jon
Official Website: immunitycrisis.info
Price: $19.95

Access Now

My Immunity Crisis Review

Highly Recommended

I started using this book straight away after buying it. This is a guide like no other; it is friendly, direct and full of proven practical tips to develop your skills.

When compared to other e-books and paper publications I have read, I consider this to be the bible for this topic. Get this and you will never regret the decision.

Multiple Sclerosis As A Disease Of The Immune System

Normally, the immune system is able to distinguish between infectious organisms or foreign tissues (such as a transplanted organ), which are attacked or rejected, and the body's own organs or tissues, which are tolerated. How white blood cells perform these functions is a fascinating story. The process requires continual adaptation on the part of white blood cells to recognize through receptors on their surfaces and in proteins they make any disease-producing bacteria, virus, or fungus, and even the body's own cells that have become cancerous. Scientists have learned to activate the immune system through vaccination to defend the body against potentially infectious challengers. The other side of immunity, however, is that these white blood cells sometimes misrecognize and cause damage to the body's own cells and proteins. White blood cells that act in this way must be destroyed or held in check. If the system breaks down, autoimmune disease may occur. The immune system is then said to...

Immune Function And Overtraining

Research has shown that excessive training suppresses normal immune function, rendering athletes more susceptible to infection and disease.16 Studies show that short periods of overload training temporarily impair the immune function, and prolonged overtraining amplifies this suppression of immunity, with low quantities of lymphocytes and antibodies. Intense training during illness decreases the ability of athletes to fight off infection and increases the risk of subsequent complications.15

Innate Immune Response

Many of the studies on gut responses to gluten have been performed in the established chronic lesion. Little is known of innate responses that can elicit effects within minutes to hours of exposure to gluten. In vitro studies demonstrated an increase in the expression of HLA antigen on the cells in the surface layers of the intestinal mucosa occurring within 2-4 h after exposure to gluten. Gluten also causes the production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-15 at the surface epithelium. IL-15 expressed by the surface enterocytes activates NK-like T cells to recognize gluten presented by MHC class 1a molecules in the context of the NKG-2D receptor. The NK-like T cell may be a key player in both the damage to the surface epithelium and be a proin-flammatory influence on adaptive response that occurs in the underlying lamina propria. This induction of innate immune responses by gluten may have important consequences. Since the gluten peptides enter into the epithelial compartment and...

Natural Compounds That Suppress The Immune System

Many natural compounds I discuss have the potential to inhibit aspects of the immune system. Although none of these is generally considered a primary immunosup-pressive agent, each can produce immunosuppression as a secondary effect, at least under some circumstances. Natural compounds can induce immunosuppression in many ways, such as by reducing signal transduction (immune cells need signal transduction to function), reducing NF-sB activity, histamine release, vascular permeability, and immune cell migration, as well as by causing anti-inflammatory effects. The most potent anti-inflammatory compounds tend to be those that reduce production of PGE2 or other inflammatory pros-taglandins or leukotrienes. Taking all of these actions into account, we can see that most compounds included in this book have the potential to contribute to an immu-nosuppressive effect however, earlier in this chapter we also saw that most could also contribute to a stimulatory effect. What is the overall...

Specific immunotherapy

Specific immunotherapy, which seems be more important in cancer treatment research, could be divide into 3 parts monoclonal antibody, adoptive cellular therapy, and vaccine. Infusion of antibody or activated cells is called Passive Immunotherapy, on the other, vaccine can induce active immunotherapy. The simplest model of immune cell-mediated antigen-specific tumor rejection consists of three elements appropriate antigen specific for the tumor, efficient antigen presentation and the generation of potent effector cells.

Applications Of Gene Guns In The Immune System

Gene gun technologies are most potent when applied to easily exposed targets and when expressing gene products that have high-specific activity or whose biological effects engage systems that amplify the protein's effects. The most potent amplification system in the body is the immune system because this has evolved to detect a small number of infectious agents and amplify a response that may involve millions of cells and billions of effector molecules. Given this, some of the most potent application areas of the gene gun stimulate the immune system by delivering either antigens, cytokines, or both to the host organism. Current applications of the gene gun for immunological applications fall into the following categories 1. Genetic immunization to provoke cellular and humoral immune responses by delivering antigen genes from pathogens or cancers to the immune system A. Genetic Immunization to Increase Immune Responses essentially in parallel in the 1980s. With the advent of these...

Decreased Immune Response

A diet high in saturated and omega-6 fatty acids may promote cancer partly by decreasing immune function. In a study of 17 men who reduced their fat intake to less than 30 percent of calories, natural killer (NK) cell activity was markedly increased compared to baseline levels. In this study, the lower the fat content, the greater the NK cell activity.58 The exact mechanism of this inhibition was uncertain, but it may have been related to increased PGE2 production, which has an immuno-suppressive effect.

Immune Deficiency Including Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Activation of immune system t IL-1, TNF, IL-6, others Activation of immune system t IL-1, TNF, IL-6, others Impaired immune function Impaired immune function toxins. The immune system plays a pivotal role in ensuring homeostasis is maintained within the system. The immune-deficient child is susceptible to common gastrointestinal infections that can occur in the immune-competent host however, chronic enteropathy in immunodeficiency is characterized by recurrent, persistent, severe unusual and opportunistic infections with subsequent secondary malabsorption and maldigestion states. The immune-deficient child with persistent diarrhea often rapidly spirals into a cycle of anorexia, inadequate dietary intake, catabolic losses to combat infection, and catabolic losses from the gastrointestinal tract (fig. 1). Micronutrient and general malnutrition are key risk factors for as well as consequences of many chronic enteropathies resulting in well-defined impairments of immunity. The combination...

Enhanced Immune Response

Immune system modulation and the prevention of gastrointestinal tract colonisation by a variety of pathogens are perhaps the most important actions of probiotics. Probiotics bind to intestinal epithelial cells and inhibit the binding of pathogenic bacteria to the gut wall by production of inhibitory substances such as bacteriocins, lactic acid and toxic oxygen metabolites. Of the toxic oxygen metabolites, hydrogen peroxide is of major importance as it exerts a bactericidal effect on many pathogens (Kaur et al 2002). The ability to produce bacteriocins, hydrogen peroxide and other antimicrobial compounds is strain-dependent and requires the presence of folic acid and riboflavin in the case of lactobacilli. Binding to the gut wall also initiates signalling events that result in the synthesis of cytokines (Vanderhoof & Young 2003) Studies in germ-free mice have proven that intestinal bacteria are essential for a healthy systemic immune system (Falk et al 1998).

Natural Compounds That Stimulate Andor Support The Immune System

A large number of natural compounds can stimulate or support the immune system or do both. A selected list of some of the major compounds is provided in Table 12.1. Note that many other natural compounds discussed in this book (and many not included) could act as immunostimulants or supportive agents. For example, CAPE has been reported to increase the susceptibility of tumor cells to NK cell attack and induce expression of tumor-associated antigens on human melanoma and brain cancer cells lines in vitro.1'2 As another example, oral administration of proanthocyanidins to mice has increased NK cell cytotoxicity and enhanced ex-vivo IL-2 production by immune cells.3 Even though not comprehensive, Table 12.1 does include many of the well-known natural immunostimulants and supportive compounds. Reference books that discuss additional natural compounds with these effects are cited in Chapter 16. In addition to stimulating the immune system, we must also inhibit immune evasion. One primary...

Cordyceps Acts On The Immune System

Effects of Cordyceps on the immune system have been reported however, the experimental results are controversial and show that Cordyceps possesses both potentiation and or inhibition effects on the immunoresponse. Thus, it is assumed that Cordyceps is a bidirectional modulator of the immune system. The immune system in tumor-bearing mice was greatly enhanced by treatment with Cordyceps. C57BL 6 mice implanted subcutaneously with EL-4 lymphoma cells were employed as the experimental targets. Oral administration of the extract led to a reduction of tumor size in the tumor-bearing mice and prolonged the survival rate of the host. Phagocytic activity of macrophages was decreased in the tumor-bearing mice treated with cyclo-phophamide (100 mg kg) however, administration of Cordyceps extract restored the activity to higher than the normal level (35).

Common variable hypogammaglobulinemia This is a condition in which children with immature immune systems do not have

Routine laboratory evaluation of these children is usually completely normal. When serum immunoglobulin levels are measured, the children have values that would clearly be abnormal for an adult but are considered at the low end of normal for their age, so they are not officially immunodeficient. As these children's immune system matures, the immunoglobulin levels rise and the problem ceases. No detailed reports of the long-term outcome for these children are available. None that I have cared for has developed significant rheumatic disease, though many have been misdiagnosed as having JA. Children with definite common variable hypogammaglobulinemia and IgG subclass deficiencies (low immunoglobulin levels of varying specific types) may also have an increased incidence of arthritis. The arthritis these children get also generally follows the pattern of a spondyloarthropathy. Many investigators feel that this situation is similar to the situation for children with abnormal...

Selenium Deficiency Viral Disease and Mutation and Immune Function

Human selenium supplementation (e.g., 200 mg day), even in apparently selenium-replete individuals receiving a diet providing > 120 mg Se day, was able to stimulate the proliferation of activated T cells of the immune system. It elicited an enhanced response to antigen stimulation, an enhanced ability to generate cytotoxic lymphocytes, an enhanced ability to destroy tumor cells, and increased natural killer cell activity. Growth-regulatory interleukin-2 receptors on the surface of activated lymphocytes and natural killer cells became upregulated. In a study in Liverpool, UK, healthy adult subjects with initial plasma selenium concentrations below 1.2 mmol l were given placebo or 50 or 100 mg daily supplements of selenium as selenite for 15 weeks. After 6 weeks, they were given oral live attenuated polivirus vaccine, and after 9 weeks, 74Se stable isotope was given intravenously to measure their body Se pool size. The Se supplements significantly increased the Se pool size, and the...

Interleukin2 Immunotherapy

Clinical trials using l-carnitine (1 g day orally) found that it may be used successfully to prevent cardiac complications during IL-2 immunotherapy in cancer patients with clinically relevant cardiac disorders (Lissoni et al 1993). Thus a beneficial interaction is possible under professional supervision.

Breast feeding and Immunity to Infection

Mucosal immune system and produce antibodies against mucosal pathogens that the mother is exposed to and which the infant is most likely to encounter. Breast milk contains several factors that protect against infections in the breast-fed infant either through passive immunity or by activating the infant's immune system. These include secretory IgA and IgM antibodies specific to maternal pathogenic encounters, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which can inhibit bacterial growth, block bacterial toxins and activate eosinophils, bactericidal lactofer-rin, lysozymes, and mucins, as well as lymphocytes (both T cells and B cells), which may transfer primed immunity to the infant. Additionally, cytokines and other growth factors in human milk contribute to the activation of the lactating infant's immune system, rendering breastfed infants less susceptible to diarrheal diseases, respiratory infections, otitis media, and other infections and may impart long-term protection against diarrhea....

Nonspecific immunotherapy Innate Immune system and cytokine

Nature kill cells are the central component of the innate immunity and play an important role in cancer immunosurveilance. It has been reported that NK cells can recognize and control tumor growth by direct cellular cytotoxicity and secrete immunostimulatory cytokines such as IFN-y. The further researches have demonstrated NK cells can eliminate tumor cell by inhibiting cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, promoting apoptosis and stimulate the adaptive immune system. In mouse experimental models, NK cell-mediated elimination of tumor cells induced the subsequent development of tumor-specific T cell responses to the parental tumor cells as a bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses(48). inefficient homing into malignant tissues, the situation may be overcome by cytokine-mediated activation in immunotherapeutical regiment53). However, novel studies of tumor-associated NK cells demonstrated a striking phenotype, supporting the notion that tumor-induced alterations of...

Specific Immunotherapy for Food Allergy with Mutated Proteins

Currently the only treatment for food allergy is strict avoidance of the offending food. In the past years much effort has been made to develop new treatment methods. Specific immunotherapy using injections is commonly used for the treatment of inhalant allergies. However, for food allergy it is As traditional immunotherapy has been largely impractical for the treatment of food allergies, several novel therapies are currently being explored 18, 19 . One of the most promising approaches is the immunotherapy with mutated proteins. Within the last couple of years food allergens have been better characterized 2, 20 . IgE-binding sites have been identified for many of these food allergens 21-26 . With this knowledge attempts to alter IgE antibody binding through alteration of the amino acid sequences of the IgE-binding sites have started (fig. 3). Mutation through single amino acid substitution resulted in reduced to complete loss of IgE binding 26-29 . For the major peanut allergens Ara h...

Immune function and cancer

The diet is believed to play an important role in the onset of carcinogenesis, and there are a number of carcinogens present in food, including mycotoxins, polycyclic hydrocarbons, and pesticides. Associations have been made between dietary fat intake and morbidity and mortality from breast and colon cancer. Another possible mechanism for the proposed protective effects against cancer of olive oil compared with sunflower oil involves diet-induced alterations in host immune responses. Both the type and concentration of dietary fats have been reported to influence immune status in several animal models. The PUFA C18 2 is necessary for T-cell-mediated immunity, but high intakes will suppress immune function and may therefore increase the risk of cancer. Furthermore, comparisons between the effects of diets rich in C18 2 and those rich in C18 1 on varying indicators of immune function in mice have shown that, while dietary C18 2 predisposed animals to suppression of certain...

Role Of The Immune System In Cancer Prevention

Some researchers believe the immune system plays a critical role in preventing tumor development by searching out and destroying newly transformed cells. This process, known as immune surveillance, was first proposed by Ehrlich in 1909, and is supported by the following observations that associate immune depression with increased cancer risk 11'12 Approximately 40 percent of patients with immuno-suppression caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are likely to develop cancer. Common cancers include Kaposi's sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, cervical cancer, and Hodgkin's disease. An alternate and more likely explanation for this disproportion is that cancers commonly associated with immunosuppressed states are virally induced, or they originate in the immune system itself. Accordingly, the problem is that the immune system fails to destroy viruses that cause or assist the development of cancer rather than that it fails to destroy tumor cells. In some cases, viruses can...

Adoptive Immunotherapy with antitumor 41 Immune cells

Passive immunotherapy with large doses of activated antitumor lymphocytes was also employed since there was a possibility that active immunization would be insufficient to induce enough of an immune response to cause tumor regression in the immunosuppressed patient with a large tumor burden. Adoptive transfer of tumor-reactive T cells cultured from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, along with IL-2, resulted in a clinical response in melanoma patients.65 Adoptive transfer of EBV-specific T cells resulted in regression of EBV-associated lymphoma. Intraportal infusion of in vitro MUCl-stimulated T cells was performed in pancreatic cancer, yielding preliminary results that indicate inhibition of liver metastasis. Although the clinical use of tumor-reactive T cells was previously limited due to the difficulty in generating tumor-reactive T cells for most cancers, it is now possible to generate these cells from the PBMC of cancer patients by in vitro stimulation, using the identified tumor...

Colonic Immune Function and Colonic Bacterial Flora

The immune system of the gastrointestinal tract defends against infection (bacterial, viral, and parasitic) and luminal antigens ingested formed by bacteria. Nonspecific and specific mechanisms exist. The enteric immune system is vast and complex it interacts with the rest of the immune system as well as with luminal contents. Gut-associated lym-phoid tissue consists of both discretely organized tissue, such as Peyer's patches (lymphoid follicles with proliferative potential in response to antigen presentation) containing M cells, and the more diffuse lymphocytes and macrophages distributed among the submucosa, mucosa, and lamina propria (Figure 6). M cells function in antigen sampling of Secretory IgA binds to intraluminal antigens, including dietary ones, and functions in preventing their absorption. Additionally, secretory IgA has the ability to bind to microorganisms, thus preventing adherence, colonization, and invasion. Secretory IgA is secreted in breast milk, and in breast-fed...

Use of Immunotherapy in Conventional Cancer Medicine

We now look at how immunotherapy has been used in conventional cancer medicine. From this discussion, we obtain ideas on how natural compounds might be used to produce some of the same effects on the immune system, and we also see how the use of natural compounds differs from that of most conventional immunotherapy agents. The primary distinction between conventional immunotherapy agents and natural immunostimulant The majority of human cancers exhibit low immuno-genicity, probably due to one or more of the immune-evading mechanisms described earlier. This does not mean, however, that immunotherapy is necessarily ineffective against them. Conventional immunotherapy can be divided into two categories, active and passive, each discussed below. In general, conventional immunother-apy in humans is most effective in patients with a relatively healthy immune system and a low tumor burden (i.e., at an early stage of malignancy). Active Immunotherapy The term active immunotherapy refers to...

Flavonoids and Immune Function

The effects of flavonoids on the immune system are complex and poorly understood. Depending on the conditions, flavonoids may inhibit, assist, or have no effect on immune function. Their effects on immune function are due to their ability to inhibit eicosanoid-mediated inflammation, histamine-induced inflammation, PTK or PKC activity, cell motility, or several of these. Clearly, additional work remains to understand the effects of flavonoids on immune function and to determine how these effects may influence tumor progression. It does seem, however, that at doses relevant to humans, immunostimulation or no effect on the immune system is more likely to occur than an immunosuppressive effect.

Immunotherapy and immunization

Vaccine strategies are being investigated as another method of targeting HER2 overex-pressing cancer cells. Patients with HER2-positive tumors have been shown to develop an immune response against the protein,114-116 which suggests that antireceptor vaccines may be successful in mounting an anticancer response. With a large difference in levels of expression between HER2-positive tumors and normal tissues, there exists a potential therapeutic window for such cancers with no residual autoimmune toxicity. Some of the first described investigations of targeting and treating by immunization were murine tumors overexpressing the rat oncogenic neu. These cancers were immunized with a vaccinia virus recombinant of the protein's extracellular

Alcohol And The Immune System

NK cells are important because they play a role in natural immunity against tumor and infected cells. In fact, advanced aging is associated with functional impairment ofNK cells and increased susceptibility to nutritional deficiencies. Studies from human and experimental animals have proven that EtOH acts as a co-carcinogen, and suppression of the immune system has been considered as one mechanism by which EtOH could increase the incidence or progression of cancers 3 , like Kaposi's sarcoma. A recent report regarding HIV-related cancers compared cancer incidences in Zimbabwe, Africa between 1990-1992 to those in 1993-1995. It showed an increase in the incidence ofKaposi's sarcoma with a doubling of the rates in both men and women. A significant increase in the incidence of squamous cell tumours, as well as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in women was also observed 4 , Research shows a relationship between increased ethanol levels and a decrease in natural killer cells. Decreased natural killer...

Cancer Healing and the Immune System

The immune system consists of many types of cells carried by the blood to different parts of the body. There are neutrophils, eosinophils, mono-cytes, macrophages, and natural killer cells that we believe help to keep cancer cells in check. If this theory is right, then boosting one's immune system will help reduce the risk of cancer and perhaps cancer recurrence. It is believed that at any given time there are stray cancer cells in healthy people whose immune systems are strong enough to overcome the cancer cells. Thus, these people don't develop cancer as a disease. The immune system is also responsible for inactivating free radicals, which are highly active oxygen molecules that contain unpaired electrons. Some scientists think that having an excessive amount of free radicals heightens a person's risk of cancer. The free radicals are neutralized (inactivated) by antioxidants. Table 2.1. Ways to Potentially Boost Your Immune System Although it is not entirely clear to what extent...

Allogeneic antigenspecific immunotherapy

Was reported on the efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy (AIT) with cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), induced from autologous pancreatic tumors but not from AIT with LAK cells. Although these immunotherapies have a potential as alternative treatments for PC, the effects have been limited. Pancreatic cancer cells present an enormous challenge, as they are naturally resistant to current chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In addition, known pancreatic cancer antigens have generated relatively weak immune responses. This is probably due to a combination of mutations in oncogenes such as KRAS and tumour-suppressor genes such as TP53, CDKN2A, DPC4 (deleted in pancreas cancer 4), BRCA2 and ERBB2 (also known as HER2 neu), as well as overexpression of growth factors such as transforming growth factor-a (TGFa), interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6 and IL-8, tumour-necrosis factor-a (TNFa), or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), their receptors, or constitutive expression of multidrug-resistant...

New immunotherapy targets

The inability of previously tested antigens (including CEA, KRAS, MUC1 and gastrin) to induce immune-specific responses underscores the challenge to identify more relevant immunogenic targets. Indeed, these antigens were chosen only because they were overexpressed or had altered expression in pancreatic tumours, and not because they had been shown to be immunogenic. Therefore, there might be additional as-yet-unidentified antigens that might be more immunogenic for inducing effective immunity against pancreatic cancers. How will such new candidate pancreatic cancer antigens be discovered Two methods are routinely used in an attempt to identify new targets. The first method, serological analysis of recombinant tumour cDNA expression libraries (SEREX), uses serum to screen phage-display libraries prepared from tumour cells to identify candidate antigen targets that have elicited both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in cancer patients. This method has identified coactosin-like...

Immune target and Immune response in pancreatic cancer

Cancer is fundamentally a gene associated disease, it has become increasingly clear that some genomic instability and aberrant gene expression lead to biologic behaviour abnormality in tumor cells. In pancreatic cancer, Several genes have high mutation rate in different phase, so the tumor cell may express abnormal antigens that make them immunologically distinct and potential targets for the host immune system. K-ras gene encodes a 21 kDa membrane-bound guanosine triphosphate(GTP) -binding protein. Before localization at cell membrane, K-ras protein must be farnesylated or geranylgeranylated on the same cysteine residue, it is involved in the transduction of signal from growth factor receptors and other signal inputs, as an upstream activator, it will activat several signaling pathways including Raf MEK ERK, P13K Akt and RalEGF Ral(9)to regulate gene expression and prevent apoptosis. The mutation of the K-ras oncogene, which occers mostly at codon 12 but also occasionally at codon 13...

Adaptive Immune Response to Gluten

Celiac disease is characterized by an immune response to the storage proteins of wheat, rye, and barley, with wheat as the most immunogenic. Wheat gluten is composed of glutenin and gliadin, and evidence suggests that the gliadin fraction induces disease. Information gathered from T cell clones derived from chronic lesions of the small intestines of celiac patients with established disease demonstrate that gliadin peptides are presented by HLA class II molecules to CD4+ T cells. Several studies have suggested that unaltered native gliadin peptides were antigenic but lacked the negatively charged amino acids needed to bind to the recognition sites of the DQ2 or DQ8 molecules. It has since been recognized that the gliadin peptides are made more antigenic by tissue transglutaminase, and it is these altered (deamidated) peptides that either perpetuate or cause gluten sensitivity in celiac disease.

Hematopoietic and Immune System

More profound changes occur in the adaptive immune functions, which rely on the memory (T cell) lymphocytic cell line. Life-long antigen exposure induces increases in the number of memory T cells, but with enhanced reactivity against self-antigens, priming the individual for autoimmune disease. In healthy adults, IgA concentration increases by 0.2 gl1 per decade throughout life. The T lymphocytes, however, respond more poorly to ongoing antigen assault in later life. Thymic involution associated with neural and hormonal changes of aging is an impediment to T-cell maturation in older persons. The basis of intrinsic function deficits of memory cells, on the other hand, has been ascribed to defective signaling and includes hyporesponsive-ness to mitogen-stimulated proliferation and decrease in genetic suppression, allowing increased stimulation of inflammatory cytokines the balance between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines shifts with aging, favoring the inflammatory pole, especially...

Innate And Adaptive Immunity

Without an immune system we would quickly fall prey to the plethora of viruses, bacteria, and parasites that live within and around us. The immune system is a multi-layered defense system. In its broadest sense, it includes physical barriers, such as the skin and the lining of the gastrointestinal tract chemical barriers, such as stomach acid microbial barriers, such as beneficial intestinal microflora and the immune system proper (immune cells, antibodies, and so forth). This chapter focuses on the immune system proper. The cells of the immune system are called white blood cells (leukocytes) that, like red blood cells (erythrocytes), are derived from stem cells in the bone marrow. The production of the different types of cells from the bone marrow is shown in Figure 11.1 (adapted from reference 1). Other cells important in the immune response but not shown in the figure (e.g., natural killer cells and dendritic cells) are discussed below. As Figure 11.1 shows, leukocytes can be...

Host Immune Response To Vaccinia

The immune response to vaccinia viral vectors serves as our paradoxical friend and foe in attempting to develop them into effective vectors for gene therapy. On the one hand, the vigorous immune response is desirable because we believe that it enhances its potential as a vaccine. On the other hand, the vigorous immune response leads to premature clearance of the virus before adequate levels of replication have occurred, thus decreasing the level of transgene expression and possibly the overall efficacy. The success of vaccinia as a gene therapy vector relies on its efficiency in vivo. Vaccinia has developed a wide range of immune evasion strategies in order to survive in vivo (Table 2). Understanding and manipulating these factors may optimize the vector for clinical use. If one examines these factors closely, it is clear that the majority of them encode for proteins that are able to actively suppress both innate immunity and the development T helper 1 (Th1) immune response. For...

Specific Allergen Immunotherapy for Asthma

Specific allergen immunotherapy (SIT) has been used for over a century to treat allergic disorders. Treatment regimes vary, but the general principle is to give a prolonged course of extracts of allergens that are thought to be relevant to the particular patient's illness. Allergen is usually given by subcutaneous injection, starting with a very low dose and escalating in a logarithmic sequence until the top dose is reached. At this stage, the interval between doses is extended, and maintenance therapy is given for about three years. A number of alternative routes have been tried, among which the sublingual route is the most popular.

Immune escape and immunosuppression

In the past 50 years, with the advances in cellular, molecular biology of cancer and development of immunology, people comes to realizes the relationship between tumor and immune cells is just like a cat and mouse game. The human immune system assume the responsibility to get rid of the extrinsic and endogenic abnormal antigen, it can produce actived immunocyte or immune material such as antibody to react anomalous antigen and finally eliminate the target, but the fact is not under our desire. (Picture 2)

Immune surveillance and tumour evasion

The extraordinary features of the immune system make it possible to discern self from non-self. However, most human cancers, and pancreatic cancer in particular, are known to be poorly immunogenic, as crucial somatic genetic mutations can generate pancreatic cancer proteins that are essentially altered self proteins. Furthermore, promising immunotherapeutic approaches that have been used for relatively immunogenic cancers such as melanoma have met with variable success6. These observations have revealed that for tumours to form and progress, they must develop local and or systemic mechanisms that subsequently allow them to escape the normal surveillance mechanisms of the intact immune system. Immune-based therapies must therefore incorporate at least one agent against a pancreatic cancer target as well as one or more agents that will modify both local and systemic mechanisms of pancreatic-cancer-induced IMMUNE TOLERANCE. Another new B7-family member, B7-H4, seems to mediate a...

Cancer immunotherapy protocols

Clinical trials using various immunotherapies, active immunization with tumor antigens, or tumor cell-derived products, and adoptive immunotherapy using antitumor immune cells were conducted in various cancers, most extensively in melanoma, and tumor regression was observed in some patients. Active Immunization Immunizations with synthetic peptides, particularly MHC class I-binding epitopes, were performed in various trials. Since native epitopes have relatively low immunogenicity, various immunoaugmenting methods, including coadministration of adjuvants and cytokines incomplete Freund adjuvant (IFA), IL-2, IL-12, or GM-CSF , were applied to achieve efficient immunization. Tumor regression in melanoma patients was observed in various clinical trials using melanocytespecific antigens such as MART-1 and gp100 and, in particular, the HLA high-binding modified peptide. Since CD4+ T cells appear to be directly and indirectly important in tumor rejection, combined immunization with both Th...

Immune Function And Maintenance Of Epithelial Surfaces

Vitamin A maintains the health of epithelial cells in the body, which form an important barrier to infection, and immune system function. More specifically, studies in animal models and cell lines show that vitamin A and related retinoids play a major role in immunity, including expression of mucins and keratins, lymphopoiesis, production of antibodies, and the function of neutrophils, NK cells, macrophages, T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes (Semba 1999). It has also been shown to potentiate antibody responses and lymphocyte proliferation in response to antigens and restore the integrity and function of mucosal surfaces (Semba 1994).

Passive immunotherapy

Passive immunotherapy could be accomplished by infusion monoantibody and tumor specific T-cell which was actived in vitro. With advances in structural and functional genomics, recent work has focused on targeted molecular therapy using monoclonal antibodies. Many monoantibodies were used to target molecules on the tumor cell surface and normal tissue stroma, which are related to pancreatic cancer oncogenesis, tumor growth or resistance to chemotherapy, as well as molecules involved in regulating inflammation and host immunoresponses. Although progress made by monoantibody in pancreatic cancer treatment, especially in preclinical studies, its clinical application requires further investigation. Besides the function bind to target antigen to block the corresponding signal transduction pathways, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) can also be observed in some pancreatic cancer cell lines.

Immune Response to the Transgene Product

The most encouraging results demonstrating prolonged transgene expression from HDAd were all obtained in cases where an immune response was not mounted against the transgene product (62,66). However, in cases where an antibody response was mounted against the transgene product, expression was shortened, although to a lesser extent than when FGAds were used (62). Clearly immune response to the therapeutic proteins is an important issue because they may be antigenic in individuals suffering from some genetic deficiencies. This situation is, of course, not unique to HDAds but universal to gene therapy, regardless of vector type employed. Clearly, strategies such as immunosuppression or induction of tolerance to circumvent this obstacle may be essential for successful gene therapy of many genetic diseases.

Enhancing Immune Responses Toward Tumors By Bacterial Infections

In principle, initiation of antigen-specific immunity is restricted to the lymphoid organs where the target antigens are presented to the T cells by mature dendritic cells. To do so, immature DCs pick up antigens in the periphery. Simultaneous to antigen uptake, DCs have to receive specific environmental signals that induce their activation and maturation. During this maturation process, they obtain migratory capacity toward secondary lymphoid organs and, in addition, become highly stimulatory for T cells by expression of costimulatory molecules. This, leads to antigen-specific T cell activation. With respect to this activation cascade, tumor cells lack the capacity to activate primary T cells, due to the absence of essential stimulatory functions. Although proteins derived from a tumor might be phagocytosed by immature dendritic cells, such DCs normally do not become activated and can therefore not function as inductors of a T cell response. Antigen presentation by immature DC is...

Mucosal immune responses

Foodborne pathogens encounter the gastrointestinal mucosal surface, and must face the mucosal immune system as well as the physical barriers the location presents. The mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) includes the GALT, a location reported to contain more lymphocytes than are found in the total content of all other secondary lymphoid organs (Nagler-Anderson, 2001). The GALT is composed of lymphoid aggregates, including the Peyer's patches (located mainly in the small intestinal distal ileum), where induction of immune responses occurs (Fig. 8.1). The lamina propria serves as a homing location for mature effector B and T cells these cell types are essential for the specific adaptive immune responses of the GALT. Several cell types involved in the innate immune response are present in the PP microenvironment, including macrophages and dendritic cells. be associated with MHC molecules. Owing to their unique properties, IEL are often viewed as a cell type that is midway between...

Stress Weakens the Immune System

One of the more serious effects of stress is that it redirects metabolic energy away from the immune system. A tremendous amount of energy is necessary to operate the complex cells, hormones, and organs that make up this system. Fifteen minutes of danger and a return to normal isn't going to compromise your immune system, but living with constant stress will surely slow you down metabolically, making you more susceptible to illness. Stress can lead to stroke, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. In fact, the six leading causes of death in the United States heart disease, cancer, lung ailments, accidents, cirrhosis of the liver, and suicide are directly related to stress. One recent study of how chronic stress weakens the immune system found that the protein interleukin-6 (IL-6) was present in unusually high amounts in people who suffered from chronic stress. IL-6 normally triggers inflammation to help fight infections. It also stimulates the production of C-reactive protein, which is a...

Exploiting a Natural Immunity

While AIDSVAX was being tested, another very different vaccine was being developed. Doctors in Nairobi, Kenya, had noticed that about 5 percent of the two thousand prostitutes studied at an HIV clinic seemed to have developed a natural immunity against the virus. Though these women were repeatedly exposed to HIV, they remained uninfected. As the director of the clinic, Dr. Omu Anzale, explained, The very first exposure wasn't able to cause infection, but was able to prime their immune system.41 In fact, T cell production in these women actually increased significantly. Somehow, these women's bodies were able to mount effective defenses against the initial onslaught of HIV. Furthermore, instead of being left with weakened immune systems that succumbed more readily to HIV upon the next exposure, these women seemed to be prepared for the virus and continued to win the battle against HIV. Researchers at the United Kingdom's Oxford University and at the University of Nairobi, in...

Immune System In Cancer Treatment

The immune system's postulated role in preventing cancer by destroying cancer cells, along with other evidence, tells us it can also help destroy cells of established cancers. Its ability to do so, referred to as antitumor immunity, involves both the innate and adaptive immune systems. For example, recent evidence suggests the immune system may be capable of detecting the protein products of oncogenes on the cell surface immune responses to the HER-2 neu protein and mutated ras and p53 gene products have been re-ported.20,21 In addition, antibodies against the patient's own tumor have been identified in the sera of some patients with soft-tissue sarcoma, malignant melanoma, ovarian carcinoma, and lung cancer.22 The degree to which the immune system can destroy established cancers, however, has not been established. In general, the immune system may be more effective against small tumors and metastatic spread than against established solid tumors. What is clear is that the success of...

The immune system

The immune system is not a specific structural organ system but more of a functional system. It draws upon the structures and processes of each of the organs, tissues and cells of the body and the chemicals produced in them to eliminate any pathogen, foreign substance or toxic material that can be damaging to the body. Immunity can, therefore, be defined as the ability of the body to resist infection and disease by the activation of specific defence mechanisms.

Immune System

Animal studies have shown an increased rate of infection and mortality in obese dogs compared to lean animals experimentally infected with canine distemper virus. Cell-mediated immune response is impaired in obese individuals. Maturation of monocytes into macrophages after in vitro incubation is significantly less for obese compared to lean subjects. Impaired cell-mediated immune response in children was demonstrated to be due to subclinical deficiencies of zinc and copper. The impairment in the immune response was reversed after 4 weeks of zinc and copper supplements. As described previously, there are changes in numerous cytokines with obesity. The role of these changes in immune function is not clear.

Immunotherapy

Today, much cancer research is focused on the human immune system. Researchers are working to discover how the immune system functions to prevent cancer and how it can be used to cure cancer. Normally the immune system acts as the body's defense system, fighting cancer cells and keeping the body cancer-free by attacking the cells before they can grow and spread. When the immune system is weakened, it cannot do its job effectively. Immunotherapy (also known as biother-apy) takes advantage of the body's own ability to fight disease. It is aimed at strengthening the patient's immune system and helping it recognize cancer cells as undesirable aliens. Immu-notherapy uses a number of different techniques. Vaccines are another form of immunotherapy under intense investigation. Chemicals called antigens are usually found on the surface of cancer cells. Dead tumor cells that still have their surface antigens are used to make vaccines, but the antigens alone also may be used. The antigen...

Active immunotherapy

Vaccine The development of human therapeutic cancer vaccines has come a long way since the discovery of major histocompatability complex (MHC) restricted tumor antigens. As an new method to reconsituting immunity, cancer vaccionation can actively harness the intrinsic power of the immne system to recognize and destroy tumors. The ideal designed vaccine should actively generate antigen-specific immune response to abnomal protein expressed in tumor cells, including activating distinct components of the immune system antigen presenting cells, B cells and T cells, producing the advantages of high specificity, minimal toxicity and permanently effective immunologic memory. Antigen could be delivered in the form of DNA or peptide, as well as tumor cells or antigen-pulsed DCs. 5-FU based chemoradiation, patient received 5 immunotherapy. The median disease-free survival was 17.3 months with median survival of 24.8 months. The administration of immunotherapy was well tolerated. Besides, the...

Immune Function

In a study of 652 non-institutionalised elderly people, the incidence of acute respiratory infections was reduced for those with the highest plasma levels, suggesting that beta-carotene may improve the immune response and result in decreased risk of infectious diseases (van der Horst-Graat et al 2004).

The Future Of Multiple Sclerosis Treatments

Restoring normal immune tolerance to myelin without disturbing other functions of the immune system is the ultimate goal of therapy. As more is understood about the natural mechanisms for establishing and maintaining this tolerance, new drugs will be designed to treat MS. Our knowledge of immune regulation is built partly on the tremendous strides made in this century in augmenting with vaccines the immune system's ability to fight infectious diseases that once were uniformly fatal or disabling. Strategies for treating MS and other autoimmune diseases, and for tolerating transplanted organs, may include vaccines to train the immune system not to react.

Complications of GORD

Viruses, bacteria, fungi and mycobacterium can all cause oesophageal infection. The most common of these are candida. Oesophageal candidiasis occurs in debilitated patients and those taking broad-spectrum antibiotics or cytotoxic drugs. It is a particular problem in AIDS patients, who are also susceptible to a spectrum of oesophageal infections. Oesophageal candidiasis rarely develops in patients who do not have an underlying disease such as diabetes, immune deficiency or malignancy. The main symptoms of oesophageal candidiasis are dysphagia and odynophagia. Severe infection of the gullet can destroy oesopha-geal innervation, causing abnormal motility.

Hydrocarbon Carotenoid aCarotene

A-Carotene, another carotenoid frequently present in food, also has provitamin A activity. Based on its structure, it is only converted to one molecule of biologically active retinol after central cleavage. Like other carotenoids, it has antioxidant and possibly anticarcinogenic properties, and may enhance immune function as well. Some, but not all, epide-miological studies observed that higher a-carotene intake was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer, whereas others did not. Clinical trials to test a-carotene influences in humans have not been conducted to date. This is probably because a-carotene is usually associated with ample amounts of fi-carotene when found in fruits and vegetables and singling out a-carotene is difficult.

New Name and a New Fear

In light of the new information regarding who was at risk, the name gay-related immunodeficiency disease seemed inappropriate. Curran argued that a more neutral name should be given to the disease. He later recalled, By now there had been reports of cases in injecting drug users, and in women who were sex partners of men with AIDS, so it was time to describe it more broadly.7 After some discussion, a new name was proposed acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS. The new name implied a greater risk for the population at large, and more of the public began to take interest in the AIDS situation.

Role Of Cytokines In Immunity

Cytokines are a varied group of soluble proteins secreted by mammalian cells that affect the behavior of the secreting cell or that of nearby cells via specific cytokine receptors. Growth factors are also cytokines and can be produced by many cell types, but we use the term cytokine here to refer to soluble proteins produced by immune cells. Note that some proteins are referred to as both cytokines and growth factors, since they are produced by both immune cells and other cells. Cytokines, like the growth factors listed in Table 4.1, control a wide range of cellular behavior besides proliferation. Some cytokines like TGF-beta even inhibit cell proliferation. In this way cytokines play a significant role in the control of hematopoiesis (the production of red and white blood cells), the inflammatory response, and the immune response.

Antioxidants and Nutritional Support

The second category in Table 12.1 is compounds that are antioxidants or provide nutritional support. All cells need proper nutrition to function optimally, and immune cells are no exception. Although these require a variety of micro- and macronutrients, we focus here on a select few nutrients that have been extensively studied. In particular, several antioxidant vitamins appear to support immune function when their levels are low, immune function can be hampered. Animal and human studies have reported that vitamins C and E support immune function through a number of mechanisms. For example, immune cells produce various noxious compounds, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species antioxidants may help protect immune Antioxidants may also support immune function via their effects on intracellular glutathione levels. Glu-tathione plays an important role in immune function for three reasons. First, as a primary intracellular antioxidant, adequate glutathione is...

Genetic Skin Diseases in Which Cytokines May Be Involved

DEB is a genetic disease involving a defect in the gene for type VII collagen (Gardella et al. 1996). However, it may also involve autoimmune mechanisms in the period of mutation or afterward. IFN-y could also be involved by altering gene expression (Buntinx et al. 2004). Based on evidence in the literature of immune system involvement and signs of inflammation in a patient suffering severely from DEB, we treated two cases with striking results. For example, in one case a 14-year-old boy with DEB from birth was given a course of anti-IFN-y antibodies intramuscularly. Before treatment, his temperature was 39.2 C. Skin on the back of his neck, lower back, and upper and lower extremities was covered with erosive, ulcerative lesions up to 15 cm in diameter with pustular, hemorrhagic scabs. Around the lesions were painful areas of hyperemia and swelling, on the mucous membranes of the mouth and

Environmental Factors

There is an interesting interplay between vitamin D, vitamin D receptor (VDR), and association with T1D as discussed earlier. The contribution of vitamin D as a potent modulator of the immune system is well recognized. The main sources of vitamin D are ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol found in dietary sources and cholecalciferol produced in the skin by ultraviolet radiation of 7-dehydrocholesterol. Vitamin D deficiency in infancy and VDR polymorphisms may be risk factors for T1D. In nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, long-term treatment with high doses of vitamin D3 reduced the incidence of diabetes by changing the cytokine balance at the local pancreatic lesion.

Morphine And Other Opioids

There is convincing evidence of the presence of opioid receptors on various types of human immune cells. The presence of opioid receptors on immune cells may allow for modulation of specific immune functions in the presence of exogenous opiates. Various administration schedules for opi-oids were shown to potentiate infections by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Candida albicans. The increased susceptibility was partly due to a decrease in reticuloendothelial-system activity as well as a reduction in the number of phagocytes, not by a direct cytotoxic effect of the opioid. Chronic administration of morphine has also inhibited a primary antibody response of mice. These effects were worsened by naloxone (a nonaddictive analog of morphine), indicating that morphine inhibits the immune system in a specific manner via its interaction with opioid receptors. Other studies in animals have shown that morphine can affect NK cell activity, perhaps yielding reduced resistance to tumors. Such changes,...

Virus Host Protein Protein Interaction Screens

As the third component of our integrative approach, we have been systematically examining protein variation and interactions associated with MD resistance. Specifically, we have screened for MDV-chicken protein-protein interactions using a two-hybrid screen. Briefly describing the method, the two-hybrid system screens a cDNA (prey) library that has been fused to the activation domain (AD) of a tran-scriptional activator to identify proteins that interact with bait (protein of interest) that is fused with the DNA-binding domain (BD). As the AD and BD do not need to be physically connected to promote transcription, if the two fusion proteins interact, a reporter gene is expressed. Our hypothesis was that some chicken proteins that interact with MDV proteins are involved in the immune response and genetic resistance to MD. Thus, we could utilize the two-hybrid system to quickly identify Thus, the combined results of a specific MDV-chicken protein interaction, differential expression of...

Safety Considerations

The scarification of the skin during vaccination for smallpox results in viral replication in the dermis, pox formation over 5 to 7 days, and an aggressive immune response against the virus, which eliminates the virus and prevents systemic spread. A permanent scar in the skin results from the infection. It is not difficult to imagine that, if such an infection occurred in an organ such as the brain, this could result in a poor outcome. During vaccination for smallpox, some patients with T cell-deficient immune systems suffered progressive systemic infection and death from vaccinia (63). In vaccine trials for HIV patients, deaths have been attributed to systemic viremia in the setting of an immunocompromised host (91). Although intradermal delivery is quite safe for the vaccine strains, more virulent strains such as WR delivered systemically may be more pathogenic. These viruses need to be carefully examined in preclinical toxicology studies prior to human trials. Other strategies...

Clinical Experience

Vaccinia virus has been used in multiple clinical trials as vaccines for treatment of a variety of tumors as well as treatment of infectious diseases such as rabies and HIV (Table 3). Vaccinia virus has been delivered as subcutaneous, intramuscular, intratumoral, and intravesical (bladder) injections in clinical immunotherapy trials without significant vector-related toxicity (60,103,104). Doses of up to 109 plaque-forming units (pfu) have been delivered safely. Intravenous injection of fowlpox virus has been performed with no significant toxicity however, this species does not replicate in human cells. No systemic injection of a replicating vaccinia virus has been performed in human trials. Eder et al. reported a phase I trial of vaccinia expressing prostate-specific antigen in prostate cancer patients (108). The virus was delivered intradermally every 4 weeks for 3 doses. No significant toxicities were related to the virus, which was a Wyeth strain. A cutaneous reaction consistent...

Diffuse and Organized Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue

The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) represents the largest component of the common mucosal immune system and functions to control intestinal infections. It consists of a diffuse lymphoid compartment containing large populations of lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells (e.g., macrophages, dendritic cells) in the intestinal lamina propria and Peyer's patches, which are organized lymphoid follicles covered by a single layer of specialized epithelial cells (i.e., M cells). Studies of germ-free and gnotobiotic rodents have shown that microflora play a role in the development of the GALT (Bauer et al. 2006). As the inductive site for mucosal immunity, Peyer's patches play a critical role in sampling of luminal contents and initiating adaptive immune responses towards potentially harmful microorganisms and antigenic materials (Mowat 2003). This includes the generation of immunoglobulin A (IgA)-producing lymphoblasts. These cells mature in the system circulation and then traffic as...

Other Components of G lucidum

G. lucidum contains some other compounds that may contribute to its medicinal effect, such as proteins and lectins. The protein content of dried G. lucidum was found to be around 7-8 (49), which is lower than that of many other mushrooms (1). Bioactive proteins are reported to contribute to the medicinal properties of G. lucidum. For example, a protein purified from the mycelium (LZ-8) was found to have immunosuppressive effects (104-106). The content of carbohydrate and crude fiber of the dried mushroom was examined and found to be 26-28 and 59 , respectively, showing G. lucidum is a good source of fiber (49). Lectins were also isolated from the fruit body and mycelium of the mushroom. ''Lectins'' (from the latin word ''legere,'' to pick up, choose) are nonenzymatic proteins or glycoproteins that bind carbohydrate. Many species of animals, plants, and microorganisms produce lectins and these exhibit a wide range of functions. In animals, for example, lectins are involved in variety...

Chicken Soup for the Soul

Real chicken soup starts with fresh organic chicken, especially thighs and legs. There are natural ingredients in animal protein that stimulate the immune system. Start with quality water, filtered with reverse osmosis. Boil the chicken and a whole onion until tender. The only time you want to boil anything is when making soups or sauces because boiling, then draining, eliminates essential nutrients. A lid is useful to keep everything in the pot. Let the chicken cool de-bone all the meat and set it aside. Cut up the onion along with celery and carrots and add to the stock (water flavored by the cooked chicken). Simmer I normally let it simmer 30 to 40 minutes. Add chicken meat, fresh parsley, and Celtic Sea Salt. Let the mixture slowly cook for at least an hour, or until your salivating from the awesome aroma gets the best of you. Prepare brown rice. When all the flavors are blended, ladle out some fresh, soul-refreshing and body-nourishing soup and rice. Enjoy

Cancer Prevention Studies

Some readers may be interested in the potential of selenium in cancer prevention as well as treatment. A number of studies have reported that low selenium levels are associated with increased cancer risk in hu-mans.52'53'54 Low levels have also been associated with increased risk of heart disease and reduced immune function.55 Associations with cancer risk appear to be particularly strong for breast, colon, and prostate cancers. Some examples follow, along with studies that suggest selenium supplementation can reduce cancer risk

Ectodermal dysplasia 165

Individuals affected by EDs have abnormalities of sweat glands, tooth buds, hair follicles, and nail development. Some types of EDs are mild while others are devastating. Many individuals affected by EDs cannot perspire. Air conditioning in the home, school, and workplace is a necessity. Other symptoms may include deficient tears and saliva, frequent respiratory infections, poor hearing or vision, missing fingers or toes, cleft lip and or palate, poor immune system, sensitivity to light, and lack of breast development.

Iron Cell Proliferation and Iron Withholding

Needed for the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase, which plays an essential role in DNA synthesis. In fact, iron availability is commonly growth-limiting for many organisms. Since bacteria need iron, the body has developed ways to withhold iron when faced with infection. A large body of evidence demonstrates that one of the first responses to infection in animals is iron withhold-ing.76 The iron-withholding system can thus be considered part of the natural immune system. Many studies have reported that iron withholding reduces the severity of infection and that high iron levels favor more severe and more frequent infections. Not surprisingly, the body responds to cancer in the same way it responds to infection by withholding iron. Because of this response and the relationship between cancer, the immune system, and iron, it is useful to explore how iron withholding works, how excess iron affects the immune system, and how cancer cells strive to obtain iron. There are at least three ways...

Biology Of Minimal Residual Disease

Primary treatment is linked to an increased risk of late metastatic relapses in breast cancer.57 Thus far, little is known about the conditions required for the escape from the dormant or quiescent phase into the dynamic phase of metastasis formation. The steady-state regulating dormancy might be disturbed by both changes in the DTC (e.g. additional mutations) and the surrounding microenvironment (e.g. decrease in immune surveillance or increased angiogenetic potential).58-60 Among the protein characteristics, expression of the tyrosine kinase receptor HER2 on DTC and CTC appears to be linked to metastatic relapse.44,61 Thus, HER2-mediated signaling might be important for the transition of DTC from a dormant to an active growth stage.

Nutrition for People with Cancer

People with cancer often have increased nutritional needs. As such, it is important for them to consume a variety of foods that provide the nutrients needed to maintain health while fighting cancer. These nutrients include protein, carbohydrates, fat, water, vitamins, and minerals. Nutrition suggestions for people with cancer often emphasize eating high-calorie, highprotein foods. Protein helps to ensure growth, repair body tissue, and maintain a healthy immune system. Therefore, people with cancer often need more protein than usual.

Lung Involvement in SLE

Lung involvement in children with SLE may take several different forms. Most children with SLE never experience lung symptoms. However, weakening of the diaphragm (the muscle that moves the lungs) is a common problem in children with SLE. This makes it more difficult for children with SLE to take a really deep breath or to cough deeply. This poor air movement combined with medications that interfere with the immune response makes children with SLE more vulnerable to pneumonia. In children with SLE, pneumonia needs to be treated aggressively.

Introduction to Vitamin C

Most of the activities listed in Table 15.1 are those that would indirectly inhibit cancer, including actions that inhibit angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis and those that support the immune system. Although data are scarce, it appears that indirect means will likely play a lesser role in tumor inhibition in vivo than direct means. Furthermore, we can estimate that the inferred actions listed are less likely to be involved than the known actions. Indeed, inhibition of metastasis is listed as an inferred activity, yet vitamin C increased metastasis in Chapters 11 and 12 Immune System Support the immune system The known indirect activities listed in Table 15.1 are inhibition of histamine, support of the immune system, and support of ECM integrity (via inhibition of hyalu-ronidase and beta-glucuronidase and stimulation of collagen synthesis).3 Although the ability of vitamin C to inhibit histamine and improve immune response has been demonstrated in healthy humans, it is unlikely...

Other Cancer Treatments

Immunotherapy works to use the body's own defense system to fight cancer. It uses substances designed to strengthen the patient's immune system and make it more effective in rec ognizing and attacking cancer cells. Vaccines are also used to stimulate the immune system. Interferons, chemical messengers used to fight viruses, inhibit tumor cells from reproducing. Hormonal treatments are also under study. Hormones are substances secreted by certain glands that pass into the blood and stimulate the action of specific organs. It has been shown that certain hormones made by the testes and ovaries can influence the growth of tumors in the breast and prostate. Today, instead of surgically removing the testes or ovaries, drugs are used to block the effects of these hormones.

The Virus Lies in Wait

Overall, the body is able to control HIV in the early stages of the disease. Since the body mounts a strong immune response, the vast majority of HIV particles are cleared from the body almost as soon as they are produced. Eventually, the number of viral particles in During clinical latency, reservoirs of HIV are found in lymphoid tissues, such as the lymph nodes. HIV also continues to hide in certain immune cells. Since the viral DNA is integrated into the DNA of these cells, permanent HIV reservoirs are created as long as those cells or their descendants live. This is extremely problematic for fighting the disease because, even though the viral particles in the bloodstream are destroyed by the immune system, the HIV that remains hidden is protected from the immune response. Drugs administered to HIV-positive patients cannot completely eliminate the virus in these reservoirs either. We now know that these reservoirs are established very early in the course of infection,18 says Fauci....

Considering key pros and cons of

1 Taking painkillers when you're in severe pain can also aid your immune system. How Basically, your body won't need to divert so much effort and energy to concentrating so hard on coping with the pain. With pain relief, your immune system can work much more efficiently.

A look at nonspecific host defenses 821 Physical barriers

Enterocytes or intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) form a cohesive barrier preventing ready access of pathogens and many other agents to the internal tissues beyond. These multifunctional cells are active in nutrient transport, exchange of water and electrolytes, hormone production, and also form a protective barrier at the gastrointestinal mucosal interface. In addition to all these roles, IEC are now acknowledged as interactive participants in the mucosal immune response, mediating crosstalk between bacteria in the gut and cells of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (reviewed in Lu and Walker, 2001 Nagler-Anderson, 2001 Sansonetti, 2004). IEC are polarized cells, with an apical surface covered in microvilli, providing an absorptive surface adapted for nutrient uptake and digestion, yet resisting ready entry by bacteria. Tight junctions composed of specialized junctional transmembrane proteins (claudins and occludins) seal each IEC to its neighbor, rendering the epithelial barrier...

The continuing story of gene therapy

Much-publicized bubble boy, David, had this disease. David lived for nine years in a plastic chamber to prevent contact with viruses, which his immune system could not combat. The ideal cells for making copies of introduced genes and spreading them quickly through a patient's bloodstream are the stem cells located in bone marrow. They are rapidly dividing cells that produce all the different types of red and white blood cells found in the body, including those that make up the immune system. Because their function is to generate new cells, genetically altered stem cells can be a source of healthy blood cells for the rest of the patient's lifetime. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to isolate stem cells from bone marrow tissue, and attempts to engineer stem cells have not so far resulted in large numbers of genetically altered cells appearing in the bloodstream. With the success of the lab experiment, researchers were ready to try out the technique on patients suffering from...

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

The occurrence of multidrug resistance is considered to be the major obstacle to the successful chemotherapy of cancer. MDR can be defined as the intrinsic or acquired simultaneous resistance of cells to multiple classes of structurally unrelated drugs that do not have a common mechanism of action. The most widely studied mechanism of MDR is related to an increased drug efflux through overexpression of certain transport proteins, such a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or the Multidrug Resistance Associated Proteins (MRP). These proteins belong to the ABC superfamily of transporters that act as ATP-dependent efflux pumps, and can prevent the accumulation of drugs by expelling them from the cell membrane before they are able to interact with their cellular targets (Szakacs et al., 2006). Nevertheless, MDR is a complex phenomenon resulting from several other biochemical mechanisms. One of these mechanisms is related to resistance to apoptosis, or programmed cell death, which is an essential...

Innate cellular responses frontline defenders

The immune system includes a complex array of cells and biomolecules, which interact to provide protection from challenge by pathogenic microbes, and impaired immune function leads to increased risk of infection by foodborne pathogens. Antigens - substances that induce an immune response - are often components of invading microbes. The immune system can be divided into two branches - the innate (or nonspecific) and the adaptive (or specific) immune response. The innate response (the focus of this chapter) includes certain cell types and molecules able to react to the presence of invading microorganisms and their components, but without a high degree of specificity. Innate immunity is characterized by the speed of its response, and by a lack of memory. Rapid response speed is essential for initial host protection, and reflects the ability of cells in the innate immune system to react rapidly to contact with pathogens, a property enhanced by their pre-positioning at the luminal...

Spiritual Arm Wrestling

Whether in the office, while speaking to groups, or during televised programs, I fondly tell listeners that sugar is from the devil. Sugar paralyzes the immune system thus promoting death. Satan came to steal, kill, and destroy and I believe it has the potential to sabotage your walk with the Lord.

Summary of Research and Conclusions

At least three human studies are indexed, the first reporting that Eleutherococcus stimulated the immune system, including T-cell activity, of healthy volunteers.53 The second study found that Eleutherococcus stimulated the immune system of breast cancer patients, and the third reported it could prevent infection or other postoperative complications of surgery in elderly cancer pa-tients.54'55 Based on these limited studies, it seems likely Eleutherococcus may have an immunostimulating effect in humans and could be useful in cancer treatment.

Other nonspecific host defenses

Another antimicrobial peptide constitutively expressed at the intestinal epithelium is CAMP or LL37, a cathelicidin (Lehrer and Ganz, 2002b). The cathelicidins are believed to play additional roles in coordinating the innate immune response, as they are involved in communication between cells and can stimulate neutrophil chemotaxis and recruit mast cells (Di Nardo et al., 2003). It has also been reported that certain of the defensins have chemotactic activity, acting on macrophages, T cells and dendritic cells (Ganz, 2003). Defensins may also play a signaling role, stimulating a pro-inflammatory response and inducing IL-8 production - a role that may thus have both protective and potentially damaging outcomes for the host (Lin et al., 2004).

Significant Interactions

An increased tolerance for chemotherapy and improved immune function has been demonstrated in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy treatment (Kupin 1984, Kupin et al 1986). Caution, as co-administration may theoretically reduce drug effects. However, beneficial interaction may be possible under medical supervision.

Using probiotics and prebiotics in functional foods issues to consider

Several issues must be addressed in the process of developing probiotics and prebiotics for use in improving host defenses, and these are outlined in Fig. 8.2. Strain variation, host condition and genetic makeup, and the pre-existing resident gut microfloral populations all have the potential to influence the actions of probiotics and prebiotics. Different species and strains of probiotic bacteria show varied effects on the immune system, probably reflecting variation in the efficiency of their interactions with specific cell types, such as macrophages versus intestinal epithelial cells. Certain strains have been reported to induce very different profiles of cytokine production (Perdigon et al., 2002 Cross et al., 2002). For this reason it is unlikely that one strain of probiotic bacteria will be suited for all immunomodulatory purposes - different strains are best suited to different activities. Differences in host condition can also contribute to variation in the effect of...

Transgenic Mouse Models

The function of the basal ganglia is dependent on a wide range of proteins involved in dopamine biosynthesis, metabolism, uptake, and neurotransmission. To elucidate the role of numerous proteins in basal ganglia development, function, dysfunction, and their potential role in PD and its treatments, a wide spectrum of transgenic animals have been developed. These include transgenic mice targeting tyrosine hydrox-ylase, DAT, monoamine oxidase A and B, catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT), dopamine receptors, and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (vmat-2). These mice are instrumental in elucidating the regulation of dopamine neurotransmission and its link to motor behavior. In addition, genes and proteins involved in other features of basal ganglia function or susceptibility to toxicity, but not directly involved in dopamine neurotransmission, have also been developed, including those for neu-rotrophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial-derived neurotrophic...

Sources of further information and advice

Further information about the innate immune system and intestinal epithelial cells The Immune System Part 1. P.J. Delves and I.M. Roitt. 2000. N. Engl. J. Med., 343 37-49. Part 1 of this set of two comprehensive reviews dealing with the actions and participants in the immune system covers the different levels of defense and the cell types involved in the immune response. Instant Notes in Immunology, 2nd edition, by P. Lydyard, A. Whelan, and M.W. Fanger. 2004. BIOS Scientific Publishers, Taylor and Francis Group. This concise text covers key cell types, interactions and organization of the immune system. Bacterial Pathogenesis A molecular approach, by A.A. Salyers and D.D. Whitt. 1994. ASM Press, Washington, DC. This textbook gives additional details about the interactions of several foodborne pathogens with the host and the immune system.

Specific immune mechanisms of defence against foodborne pathogens

The human gastrointestinal tract represents a complex anatomical site with an enormous surface area (400 m2) in which the external environment comes into contact with the host. This region is highly specialised in order to permit adsorption of nutrients from food whilst preventing penetration by pathogens and toxic agents. The lumen of the GI tract also represents an extremely complex microbial ecosystem in which 300-500 different bacterial species compete to reach levels of approximately 1011 CFU g faeces (Simon and Gorbach, 1984). This ecological diversity is further highlighted by recent molecular studies that demonstrate a vast array of unculturable microorganisms in the human GI tract (Eckburg et al., 2005). In order to monitor the GI tract for pathogens and to prevent inappropriate responses to the commensal flora and potential allergens, higher mammals have evolved a complex local immune network that covers the entire GI tract and interacts with the systemic immune and neuronal...

Immune Modulating Effects of Lentinan

The antitumor activity of lentinan resulted from activation of the host's immune functions rather than direct cytotoxicity to target cells (22,26,66,67, 69,70). The mechanism is postulated to involve binding of h-glucan to the surface layer of lymphocyte or specific serum protein. This activated macrophages, T cells, NK cells, and other effector cells, as well as increasing production of antibodies, interleukins, and interferons (45,71,72). Lentinan is considered to be phagocytosed by cells of macrophage lineage present in organs such as liver, spleen, and lung, and activates these cells (54,55,70,7375). Macrophages are the first to recognize foreign bodies as nonself and give this information to lymphocytes to activate the immune system. They probably respond acutely to BRMs such as lentinan. Lentinan has been shown to facilitate the infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages into tumor tissues (64). These results suggested that oral administration of lentinan may serve as a means...

N3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids n3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Deficiency

Some evidence for the essentiality of n-3 fatty acids in humans can be drawn from case reports of patients receiving parenteral nutrition with intravenous lipids containing an emulsion of safflower oil, which is very low in a-linolenic acid and high in linoleic acid. Biochemical changes of n-3 fatty acid deficiency include a decrease in plasma and tissue docosa-hexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrations. There is no accepted cut-off concentration of plasma or tissue DHA concentrations below which functions ascribed to n-3 fatty acids, such as visual or neural function, are impaired. Similarly, there are no accepted normal ranges for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) with respect to synthesis of EPA-derived eicosanoids or regulation of arachidonic acid metabolism and its eicosanoid metabolites, nor are there accepted clinical functional endpoints such as immune response.

Clinical Application And Possible Future Trends

Lentinan appears to be a unique immunological adjuvant with no toxic side effects on in vivo application. It was found to have distinct antitumor and metastasis-inhibiting effect in allogenic, syngenic, and autochthonous hosts, and its mode of action has been elucidated. Several studies have been done on the antitumor activity of L. edodes and it has been widely accepted that activated macrophages, cytotoxic T cells, natural killer cells, and killer T cells usually play important roles in the immunity against tumor. Lentinan has been reported to enhance the activity of these immune systems and its antitumor activity is activated through a host-mediated immune response (10,20,21,45,71,76,137139). Hence, lentinan shows great potential as a candidate for effective therapy of cancer patients.

Dendritic cells as a bridge between innate and acquired immunity

Following penetration of the epithelial layer, foodborne pathogens are exposed to a complex network of immune cells that comprise the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Uptake of antigen by dendritic cells leads to coordination of subsequent immune responses through dendritic cell differentiation, cytokine production and antigen processing and presentation to lymphoid cells. Dendritic cell activity may occur locally with the presentation of antigen to B cells to drive production of secretory IgA (slgA). Alternatively, dendritic cells can migrate to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) where they further drive adaptive immunity by inducing proliferation of antigen-specific T and B cells. The specific features of the ensuing response are influenced by the cellular

Natures magic bullets

Antibodies are part of the body's immune system. Manufactured by B-cells in the spleen, blood, and lymph glands, antibodies are proteins that latch onto invading microbes or other foreign materials, tagging them for destruction by other body cells. Anything that stimulates antibody production is called an antigen. Once produced, antibodies continue circulating in the blood in small quantities. This is the basis of the immune response, which prepares the body for further invasions by the same germ. It also allows doctors to discover a patient's past history of infection, by examining the antibodies in a sample of the patient's blood. For example, researchers at the U.S. National Cancer Institute and the Weizmann Institute in Israel have engineered a gene to produce a molecule that is a cross between a mAb and a T-cell receptor. The hybrid molecule has binding sites for two different targets it latches onto a cancer cell and then invites the body's own immune system to kill that cell....

Future Directions Testing Additional Model Hosts

We were surprised that genes identified as PA14-virulence determinants are not necessarily correlated with the virulence of other strains in which they are found, because this observation suggests that the action of some virulence determinants may depend on the total genomic content. This view contrasts with canonical pathogenicity islands that contain a set of genes acting as an autonomous set, the presence of which directly contributes to overall strain virulence. Since most studies of pathogenicity islands have been carried out in more traditional experimental systems, it is possible that our unexpected observations are a result of using a model host such as C. elegans. Traditional infection systems using mice or other mammals involve a single dose of bacteria, often administered at a low titer and requiring the initial population of pathogens to proliferate and avoid detection by the host's immune response long enough to reach a pathogenic or lethal dose. In contrast, the C....

Knowledge Acquisition

The techniques described so far have mainly focused on interviewing a domain expert in order to encode their knowledge into the system. Knowledge acquisition for expert systems has also benefited from the related field of machine learning (Michalski and Chilausky 1980 Quin-lan 1986 Bareiss, Porter, and Murray 1989 Preston, Edwards, and Compton 1994). Machine learning focuses on getting computer programs to learn autonomously from examples or from feedback to their own behavior. Machine learning techniques have been used most effectively to train expert systems that need to make distinctions such as the distinction between symptoms caused by immune-deficiency diseases versus cancers. The knowledge of the domain is acquired through the machine's experience with training cases rather than by directly encoding instructions from an interview. In domains where the cases and training are available, the knowledge acquisition effort can be quite efficient and effective.

General features and trends of compromising illnesses

One of the challenges of pregnancy is that half the child's genetic traits are from the mother and half are from the father, generating a fetus that is antigenically different from the mother. In order to prevent fetal rejection by the mother, the cell-mediated immune system response is decreased through progesterone production. Unfortunately, the decreased cell-mediated immunity leads to increased vulnerability to a variety of infectious pathogens, such as Brucella, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Hepatitis A and E, Coxiella burnetti, and Toxoplasma gondiae (Smith, 1999). Later in this chapter, Listeria monocytogenes infections will be discussed in more detail.

The Bystander Effect

Local Antitumor Immune Responses Although metabolic cooperation via gap junctions has been consider the major mechanism of the bystander effect, there is a growing interest in the role of the immune system in this phenomenon (Fig. 2). A number of studies have reported the presence of an inflammatory infiltrate in dying or regressing tumors after both HSV-tk and CD gene therapy (46,47). Other investigations have described a lessened response to HSV-tk and GCV therapy for tumors grown in nude mice as compared with immunocompetent animals (23,48). The decreased effect in these athymic and therefore T cell-deficient mice suggests that a T cell-mediated immune response plays some role in tumor regression. In these studies, nude mice and sublethally irradiated mice failed to demonstrate subcutaneous tumor regression when the tumor cell population consisted of 50 HSV-tk-transduced cells. The same experiments in immuno-competent mice, however, did show tumor rejection with the 50...

Chronic Effects Of Abused Drugs

IMMUNOASSAY Immunology is a laboratory science that studies the body's immunity to disease. The basic mechanism of immunity is the binding of drugs or other chemical compounds to antibodies (large proteins produced by the body's immune system). An assay is a general term for an analytical laboratory procedure designed to detect the presence of and or the quantity of a drug in a biological fluid such as urine or serum (the fluid component of the blood obtained after removal of the blood cells and fibrin clot). An immunoassay, therefore, is an analytical procedure which has as its basis the principles of immunology specifically the binding of drugs to antibodies. It may facilitate the reader's understanding of immunoassay to envision the reactions that occur in the body following a vaccination (e.g., polio). The vaccine contains a weak or a killed solution of (polio) virus. When the vaccine is injected into the body, the immune system recognizes the presence of a foreigner (the polio...

Transcriptional Regulation In Gene Therapy

The potential advantage offered by gene therapy over conventional medicine for the treatment of several diseases is unquestionable. It is nonetheless also clear that efficacy, and more importantly safety, remain the main issues to be solved before this technology can be adopted routinely as a standard therapeutic practice (1,2). At the time of writing this article, beginning in 2003, clinical efficacy of gene transfer has been convincingly demonstrated only for Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID). In contrast, safety concerns have been raised as a consequence of adverse side effects in several clinical trials (3-8). Therefore, the major challenge still remains the development of vectors characterized by maximum transduction efficiency combined with minimal toxicity (9,10). In current years the continuous application of ''good basic science'' to the gene therapy field has been directed at fulfilling these two main goals. With the decline of the initial concept of a ''universal...

Probiotics and oral health

The mechanisms of probiotic action in the oral cavity could be similar to those described for the intestine. The mechanisms by which probiotics exert their effects are largely unknown, but may involve modifying pH, antagonizing pathogens through production of antimicrobial compounds, competing for pathogen binding and receptor sites, stimulating immune modulatory cells and producing lactase. It is also showed that they have influence to the immune system through several molecular mechanisms (Bhushan & Chachra, 2010). Probiotic bacteria adhesion to oral soft tissues is another aspect that promotes their health effect to the host. Cell adhesion is a complex process involving contact between the bacterial cell and interaction with surfaces. The epithelial lining of the oral cavity despite its function as a physical barrier, actively participates in immune response. It has been shown that probiotic bacteria can stimulate local immunity and modulate the inflammatory response....

Is there a connection between virus infection and autoimmune disease

An immune reaction to tissue damaged by an immune reaction has been theorized to cause damage to myelin as well as other tissues. There is now good evidence in experimental animals and in humans that this is correct. Another theory is that part of the protein in a virus is similar in some aspect or even identical to a natural protein in myelin or other tissue. As noted previously, an immune reaction to seemingly dissimilar proteins, one being a myelin protein and the other a component of the EBV, has been documented. An immune response to the virus can result in myelin damage. Regulation or control of immune responses may be genetically impaired to a greater or lesser degree in certain patients.

How To Bolster Your Immune System

How To Bolster Your Immune System

All Natural Immune Boosters Proven To Fight Infection, Disease And More. Discover A Natural, Safe Effective Way To Boost Your Immune System Using Ingredients From Your Kitchen Cupboard. The only common sense, no holds barred guide to hit the market today no gimmicks, no pills, just old fashioned common sense remedies to cure colds, influenza, viral infections and more.

Get My Free Ebook