Reasons For High Cholesterol

Beat Cholesterol Guide

Beat Cholesterol In 30 Days is the latest program that teaches people how to control their cholesterol levels, and reduce their risk of a heart attack dramatically. The program also provides people with easy and simple exercises to get lean, fit, and healthy. In addition, this program is designed by Scott Davis, an alternative health expert and medical researcher who has over 14 years of experience in the healthcare industry. Davis shows that lowering your cholesterol is a straightforward process: changing your diet according to the guidelines in the guide will reduce your cholesterol to healthy levels. There's nothing relative or interpreted in this book. Certain foods will make your cholesterol levels better. But some will make them worse, and Davis makes it easy to determine and identify the cholesterol-raising culprits in your cupboard. Davis believes so much in the results of this test that he is offering a no-risk guarantee when you buy his e-book. If for any reason you arent satisfied in the first 60 days you can get your money back. At the very worst, even if you dont learn anything new from this e-book you will get your money back. Continue reading...

Natural Cholesterol Guide Summary


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Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Synthetic vectors are being evaluated for the treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and hyperlipidemias. FH is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. Patients have persistently elevated levels of LDL in their serum, which leads to the development of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (43). Tomita et al. (44) injected a complex of hemagglutinat-ing virus of Japan (HVJ) liposomes and a plasmid expressing the human LDL receptor into the hepatic portal vein of LDL receptor knockout mice. RNA was detected in the livers that peaked at days 7 to 10 after injection, but became undetectable by day 21. At day 7 there was a modest but statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol levels. Another approach being taken to treat hypercholesterolemia is to express apoli-poprotein E, which is involved in removing excess lipopro-teins and cholesterol from tissues. Rinaldi et al. (45) injected a plasmid that...

Effects of mediumchain triglycerides on appetite control

The effect of dietary MCT versus LCT on short-term food intake has been compared in rats (Maggio and Koopmans, 1982 Furuse et al1992). The satiating effect of these two triglycerides appears to be related to their caloric content rather than to chain length (Feinle et al2001 Westerterp-Plantenga, 2004a). In addition, the ingestion of MCT as a bolus does not stimulate contraction of the gallbladder nor raise the plasma cholecystoki-nin (CCK) level in the manner in which it occurs following LCT ingestion (Hopman et al., 1984). This gastric relaxation by MCT is not sufficient to induce satiation therefore, the nutrient-induced gastric relaxation occurs through other mechanisms than CCK (Furuse et al., 1992 Barbera et al 2000). According to Maas et al. (1998), MCT inhibit gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion, but less so than LCT. Overall, it has been determined that the satiating effects of a fat depend on the fatty acid chain length, and moreover that the role of CCK and...

Introduction mediumchain triglycerides and weight control

Lct Mct Digestion

Conventional fats and oils are composed of glycerides of 12- to 18-carbon long-chain fatty acids (LCFA). These compounds are known as long-chain triglycerides (LCT) and are the predominant form of lipids in the diet. Lipids are an essential source of energy and essential fatty acids, and a vital component of body cells. Therefore, it would be beneficial to have a dietary fat with the added benefit of anti-obesity properties. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) have a number of unique characteristics relating to energy density, absorption and metabolism, which give them advantages over the more common LCT. Upon hydrolysis, MCT yield medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) caproic (C6), caprylic (C8), capric (C10), lauric (C12) (Papamandjaris et al., 1997). Naturally occurring sources of MCT are rare, but include milk fat, palm kernel oil, and coconut oil. Human consumption of MCT is currently low but intake should perhaps be greater due to the distinctive properties of MCT, which cause an...

Curcumin Lowers Serum Cholesterol Levels

Numerous studies suggest that curcumin lowers serum cholesterol levels (78-84). Soudamini et al. investigated the effect of oral administration of curcumin on serum cholesterol levels and on lipid peroxidation in the liver, lung, kidney, and brain of mice treated with carbon tetrachloride, paraquat, and cyclophosphamide (81). Oral administration of curcumin significantly lowered the increased peroxidation of lipids in these tissues produced by these chemicals. Administration of curcumin also significantly lowered the serum and tissue cholesterol levels in these animals, indicating that the use of curcumin helps in conditions associated with peroxide-induced injury such as liver damage and arterial diseases. Soni and Kuttan examined the effect of curcumin administration in reducing the serum levels of cholesterol and lipid peroxides in 10 healthy human volunteers receiving 500 mg of curcumin per day for 7 days (82). A significant decrease in the level of serum lipid peroxides (33 ), an...

Cholesterol Reduction

Flavonoids are known to reduce cholesterol. A 30-day study of induced hyperlipidaemia in rats found that baicalein, quercetin, rutin and naringin reduced cholesterol, with baicalein being the most potent. Baicalein was also the most effective flavonoid in reducing triglyceride levels (De Oliveira et al 2002). In another in vivo study, rats were fed a cholesterol-laden diet and half were also given 5. baicalensis radix extract (Regulska-llow et al 2004). The treatment rats displayed a significant reduction in plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol as compared with control animals.

Hypercholesterolemia high blood cholesterol

Tion, sequestration, or excretion from the body is called the cholesterol balance. When cholesterol accumulates, the balance is positive when it declines, the balance is negative. In 1993, the NHLBI National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults issued an updated set of recommendations for monitoring and treatment of blood cholesterol levels. The NCEP guidelines recommended that total cholesterol levels and subfractions of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol be measured beginning at age 20 in all adults, with subsequent periodic screenings as needed. Even in the group of patients at lowest risk for coronary heart disease (total cholesterol < 200 mg dL and HDL > 35 mg dL), the NCEP recommended that rescreening take place at least once every 5 years or upon physical examination. Hypertriglyceridemia An excess of triglycerides in the blood that is an autosomal dominant disorder with the...

Hypercholesterolaemia And Hypertriglyceridaemia

Niacin has been used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridaemia since the 1950s. Large doses of niacin reduce total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoprotein (a) levels and also markedly raise HDL-cholesterol C levels (lllingworth et al 1994). Considering these factors are also predictive of cardiovascular events, niacin is used to reduce overall risk of cardiovascular disease (Canner et al 1986). According to a recent meta-analysis effects on LDL- 2007 Elsevier Australia cholesterol and triglycerides appear to be more significant in females especially at doses > 1 500 mg day (Goldberg 2004). Extended-release niacin (nicotinic acid) has been evaluated in at least four randomised, placebo-controlled trials, with the most efficacious results occurring at doses of 1 500-2000 mg day (Goldberg 1998, Grundy 2002, Guyton et al 2000, Morgan et al 2003). Results were dose- and time-dependent, with trials ranging in length from 4 to 16 weeks. At the...

Type II or Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by elevation of plasma LDL cholesterol levels. Mutations at the LDL receptor gene locus on chromosome 19 are Apo C-II deficiency High Familial hypercholesterolemia Familial combined hyperlipidemia Polygenic hypercholesterolemia High Familial hypercholesterolemia The ranges of LDL cholesterol levels in plasma of FH subjects are 200-400 mgdl1 in heterozygotes and above 450mgdl 1 in homozygotes. The frequency of defects at the LDL receptor locus is about 1 in 500 for the heterozygous state and 1 in a million in the homozygous state. The genetic defect(s) associated with a common form of hypercholesterolemia present in most subjects with cholesterol levels between 250 and 300mgdr1 has not been elucidated. This disorder may be due to a combination of minor gene defects (i.e., presence of apo E-4 allele) that in combination with the environment (i.e., diet, lack of exercise) predispose individuals to...

Reduces Serum Cholesterol Levels

A 2000 meta-analysis of 13 clinical trials concluded that garlic is superior to placebo in reducing total cholesterol levels, exerting a modest effect (Stevinson et al 2001). The mechanism of action involves inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by deactivating HMG-CoA reductase via enhanced phosphorylation, but not changing theamount of the enzyme, according to in vitro research (Liu & Yeh 2002). The compounds containing an allyl-d sulfide or a I lyl-su If hyd ryl group are most likely responsible for the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by garlic and that this inhibition is likely to be mediated at sterol 4-alpha-methyl oxidase (Singh & Porter 2006). Clinical evidence also suggests it raises HDL levels and reduces triglyceride levels (Bordia et al 1998).

Hypertension And Cholesterol Lowering

CoQ10 has been studied both as stand-alone and adjunctive treatment in hypertension. According to a review of 8 studies, supplemental CoQ10 results in a mean decrease in systolic blood pressure of 16 mmHg and in diastolic blood pressure of 10 mmHg (Rosenfeldt et al 2003). The effect on blood pressure has been reported within 10 weeks of treatment at doses usually starting at 100 mg daily. One small 10-week open study of 26 subjects with essential hypertension study found that an oral dose of 50 mg taken twice daily also reduced total serum cholesterol levels with a modest increase in serum HDL-cholesterol (Digiesi et al 1994).

Dietary Cholesterol Intake Patterns

Dietary cholesterol intakes in the United States have been declining, from an average of 500 mg per day in men and 320 mg per day in women in 1972 to levels in 1990 of 360 mg per day in men and 240 mg per day in women. This decline is due in part to dietary recommendations to the US public to reduce total and saturated fat intake and to reduce dietary cholesterol daily intake to less than 300 mg and in part from the increased availability of products with reduced fat and cholesterol content. Major efforts in the early 1970s by public health agencies and advertising emphasized reducing dietary cholesterol as a means to lower plasma cholesterol levels, leading to a high degree of consumer concern regarding cholesterol-containing foods and demand for low-cholesterol products. Today, practically all foods sold in the United States are labeled for their cholesterol content and their percentage contribution to the daily value of 300 mg for cholesterol.

Dietary Cholesterol and Plasma Cholesterol

The effect of dietary cholesterol on plasma cholesterol levels has been an area of considerable debate. In 1972, the American Heart Association recommended that dietary cholesterol intake should average less than 300mgperday as part of a 'heart-healthy,' plasma cholesterol-lowering diet. Since that initial recommendation, a number of other public health dietary recommendations in the United States have endorsed the 300 mg daily limit. Interestingly, few dietary recommendations from other countries contain a dietary cholesterol limitation. The evidence for a relationship between dietary cholesterol and plasma cholesterol indicates that the effect is relatively small, and that on average a change of 100 mg per day in dietary cholesterol intake results in a 0.057 mmoll-1 (2.2mgdl-1) change in plasma cholesterol concentrations. Studies have also shown that the majority of individuals are resistant to the plasma cholesterol-raising effects of dietary cholesterol 'nonresponders' and have...

Cost and regulation of mediumchain triglycerides in different countries

Regulations regarding MCT oils and structured lipids vary between countries. Japan was the first to regulate and implement programs for functional foods. MCFA were approved as FOSHU (Foods for Specific Health Use) for health claims in the category of 'neutral fats and body fats'. In the United States, MCTs benefit from the GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) label provided for use by the FDA, confirming the safety of MCTs in human nutrition. In Canada, MCTs are allowed for use both as a food and as an ingredient in foods. When sold as a food, the acceptable common name is 'Medium Chain Triglycerides' and the abbreviation 'MCT' is not acceptable (Canadian Food Inspection Agency Food Safety Directorate

High Cholesterol

Probiotics modestly reduce cholesterol levels in healthy subjects and may have stronger effects in people with hyperlipidaemia. In another study, 32 subjects with serum total cholesterol ranging from 5.7 to 7.25 mg dL were randomly assigned to two treatments (1) Intake of a low-fat drinking yoghurt prepared with two ordinary yoghurt starters (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus placebo group) and (2) intake of a low-fat drinking yoghurt prepared with the two yoghurt starters plus Bifidobacterium longum strain BL1 (probiotic group). After intake for 4 weeks at 3 100 mL day, reduction of serum total cholesterol was observed in approximately half of the probiotic group subjects a particularly significant decrease in serum total cholesterol was found among subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia (serum total cholesterol > 6.2 mg dL). The serum lipid concentrations in the placebo group subjects were almost stable during the experimental periods...

Better Than Statins

Researchers gave 120 men with high cholesterol either the statin drug, Zocor, or a placebo (sugar pill) and instructed them to eat either their usual diet or a Mediterranean-type diet. After 12 weeks, the diet had cut LDL by 11 percent, Zocor had cut it by 30 percent, and diet plus Zocor cut LDL cholesterol by 41 percent. A bonus the Mediterranean diet wiped out the (unwanted) 13-percent rise in insulin levels caused by the Zocor.29 In our practice, we lower cholesterol up to 40 percent by eliminating sugar and eating beets.

Dietary Cholesterol

All dietary cholesterol is derived from animal products. The major sources of cholesterol in the diet are egg yolks, products containing milk fat, animal fats, and animal meats. Many studies have shown that high intakes of cholesterol will increase the serum cholesterol concentration. Most of this increase occurs in the LDL cholesterol fraction. When cholesterol is ingested, it is incorporated into chylomicrons and makes its way to the liver with chylomicron remnants. There it raises hepatic cholesterol content and suppresses LDL receptor expression. The result is a rise in serum LDL cholesterol concentrations. Excess cholesterol entering the liver is removed from the liver either by direct secretion into bile or by conversion into bile acids also, dietary cholesterol suppresses hepatic cholesterol synthesis. There is considerable variability in each of these steps in hepatic cholesterol metabolism for this reason the quantitative effects of dietary cholesterol on serum LDL...

Are You as Healthy as You Look

Lineman, 6 feet 5 inches, came into my program weighing 328 pounds. He had a BMI greater than 36, a 51.7-inch waist, and a total cholesterol of 227. His HDL was low at 29. Since his triglycerides were 467, we couldn't get an accurate reading on his LDL because, as my doctors tell me, excessively high triglycerides almost always skew the LDL reading. His glucose was 120, just 6 points below the diabetic classification. The real shocker was his blood pressure, which was 190 120. We found out that he had stopped taking his blood pressure medicine and failed to tell either his trainer or the team doctor. If he had not come to us for help, it is highly likely that in the near future he would have had a stroke right there on the field. And this man was considered to be a world-class athlete.

Metabolism Of Vitamin E

The absorption of vitamin E is relatively poor - only some 20 to 40 of a test dose is normally absorbed from the small intestine, in mixed lipid micelles with other dietary lipids. This absorption is enhanced by medium-chain triglycerides and inhibited by polyunsaturated fatty acids, possibly because of chemical interactions between tocopherols and polyunsaturated fatty acids or their peroxidation products in the intestinal lumen. Esters are hydrolyzed in the intestinal lumen by pancreatic esterase and also by intracellular esterases in the mucosal cells.

Cardiovascular Effects

Antihyperlipidaemic Ginsenoside Rb1 has been shown to lower triglyceride and cholesterol levels via cAMP-production in the rat liver (Park et al 2002b). P. ginseng extract (6 g day) for 8 weeks resulted in a reduction in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and plasma malondialdehyde levels and an increase in HDL (Kim & Park 2003) in eight males. Ginseng has also been reported to decrease hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels in rats, indicating a potential use of ginseng in the treatment of fatty liver (Yamamoto et al 1983).

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

The anti-atherogenic properties of n-3 PUFAs are perhaps their ability to modify serum and tissue lipid alterations, while the most consistent finding is a reduction in fasting and postprandial serum triglycerides and free fatty acids (FFA) (Micallef & Garg, 2009). The displayed effects are decreased levels of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) production by the liver, which occurs mostly through a reduction in the synthesis of triglycerides (Micallef & Garg, 2009), largely resulting from interference with most of the transcription factors that control the expression of enzymes responsible for both triglyceride assembly and FA oxidation. This leads to the decreased availability of FFAs released from adipose stores (Micallef & Garg, 2009). Omega-3 PUFAs have been shown to significantly reduce the expression of the sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP), which are transcription factors that regulate cholesterol, FA, and triglyceride-synthesizing enzymes (Micallef...

Fat across the Species Barrier

These claims were based on decades of research. As early as the 1970s, Dhurandhar had observed that a chicken adenovirus, isolated in Bombay, caused chickens to accumulate as much as 50 percent more fat than healthy birds. The virus also lowered the animals' cholesterol and triglyceride levels before it killed them. Normally, obesity in any species is associated with high levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, Dhurandhar noted (Neporent 2005). What interested him at that time though was the odd fact that infected chickens ate no more than uninfected ones. As a result, Dhurandhar and his colleagues identified the infectious agents as Ad-36. This agent was first isolated in humans in 1978 in the fecal matter of a seven-year-old diabetic girl.

Lycopene and Cardiovascular Disease

The European Multicentre Euramic Study, which reported that risk of developing myocardial infarct was inversely related to lycopene intake, after appropriate adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors. Some Scandinavian studies have subsequently supported this claim moreover, lycopene is capable of reducing LDL-cholesterol levels, possibly by inhibiting hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCoA reductase), the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis.

Lipid Lowering Effect

Ha et al. (9) investigated the lipid-lowering effect of C. tora ethanol extacts in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Rats were fed either normal diets or diets high in cholesterol (10 g kg diet), supplemented with C. tora ethanolic extract (0, 0.25, or 0.5 ) for 4 weeks. Liver triglyceride and cholesterol contents were raised in the high-cholesterol groups and were significantly reduced in the groups fed C. tora. Serum levels of HDL cholesterol were slightly increased by consumption of C. tora. The results showed that ethanol extracts of C. tora may exert a lipid-lowering effect in rats fed high-cholesterol diets. Furthermore, Choi et al. (10) indicated that ethanol-treated rats fed with 200 or 400 mg kg body wt. day Cassia ethanolic extract had a hypolipemic effect compared with rats treated with ethanol alone.

Cardiovascular Disease

There are many potential mechanisms by which soy may improve cardiovascular outcomes, including reduction in total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, lipoprotein a, blood pressure, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, endothelial function, systemic artery compliance, and oxidised LDL (Balk et al 2005). A review by the North American Menopause Society suggests that the most convincing health effects of soy can be attributed to the actions of isoflavones on lipids, with studies finding statistically significant reductions in LDL and triglycerides, as well as increases in HDL (Greenwood et al 2000). It is unclear how soy exerts its beneficial effects on lipid metabolism or Soy 1107

Human and nonhuman primate studies

Apolipoprotein A-I is the most abundant protein in HDL and plays an important role in maintaining the structure of HDL and activating lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), an enzyme involved in converting cholesterol to cholesterol ester. HDL appears to be primarily cardioprotective by transporting cholesterol from the periphery to the liver for export as bile acids. This process is termed reverse cholesterol transport. From epidemiological studies, higher levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with a decrease in cardiovascular disease risk. Similar studies have shown that apolipoprotein A-I levels show a similar inverse relationship with risk for cardiovascular disease 4 , Consumption of moderate amounts of alcohol is associated with an increase in HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I. The increases occur in a dose-dependent fashion. As little asl5gof alcohol day can increase apolipoprotein A-I levels in humans 5 , Hojnacki et al. 6 examined the dose response of alcohol on...

The Possible Role of Nutrition in the Pathophysiology of Preeclampsia

Nutritional factors other than antioxidants can also contribute to oxidative stress. Hyper-homocysteinemia can occur as a result of dietary deficiencies. Hyper-homocysteinemia as a risk factor for pre-eclampsia is said to be altered, at least in part, by the genesis of oxidative stress. Vitamin B6 and B12 and folic acid are involved at different steps in the metabolic pathway for removing or recycling homocysteine to methionine. Dietary deficiencies of any of these micronutrients can increase circulating homocysteine. Pre-eclampsia is characterized by increased triglycerides that favor the formation of small, dense low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). This lipoprotein variant has increased access to the subendothelial space where it is sequestered from blood-borne antioxidants. The relevant role of triglycerides in the genesis of pre-eclampsia is indicated by the fact that they are increased long before clinically evident disease. Similarly, free fatty acids are increased in pre-eclampsia...

Postprandial Plasma Lipid Responses To Different Types Of Breads

High-carbohydrate (HC) diets are recommended for lowering the risk of coronary heart disease because they decrease plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations. In the study by Queenan et al. (2007), 75 hypercholesterolemic men and women were randomly assigned to either the 6 g day concentrated oat b-glucan treatment group or the 6 g day dextrose (control) treatment group. After 6 weeks, it was observed that 6 g concentrated oat b-glucan per day during this period significantly reduced the total and LDL cholesterol in subjects with elevated cholesterol, and the LDL cholesterol reduction was greater than the change in the control group. In a study comparing the effects of whole wheat bread and b-glucan supplemented oat bread on the lipid profile, the oat-derived b-glucan was found to significantly improve high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol while diminishing LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol in overweight individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia...

Significant Interactions

The combined use of niacin and statins, including atorvastatin (lipitor), fluvastatin (lescol), lovastatin (mevacor), pravastatin (pravachol), simvastatin (zocor), has been found to provide added therapeutic effects and reduce requirements for statin medications (Gardner et al 1996, 1997, Jacobson et al 1994, Yim & Chong 2003). A review of the combination of once daily, extended-release niacin and lovastatin therapy found that the addition of niacin may enhance or improve the lipid profile of those who require a further decrease of triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and or increase of HDL-cholesterol, even after stable statin therapy. The combination has been found to be safe with no increase in adverse reactions (Yim & Chong 2003) beneficial interaction possible.

Dietary recommendations and therapeutic use

The most important effect of omega-3 PUFAs, and in particular EPA and DHA, is the triglyceride-lowering effect observed in humans (Connor et al., 1993). Lowering circulating triglycerides has been proven to protect against coronary heart disease and the use of fish oil or increased consumption of fish after myocardial infarction reduced reinfarc-tion and mortality (Calder, 2004). The American Heart Association have presented guidelines for dietary fish intake, proposing that patients without documented coronary heart disease should eat a variety of fish, preferably oily fish, twice a week (Kris-Etherton et al., 2002). Patients with documented coronary heart disease should consume dietary supplementation of at least 1 g EPA and DHA per day. Long-chain omega-3 PUFAs derived from fish and fish oils have beneficial effects in people with pre-existing cardiovascular heart disease. One serving of fish per week may decrease the risk of mortality in heart failure by...

Ascorbic Acid in Xenobiotic and Cholesterol Metabolism

There is impairment of drug metabolism in ascorbate-deficient guineapigs, which is normalized on repletion (Zannoni et al., 1972), possibly reflecting the effects of ascorbate on expression of cytochrome P450 (Mori et al., 1997). This may also account for the hypercholesterolemia and impaired synthesis of bile acids that is seen in vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs. Cholesterol 7-hydroxylase, the first enzyme of bile acid synthesis, is cytochrome P450-dependent, and its activity is reduced in deficiency. In general, the effects on collagen synthesis are more marked and more important than those of decreased formation of carnitine (as a result of impaired activity of trimethyllysine and y-butyrobetaine hydroxylases Section 14.1.1), impaired xenobiotic metabolism, or hypercholesterolemia (Section 13.3.8). However, depletion of muscle carnitine may account for the lassitude and fatigue that precede clinical signs of scurvy. Some scorbutic patients develop chest pains, and acute cardiac...

Adverse Effects And Reactions Allergies And Toxicity

Semen ziziphi spinosae is reported to have very low toxicity when taken orally. In laboratory animals (mice and rats), a huge single dose of 50 g kg body weight produced no toxic symptoms, and a daily dose of 20 g kg for 30 days did not produce toxic reactions. Side effects have not been reported. Modern pharmacology evaluation of Semen ziziphi spinosae oil and Semen ziziphi spinosae extract suggests that with prolonged feeding they can reduce serum triglycerides and cholesterol (mainly LDL), and reduce fatty degeneration of the liver. These properties have also been attributed to the triterpenes of ginseng and ganoderma. Despite its strong medicinal effects, this mild-natured herb is relatively safe to use long term, and for children. Reported adverse effects from inappropriate use include fever with aversion to cold, cold sweats, and joint pain. Western herbalists are also considering the Semen ziziphi spinosae as an alternative to kava kava and valerian, due to the latter two...

Biographical Sketches

Peters, Ph.D., is the Associate Director of Food and Beverage Technology and Director of the Nutrition Science Institute at Procter & Gamble Company in Cincinnati. He received his B.S. in biochemistry from the University of California at Davis and his Ph.D. in biochemistry and nutrition from the University of Wisconsin at Madison. Dr. Peters' research has focused on amino acid metabolism and dietary intake, triglycerides and lipid levels in humans, effects of weight cycling on susceptibility to obesity, and effects of fat replacements on energy, fat intake, and micronutrient metabolism. He has served on the scientific advisory board of the Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute on the planning committee of the Cincinnati Health Improvement Collaborative as Vice Chair of the scientific advisory board of the ILSI Center for Health Promotion and Treasurer of the public-private Partnership for Healthy Eating and Active Living. Dr. Peters is currently President of the...

Garlic Allium Sativum

Traditionally garlic has been used for a wide range of conditions, e.g., the common cold and other infections. Today, the main indication for garlic is hypercholesterolemia. A recent meta-analysis (9) included 13 placebo-controlled, double-blind RCTs with a total of 806 patients with hypercholesterolemia. The methodological quality of these studies was good (Jadad score 3-5). The results of the meta-analysis demonstrated a weighted mean difference of 15.7 mg dL (95 CI 25.6 to 5.7). For the most rigorous RCTs, the effect size was only 9.4 mg dL and not any longer statistically significant. Our overall conclusion therefore was ''garlic is superior to placebo .but the effect is modest and of debatable clinical relevance'' (9).

Biomarkers of Diseases

Perhaps the most important outcomes in intervention studies are changes in risk factors or biomarkers of disease, especially for cardiovascular disease. Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL and LDL) concentrations are considered important biomarkers for risk of cardiovascular disease. In a large (N 65) study of men and women consuming six cups of black tea per day, there was no change in plasma LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, or triglycerides compared to a control beverage. However, in a controlled diet study of 12 individuals with slightly elevated LDL-cholesterol, consumption of five cups of black tea per day compared to a control, caffeine-containing beverage resulted in a 6.5 decrease in total cholesterol and an 11.1 decrease in LDL-cholesterol after 3 weeks of consumption. There were no concomitant changes in HDL-cholesterol or triglycerides. A cholesterol-lowering effect of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract has also been observed in a large (N 240), double-blind, randomized...

Dual energy Xray absortiometry DEXA A

Dyslipidemia Disorders in the lipoprotein metabolism classified as hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, combined hyperlipidemia, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. All of the dyslipidemias can be primary or secondary. Both elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and low levels of HDL cholesterol predispose to premature atherosclerosis. use of certain drugs (clofibrate, estrogens, and bile acid sequestrants), and presence of gastrointestinal disease. Gallstones sometimes develop during dieting for weight reduction. There is an increased risk for gallstones and acute gallbladder disease during severe caloric restriction.

Biosynthesis Of Betanin

Prickly pear has long been known in traditional medicine for treating a number of pathologies from ulcer, fatigue, and dyspnea to glaucoma, liver conditions, and wounds (11,13). Studies with different models and several experimental conditions provided some scientific basis for the popular use of this plant. Various preparations from fleshy stems (cladodes) have been tested for treatment of diabetes symptomatology in animal models (14,15), or in humans (16). The mechanism for this action is still unknown some results, however, preclude a role for dietary fiber (15). Other studies revealed beneficial effects against ethanol-induced ulcer (17), in the treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy (18,19), and in hypercholesterolemia in humans (20) and guinea pigs (21). Diuretic activity of cladode, flower, and fruit infusions has been shown in rats (22). Obviously, other investigations are required to gain insight into the active agents in this plant and the mechanisms involved in all the...

In the cardiovascular system

Much evidence has accumulated from various lines of inquiry that indicates that the dietary fatty acid intake and lipid acyl composition of tissues is a determinant of many of the chronic diseases prominent in the Western World, notably cardiovascular disease. It has been appreciated since the 1950s that when dietary polyunsaturated fat intake is increased, a decrease in the total serum and lipoprotein cholesterol levels results 1 . Bang and Dyerberg, in their study of the Greenland Eskimos, a group in which CVD had an extremely low incidence, made the ground breaking inference that the high dietary intake of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentanoate and docosahexaenoate was responsible for this protection from disease 2 , More recently, several epidemiological studies have reported a relationship between dietary n-3 polyunsaturates and the risk of CVD 3-8 , For example, Dolechek et al. found an inverse relationship between alpha-linolenate and mortality from CVD,...

Macronutrient Composition of the Diet

HDL cholesterol The mechanisms whereby saturated fatty acids raise LDL cholesterol levels are not known, although available data suggest that they suppress the expression of LDL receptors. The predominant saturated fatty acid in most diets is palmitic acid (C16 0) it is cholesterol-raising when compared with cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, specifically oleic acid (C18 cis1 n-9), which is considered to be 'neutral' with respect to serum cholesterol concentrations. In other words, oleic acid is considered by most investigators to have no effect on serum cholesterol or lipoproteins. Another saturated fatty acid, myristic acid (C14 0), apparently raises LDL cholesterol concentrations somewhat more than does palmitic acid, whereas other saturates - lauric (C12 0), caproic (C10 0), and caprylic (C8 0) acids - have a somewhat lesser cholesterol-raising effect. On average, for every 1 of total energy consumed as cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acids, compared with oleic acid, the serum...

Structure Of Streptozotocin

Averrhoa Bilimbi Leaf Cholesterol

Blood-Lipid and Cholesterol-Lowering Effect The daily administration of ABe per orally (125 mg kg twice a day) for 14 days to STZ-diabetic SD rats caused a reduction in the serum triglycerides and an increase in HDL cholesterol. However, ABe did not decrease the serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. This leads to an increase in the antiathero-genic index and HDL cholesterol total cholesterol ratio (11). Moreover, the daily administration of ABe (125 mg kg) and metformin (500 mg kg) to STZ-diabetic rats twice a day for 2 weeks caused a reduction in food and water intake and an increase in body weight (11). Since ABe increased HDL cholesterol, it significantly increased the antiatherogenic index and HDL cholesterol total cholesterol ratio. ABe thus has the potential to prevent the formation of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, which are the secondary diabetic complications of severe diabetes mellitus (13). In contrast, metformin failed to increase the HDL-cholesterol level...

Novel Medical Treatments


The presence of a lithogenic bile is primarily a result of a sustained hypersecretion of biliary cholesterol, which has 2 key components hepatic and intestinal.31 In principle, drugs influencing hepatic synthesis and or secretion of cholesterol (ie, statins) and or Inhibition of Hepatic Cholesterol Synthesis by Statins Statins are competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis. They occupy a portion of the binding site of HMG CoA, blocking access of this substrate to the active site on the enzyme.124 Currently available statins in the United States include lovastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin, and rosuvastatin. Statins seem also to reduce cholesterol secretion and concentration in bile independently of their ability to block hepatic cholesterol synthesis.125-128 Such combined effects of statins on cholesterol homeostasis in the liver and bile might be able to lower the...

Chemical composition

The lipids of sesame seeds are mostly composed of neutral triglycerides with small quantities of phosphatides (0.03-0.13 with lecithin caphalin ratio of 52 46). The phosphatides also contain about 7 of a fraction soluble in hot alcohol but are insoluble when cold. Sesame oil, however, has a relatively high percentage (1.2 ) of unsaponifiable matter (Johnson and Raymond, 1964 Weiss, 1983). The glycerides are mixed in type, principally oleo-dilinoleo, linoleo-dioleo triglycerides and triglycerides with one radical of a saturated fatty acid combined with one radical each of oleic and linoleic acids (Lyon, 1972). The glycerides of sesame oil, therefore, are mostly triunsaturated (58 mol ) and diunsaturated (36 mol ) with small quantities (6 mol ) of monounsaturated glycerides. Trisaturated glycerides are almost absent in sesame oil. The unsaponifiable matters in sesame oil include sterols (principally comprising P-sitosterol, compesterol and sigma sterol), triterpenes (triterpene alcohols...

Oligonucleotide Formulations

The barrier properties of human skin have been an area of multidisciplinary research for a long time. Skin is one of the most difficult biological membrane to penetrate, primarily due to the presence of stratum corneum (SC), which is composed of corneocytes laid in a brick-and-mortar arrangement with layers of lipid. The corneocytes are partially dehydrated, an-uclear, metabolically active cells completely filled with bundles of keratin with a thick and insoluble envelope replacing the cell membrane (179). The primary lipids in the SC are ceramides, free sterols, free fatty acids, and triglycerides

Cant get an erection

Or pituitary gland, or a deficiency of testosterone may cause impotence. Disease of the arteries and veins may cause impotence. Smoking, diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol promote disease of the arteries. Men with arterial disease may have difficulty in attaining an erection, whereas men with disease of the veins may have difficulty in maintaining an erection. Disease of the veins results in impotence because the veins are unable to constrict. After an erection is attained, blood normally leaks from the penis back into the veins, causing the penis to soften. After an erection is attained, the veins constrict, preventing leakage of blood from the penis maintaining the erection.

Secondary Metabolites

Of thioesters or amides, results in a huge number of possible structures. Polyketide secondary metabolites include orsellinic acid, tetrahydroxynaphthalene (precursor for melanin), statins, fumonisin, and the aflatoxins, which are some of the most toxic compounds on earth. The function of aflatoxins in fungi is unknown however, after consumption of plant material contaminated by Aspergillus spp, toxicosis followed by death can occur in even large animals by almost undetectable quantities. Species' susceptibility varies greatly however, the liver is the primary target, where cytochrome P450 enzymes convert aflatoxins to the reactive 8,9-epoxide form (Mishra and Das 2003). The reactive aflatoxin epoxide then binds to eukary-otic DNA and proteins, specifically the N7 position of guanines. Aflatoxin-DNA adducts can result in GC to TA transversions, and it's carcinogenic potency is highly correlated with the extent of aflatoxin-DNA adducts formed in vivo (Bennett and Klich 2003). While...

Linda A Jacobs Jane Alavi Angela DeMichele Steven Palmer Carrie Stricker and David Vaughn

Angela Demichele

Shortness of breath High cholesterol Forgetfulness Trouble concentration Trouble with calculations Rapid heart rate Chest pain Tightness in your chest Arm swelling side of your surgery Hand swelling side of your surgery Broken bones Bone pain Urinary frequency Burning when urinating Urine leakage when coughing Numbness tingling in hands Numbness tingling in feet Hot flashes Night sweats Vaginal dryness Decreased desire for sex Decreased satisfaction with sex Ringing in your ears Decreased hearing Weight gain (more than 10 lbs) Weight loss (more than 10 lbs)

Nutritional summary

Deficiency Deficiency is very unlikely to occur except in people with very rare genetic disorders or during prolonged starvation. Symptoms include anemia, low white cell count, accelerated bone mineral loss, and increased blood pressure and cholesterol levels. If intakes are low, stores last only a few weeks.

Polyunsaturated fatty acids on energy metabolism and other factors connected to weight control

The length and the degree of saturation of fatty acids influence the biophysical properties of the lipids. This has, for example, effects on the digestion and absorption of the fatty acids from the intestine (Small, 1991). Different sources of fat are composed of different types of triglycerides. Triglycerides are digested in the intestinal lumen by lipases to produce fatty acids and monoacylglycerol and the absorption of fatty acids from the intestinal lumen is generally an efficient process. After absorption, the fatty acids are taken up by the enterocytes where the triglycerides are reconstructed, packed in chylomicrons and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs) and secreted into the lymph. From the lymph, the triglycerides are transported to various capillary beds where they bind to the capillary surface. Here, they are hydrolysed by lipoprotein lipase and the surrounding adipocytes or muscle cells take up the free fatty acids. However, the triglycerides containing long-chain PUFAs...

Uses Of Laser And Rapeseedoliveoil

Density Ranges Lipoproteins

In energy from saturated fatty acids, serum LDL cholesterol concentration increases by 0.033 mmol L (Mensink and Katan, 1992), 0.036 mmol L (Clarke et al., 1997), or 0.045 mmol L (Hegsted et al., 1993). Although all fats will increase serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration relative to carbohydrate, the increase attributable to saturated fats is greater than that observed for monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Serum HDL cholesterol concentration increases by 0.011 to 0.013 mmol L for each 1 percent increase in saturated fat (Clarke et al., 1997 Hegsted et al., 1993 Mensink and Katan, 1992). A report from the Netherlands suggested that a diet enriched with elaidic acid (a subfraction of 18 1 trans) compared to one enriched with oleic acid (18 1 cis) increased total and LDL cholesterol concentrations and decreased HDL cholesterol concentrations, hence resulting in a less favorable total cholesterol HDL cholesterol ratio (Mensink and Katan, 1990)....

Basis For Gene Therapy For

IEM can also be caused by deficiency of protein that is involved in the transport of metabolite (Fig. 2b). Examples include the cystine transporter in cystinosis and the LDL (low-density lipoprotein) receptor in familial hypercholesterolemia. In this class of disorder, a metabolite accumulates in one tissue as result of an enzymatic deficiency (Fig. 3a). This leads to increased metabolite levels in the blood and toxicity in other tissues. The prototype for this type of disorder is phenylketon-uria in which deficiency of hepatic phenylalanine hydroxylase leads to increased blood levels of phenylalanine and toxic effects to the developing brain. Familial hypercholesterolemia is another IEM that fits this model. Deficiency of the LDL receptor in the liver leads to increased levels of LDL and subsequent damage to the coronary arteries.

Type A Personality and Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular disease is one of the most frequent causes of death and disability in the United States. Health professionals have been searching for the factors that put people at risk for this disease. Known risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease include high blood pressure, obesity, smoking, family history of heart disease, inactive lifestyle, and high cholesterol. In the 1970s, physicians began to consider a new risk factor , a specific personality trait. As mentioned in Chapter 13, this grew out of the observation by some physicians that the patients who had had heart attacks often behaved dif fer-ently, and they seemed to have different personalities, compared with other patients. The heart attack patients were often more competitive and aggressive, more active and energetic in their actions and speaking, and more ambitious and driven (Friedman & Rosenman, 1974). They called this collection of behaviors the Type A personality. Early studies of the Type A...

Nutrition and Sutoxins

Boils, eczema, fluor albus etc.803 Because pig meat had a high energy density it would first be stored in the connective tissue if eaten excessively. In Reckeweg's opinion this led to the obesity (adiposity) typical in pork eaters. Eating too much pork would also result in raised cholesterol levels which could cause high blood pressure, arteriosclerosis or circulatory disorders, myocardial infarction etc.804 The sulphur-rich mucous substance of the connective tissue presented a particular risk, Reckeweg warned. Homotoxicology blamed amino sugars, hexosamines and sulphurous substances such as chondroitin sulphuric acid and mucoitin sulphuric acid for the mucous swelling of the connective tissue.805

Curcumin Inhibits Myocardial Infarction

In another study, Babu and Srinivasan showed the hypolipidemic action of curcumin in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes (102). Rats were maintained on 0.5 curcumin-containing diet for 8 weeks. The diet lowered blood cholesterol significantly exclusively by decreasing the LDL-VLDL fraction. A significant decrease in blood triglyceride and phospholipids was also brought about by dietary curcumin. In a parallel study, wherein diabetic animals were maintained on a high-cholesterol diet, the extents of hypercho-lesterolemia and phospholipidemia were higher than in those maintained on the control diet. Curcumin lowered cholesterol and phospholipid levels in these animals also. Liver cholesterol and triglyceride and phospholipid contents were elevated under diabetic conditions. Dietary curcumin showed a distinct tendency to counter these changes in lipid fractions of liver. This effect of curcumin was also seen in diabetic animals maintained on a high-cholesterol diet. Dietary...

Think I am a good candidate for gastric bypass surgery What do I need to do to obtain insurance coverage for this

Ship with your primary care doctor, he or she will know about your weight loss attempts and will be treating you for any of your obesity-related illnesses or conditions (elevated cholesterol and triglycerides, gallstones, pancreatitis, abdominal hernia, fatty liver, diabetes or prediabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome, high blood pressure, heart disease, pulmonary hypertension, stroke, blood clots in the legs and lungs, sleep apnea, arthritis, gout, lower back pain, infertility, urinary incontinence, or cataracts). As a way to boost your chances of immediate approval by your insurance company, I advise asking some of your other physicians to also write a letter of support to your insurance company. This might include your pulmonary doctor (if you have any obesity-related lung problems such as sleep apnea) your endocrinologist (if you have diabetes or poly-cystic ovary syndrome) your obstetrician-gynecologist (if you have obesity-related infertility or menstrual problems) your...

Chitosan plus herbal extracts

Polymer also possessing medicinal activities, such as antifungal, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, anticancer, antiplaque, ant tartar, hemostatic, wound healing, and potentiates anti-inflammatory response, inhibits the growth of cariogenic bacteria, immunopotentiation, antihypertensive, serum cholesterol lowering, increases salivary secretion (anti-xerostomia), and helps in the formation of bone substitute materials. The adherence of oral bacteria on the tooth surface leads to plaque formation. It is believed that the adhesion between the bacteria and the tooth surface is due to electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. These interactions are disrupted by chitosan derivatives because of competition by the positively charged amine group. The antibacterial activity of chitosan could be due to the electrostatic interactions between the amine groups of chitosan and the anionic sites on bacterial cell wall because of the presence of carboxylic acid residues and phospholipids. Use of most of...

Classification of Hyperlipidemia

A (mild hypercholesterolemia) hypercholesterolemia) hypercholesterolemia and or Causes of Hypercholesterolemia level. Occasionally, a raised HDL level is responsible for high cholesterol, as seen in the familial condition of primary hyper-a-lipoproteinemia. Secondary causes given in Table 6 include hypothyroidism, nephrotic syndrome, some cases of diabetes mellitus, and cholestasis. Primary causes include polygenic familial hypercholesterolemia, in which several gene abnormalities together with environmental effects serve to raise serum cholesterol. Several genetic loci contribute to increased plasma LDL levels, but there are five specific monogenic disorders that increase LDL familial hypercholesterole-mia (LDL receptor gene), familial ligand-defective apoB-100 (apoB gene), autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH gene), sitosterolen (ABCG5 or ABCG8 genes), and cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP7A1 gene). Much less common, but more clearly defined, are the two autosomal...

Introduction Of Oral Drug Delivery

An ion-exchange resin (IER) comprises an insoluble, commonly synthetic matrix possessing ionizable groups capable of exchanging ions with those in bulk solution with which it is in contact. Thus, under appropriate conditions it can deliver to or sequester chemical species from an aqueous environment. The process is reversible, exchange capability being regenerated by washing the resin with an excess of the originally bound ions. The technology is utilized in many industrial applications such as chemical and biosynthesis, food processing and agriculture. In the pharmaceutical industry it is used to separate and purify proteins, nucle-otides and amino acids. Use in dosage form design may improve bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs, mask bitter taste and control drug release, either to enhance effectiveness or possibly inhibit narcotic abuse. Resins are also used as therapeutic agents for lowering cholesterol, potassium reduction and in chronic renal failure.

Digestion Absorption and Elimination

Digestive System

The beef of the hamburger also contains fats, as does the oil in which the fries are prepared. Fats, also called lipids, may or may not be broken down to get them into the lining cells of the digestive tube. Different types of fats were described in Chapter 2. Cholesterol is absorbed whole, while triglycerides are broken apart every time they must enter or leave a cell. Triglycerides cannot pass through any cell membrane intact, but cholesterol can. Triglycerides are composed of a single glycerol and three fatty acid chains. The fatty acid chains can be either saturated or unsaturated. Saturated fatty acids contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms, or are saturated with them, while unsaturated fats are missing two or more hydrogen atoms. Because the fatty acid chains are absorbed through the digestive tube as is, the body will build up a supply of triglycerides that contains whichever type of dietary fatty acids we ingest. If a person eats food high in saturated fatty acids, the...

Searching For Human Lith Genes

Because of its multifactorial pathogenesis, it is difficult to identify human gene abnormalities that are responsible for the formation of cholesterol gallstones. Monogenic predisposition for cholelithiasis has only been ascribed to mutations in the genes in specific subgroups of patients. Table 2 summarizes human LITH genes that have been identified and updated in 2008. Missense mutations in the ABCB4 gene, which encodes the phospholipid transporter in the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes, are the basis for a particular type of cholelithiasis. The disorder is characterized by intrahepatic sludge, gallbladder cholesterol gallstones, mild chronic cholestasis, a high cholesterol phospholipid ratio in bile, and recurrent symptoms after cholecystectomy.42,43 A defect in the ABCB4 gene could constitute the basis for this highly symptomatic and recurrent form of gallstone disease. In patients with hepatolithiasis, a common disease in Asia, low expression levels of ABCB4 and...

Will I need to have a cardiac stress test also called an exercise test before surgery

It is possible your surgeon will want you to have an exercise stress test prior to your surgery. People who are likely to require a stress test include people who have had heart disease, diabetes, or a stroke. In addition if you have multiple heart disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, cigarette smoking, or a strong family history of heart disease your doctor may request that you have a stress test. Men over the age of forty-five and women over fifty-five may also require a stress test.

Guidelines For Management Of Gallstone Disease

Gall Bladder

Gallbladder stones are frequently found in asymptomatic patients during routine abdominal ultrasonography, because in most cases (60 -80 ) gallstones do not generate symptoms.43,48,49 Previous observations have shown that the average risk of developing symptomatic gallstones is 2.0 to 2.6 per year.45,50 By contrast, the presence of microstones and sludge in the gallbladder is a major risk factor for the development of biliary pain and complicated gallstone disease, and also plays a main role in the cause of acute otherwise idiopathic pancreatitis.51-53 Nevertheless, the yearly incidence of complications is low (0.3 ), and the annual risk for gallbladder cancer is as low as 0.02 .54,55 Treatment of asymptomatic patients with gallstones, therefore, is not routinely recommended, as the overall risk of biliary colic, complications, and gallbladder cancer is low.56-58 Expectant management is considered the appropriate choice in most asymptomatic patients with gallstones (grade A). The...

Indications Camelthorn

Abscess (f BIB KAB) Adenopathy (f JLH UPW) Anorexia (f BIB SAY) Arthrosis (f GHA) Asthma (f BIB) Atherosclerosis (1 WO3) Bacteria (1 WO2) Biliousness (f DEP) Bleeding (f BIB) Bronchosis (f BIB) Cancer (f JLH) Cancer, abdomen (f JLH) Cancer, gland (f JLH) Cardiopathy (1 X1305866) Cataract (f GHA PAY) Catarrh (f PAY) Cerebrosis (f BIB) Constipation (f PAY) Corneosis (f BIB) Cough (f DEP PAY) Dermatosis (f BIB) Diarrhea (f1 SAY X15138016) Enterosis (f UPW) Epistaxis (f BIB) Fever (f PAY) Gastrosis (f PAY) Gingivosis (f PAY) Halitosis (f PAY) Headache (f BIB WO3) Hematachezia (f PAY) Hemicrania (f BIB KAB) Hemorrhoid (f BIB KAB) High Blood Pressure (1 WO3) High Cholesterol (1 WO3) High Triglycerides (1 WO3) Impotence (f PAY) Infection (f1 PAY WO2) Jaundice (f GHA) Leprosy (f BIB KAB) Migraine (f BIB) Nephrosis (f PAY) Obesity (f1 BIB KAB WO3) Odontosis (f PAY) Opacity (f BIB) Ophthalmia (f KAB) Pain (f1 GHA WO3 X15507342) Polyp (f JLH) Pulmonosis (f JLH PAY WO3) Rheumatism (f PAY WO2)...

Ayervedic Medicine Dr Abel

The Chinese herb Jue-ming-zi has been used in many traditional Chinese medical prescriptions. C. tora was first recorded in Shen-Nung-Pen-Tsao-Ching as upper category, and in the successive Pen-Tsao of descending dynasties. It is used to remove ''heat'' from the liver and improve visual acuity, to moisten the supposedly dry digestive apparatus, and to facilitate bowel movement as a laxative. Previous studies on C. tora show its therapeutic effects on hypertension (7,8), on hypercholesterolemia (9,10), as an antihepatotoxin (11), an antimicrobial (12-14), on blood platelet coagulation (15), on the eyes, and in constipation (16). This herb has been reported to contain many active substances, including chrysophenol, emodin, rhein, etc. (17). Recently many researchers have studied the antioxidant activity and antigenotoxicity of C. tora. Choi et al. (18) reported that anthraquinone aglycons and naphthopyrone glycosides from C. tora had inhibitory activity against aflatoxin B1 in the Ames...

Gallbladder And Intestinal Motility

And relatively high cholesterol secretion. There is also a progressive concentration of gallbladder bile during this period, which is partially counteracted by periodic interdigestive gallbladder contraction in association with antral phase 3 of the migrating motor complex of the intestine.

Potato tule See arrowhead

Prairie oyster Traditional cure for a hangover a raw egg with Worcestershire sauce and brandy the egg is swirled with the liquid but the yolk remains intact. pravastatin See statins. probucol Drug used in treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia acts by inhibiting synthesis of cholesterol and increasing catabolism of low-density lipoprotein (see lipoproteins, plasma).

Health and nutritional benefits of breadfruit

Breadfruit is a staple food sought after because it is an inexpensive source of high energy. Compared to banana, cassava, plantain, taro, and sweet potato, it is a relatively good source of calcium (Monro et al., 1986). Potassium and phosphorus have been reported in relatively good quantities, although amounts may vary between cultivars. Compared to other tropical starchy foods, it is an acceptable source of vitamin C (20 mg 100 mg of pulp) and has good levels of iron, niacin, and riboflavin at all stages of maturity. Although not high in protein, the amino acid profile of its protein is favorable. Breadfruit also contains significantly high amounts of fiber. According to the American Heart Association, fiber decreases bad cholesterol and triglycerides, which increase the risk of heart attack. An increased intake of fiber lowers low-density lipoprotein (bad) cholesterol levels while elevating high-density lipoprotein (good) cholesterol levels in the body. Breadfruit protects the body...

Understanding Popular Diets

What about the popular diets promoted to the general public over the 30 years since those guidelines were published Initially, most programs followed the low-fat, high-carb orthodoxy. The most popular was the Pritikin Diet. This regimen requires severe total fat restriction. In recent years, Pritikin has liberalized its view of nonsaturated fats. I admire the Pritikin doctors for their commitment to prevention of heart disease, which has included the successful promotion of exercise. But the problem with the Pritikin Diet, which its proponents acknowledge, is that it is hard to follow and requires a tremendous commitment on the part of the patient. Also, the high carbohydrate content of the diet can worsen cholesterol and triglycerides in certain patients. It definitely is not a diet for the general public.

Fat Distribution and Disease Risk

Researchers have found positive correlations between fasting glucose, insulin, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triaclyglycer-ols using imaging techniques, sagittal diameter, waist circumference, and WHR in most, but not all, studies. Visceral fat and HDL cholesterol are inversely associated. The strength of the associations varies but tends to be largest for triaclyglycerols. Associations are reduced after controlling for BMI and age. disease risk factors, including abdominal obesity, cluster in individuals. This cluster of risk factors is referred to as metabolic syndrome. The other risk factors in metabolic syndrome are insulin resistance glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia (high triaclygly-cerols and low HDL cholesterol), and high blood pressure.

Indications Fenugreek

Enteralgia (f APA CRC) Edema (f BOW) Enterosis (f BGB BOU PH2 WOI) Exhaustion (f MAD) Fever (f1 APA BOU CRC PH2 X15374601) Fistula (f CRC) Fracture (f HJP) Furunculosis (f BGB HHB PHR VAD), Gas (f1 APA) Gastrosis (f APA BGB BOU CAN GMH) Gonorrhea (f UPW) Gout (f BGB CAN CRC GMH) Hay Fever (f PED) Helicobacter (1 X15331344) Hemorrhoid (f MAD NAD) Hepatosis (f CRC JLH KAP) Hernia (f APA BGB CRC PH2) High Blood Pressure (f1 CAN HJP), High Cholesterol (2 APA BRU CAN SKY) High Triglycerides (1 BGB SKY) Hyperlipidemia (1 BGB) Impotence (f APA CRC PH2) Impotence (f DAA) Infection (1 APA WOI X15331344) Inflammation (f12 APA BRU KOM PH2 X15374601) Itch (f BOU) Ischemia (1 X16205934) Kidney stone (1 JEB26 249) Labor (f1 APA) Leprosy (f UPW) Leukorrhea (f KAP) Lymphadenitis (f BGB CAN) Mastosis (f JLH) Muscular Dystrophy (f UPW) Myalgia (f BGB CAN) Nematode (1 PR15 538) Nephrosis (f APA CRC JLH) Neuralgia (f APA CRC) Neurasthenia (f BOW GMH NAD) Ophthalmia (f JLH VAD) Orchosis (f JLH)...

Dietary and Nutritional Management of Secondary Undernutrition

In juvenile cholestasis, large amounts of fat-soluble vitamin supplements and medium-chain triglycerides are usually required for optimum growth. With protracted secretory diarrheal diatheses, fluid and electrolyte balance may be the primary concern, followed by macro- and micronutrient nutriture, invoking the institution of parenteral feeding. Cancer cachexia is a major secondary consequence of disseminated neoplasms. It is tempting to prescribe aggressive nutritional support, but a caveat is that certain nutrients acting with certain neoplasms favor the tumor's growth and dissemination. To the extent that various forms of cachexia are partly driven by catabolic responses mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, antagonists directed at counteracting their action hold promise for retarding the nutrient-wasting in various forms of cachexia.

Tocopherols and Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiological Evidence

In the ASAP study, men and women (all subjects had hypercholesterolemia at entry) were given vitamin E (91 mg twice daily), slow-release vitamin C (250 mg twice daily), a combination of both, or placebo for 3 years. The progression of atherosclerosis (the mean intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery measured) was significantly retarded only in the men who smoked and took both vitamins. It is important to note that, in general, women develop fewer cardiovascular events than do men. Thus, women may profit less from vitamin E treatment than men. In studies in which many women are enrolled, the low incidence of CVD may weaken the statistical power of the overall trial.

Solanaceae Nightshade family

One benefit of lycium that is generally accepted is to promote a healthy gut flora, while lowering bad LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels in the bloodstream. The berries serve to stabilize the capillaries, veins, and arteries throughout the body. They work on thread and varicose veins, and fragile capillaries that bleed under the skin. They also help to reduce narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis), thereby benefiting cold hands and feet. high cholesterol

Recognizing Causative Factors of Undernutrition

A wide variety of prescribed drugs can cause anorexia, nausea, and other symptoms of gastrointestinal distress in older persons, rendering medication review an important component of nutritional management. Digoxin, theophylline, and nonstero-idal anti-inflammatory agents are frequent culprits in this regard. Enquiry must also be made into the use and tolerance of self-prescribed medication. Offending drugs, once identified, must be discontinued. Iatrogenesis also contributes to undernutrition by way of therapeutic diets. Low-cholesterol and low-salt diets are often prescribed to older persons on the basis of data extrapolated from younger persons. There is currently little evidence to suggest that these diets are of any benefit to older persons when used as primary prevention strategies. Available data actually indicate increased mortality in older adults with low-cholesterol levels. Evidence suggests that hypocholesterolemia may reflect increased cytokine expression in acutely ill...

High carbohydrate very low fat

If the right types of carbohydrates are eaten, this is probably a healthy way to eat, but it's so lopsided in favor of carbohydrates, you can't really say it's balanced and this approach definitely isn't for everyone. When it comes to shifting body composition from fat to muscle, many people simply don't respond well to high carbohydrates, no matter how carefully they are chosen. Very high carbohydrate, low fat diets are also a bit light on essential fats, and the protein levels are too low to support serious weight training. Some extremely carbohydrate-sensitive people actually see increases in cholesterol and triglycerides when their carbs are too high.

Storage Disease Metabolic Diseases

Another of the more common metabolic liver diseases is glycogen storage disease (GSD), a group of disorders that are associated with glycogen accumulation in the liver and other tissues due to specific defects in glycogenolysis. In this disease, mainly GSD type Ia is of interest with regard to imaging studies, since hepatomegaly with development of liver cell adenoma is a common finding. In GSD type Ia, there is developmental delay, hypoglycemia, metabolic aci-dosis, elevated triglycerides and uric acid levels in the blood, hepatomegaly, hepatic adenomas (Fig. 28), and HCC due to defects in the catalytic subunit of glucose-6-phosphatase. In GSD type Ib, the patients also have neutrophil dysfunction and recurrent infections due to a primary defect in a mi-crosomal glucose-6-phosphate transporter. In GSD type III, in which there is a defect in the glycogen debrancher enzyme, hepatomegaly occurs but liver dysfunction is rare. In GSD type IV, in which there is...

Digestion In The Small Intestine

Fat Absorption

Digestive enzymes break starch, proteins, triglycerides, and nucleic acids into intermediate size pieces. Pancreatic amylase breaks down starch. The bicarbonate from the pancreas creates the alkaline conditions needed for amylase and other enzymes to function. Amylase does not break starch into glucose monosaccharide units, but into smaller pieces, including the disaccharide maltose. Thus far in the digestive process, the disaccharides, such as sucrose (from table sugar and fruits) and lactose (from milk, such as the chocolate shake in our example), that are ingested have not been broken down. Dietary triglycerides are broken apart by pancreatic lipase. Lipid absorption is a more complicated process. Glycerol and short chain fatty acids from triglycerides are absorbed by simple diffusion across the cell membranes in the digestive lining. Cholesterol and long chain fatty acids cannot diffuse through the cell membranes and must be handled differently. Bile salts combine with these fats...

N6 and n3 Fatty Acids Sources Desaturation and Elongation

LA, ALA, and their long-chain derivatives are important components of animal and plant cell membranes. In mammals and birds, the n-3 fatty acids are distributed selectively among lipid classes. ALA is found in triglycerides, in choles-teryl esters, and in very small amounts in phos-pholipids. EPA is found in cholesteryl esters, triglycerides, and phospholipids. DHA is found mostly in phospholipids. In mammals, including humans, the cerebral cortex, retina, and testis and sperm are particularly rich in DHA. DHA is one of the most abundant components of the brain's structural lipids. DHA, like EPA, can be

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention Adverse Effects And Reactions

Almonds in the daily diet reduced LDL cholesterol by as much as 9.4 , reduced the LDL HDL ratio by 12.0 , and increased HDL cholesterol by 4.6 (Jenkins et al., 2002). Claimed health benefits of almonds furthermore include improved complexion, improved transition of food through the colon, and even the prevention of cancer. Recent research associates the inclusion of almonds in the diet with elevating the blood levels of beneficial high density lipoproteins, and lowering the levels of low density lipoproteins. High concentrations of phenolics and flavonoids in the testa provide for antioxidative efficacy (Wijeratne et al., 2006). Bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus var. amara) in particular accumulate substantial amounts of the cyanogenic di-glycoside amygdalin (D-mandelonitrile-b-D-gentiobioside Figure 14.1) in their seeds. The seeds can contain up to 5 amygdalin ( 1 mg hydrogen cyanide per seed), and 10 15 seeds are considered lethal for children while 50 60 seeds represent a critical...

Fat Function Metabolism and Storage

Fats are metabolized primarily in the small intestines because the enzymes of the stomach cannot break down fat molecules due to their hy-drophobicity. In the small intestines, fat molecules stimulate the release of cholecystokinin (CCK), a small-intestine hormone, into the bloodstream. The CCK in the blood triggers the pancreas to release digestive enzymes that can break down lipids. The gallbladder is also stimulated to secrete bile into the small intestines. Bile acids coat the fat molecules, which results in the formation of small fat globules, which are called micelles. The coating prevents the small fat globules from fusing together to form larger fat molecules, and therefore the small fat globules are more easily absorbed. The pancreatic enzymes can also break down triglycerides into monoglycerides and fatty acids. Once this occurs, the broken-down fat molecules are able to diffuse into the intestinal cells, in which they are converted back to triglycerides, and finally into...

Dyslipidemia Diabetes Mellitus and the Metabolic Syndrome

Given that cholesterol gallstone disease is a metabolic problem, it should correlate with lipid abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, and adiposity. Although most gallstones in the Western world consist of cholesterol, there is no definite association with hypercholesterolemia.1 Rather, a low HDL cholesterol carries an increased risk of developing stones, as does hypertriglyceridemia.

Viigarlic Allium Sativum

A number of clinical trials have been performed using a variety of garlic compounds. These trials have generated conflicting results. A recent meta-analysis has suggested that garlic supplementation may decrease total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL levels modestly, but only in the short term (60). Analysis of studies longer than 24 weeks failed to reveal significant effects (60). High-density lipoprotein levels do not seem to be affected by garlic administration (60). When used in the short term, garlic seems to improve cholesterol levels by 4-6 (61). When compared to the 17-32 sustained decrease in cholesterol levels seen with statin drugs (62,63), the use of garlic cannot be endorsed as a viable alternative for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Additionally, its use for the treatment ofhypertension, diabetes, or peripheral vascular disease is not supported (60,64).

Curcumin Inhibits LDL Oxidation

Ramirez-Tortosa et al. evaluated the effect of curcumin on LDL oxidation susceptibility and plasma lipids in atherosclerotic rabbits (88). A total of 18 rabbits were fed for 7 weeks on a diet containing 95.7 standard chow, 3 lard, and 1.3 cholesterol, to induce atherosclerosis. The rabbits were divided into groups, two of which were also orally treated with turmeric extract at doses of 1.66 (group A) and 3.2 (group B) mg kg body weight. A third group (group C) acted as a control. Plasma and LDL lipid composition, plasma a-tocopherol, plasma retinol, LDL TBARS, and LDL lipid hydroperoxides were assayed and aortic atherosclerotic lesions were evaluated. The low but not the high dosage of turmeric extracts decreased the susceptibility of rabbit LDL to lipid peroxidation. Both doses produced lower levels of total plasma cholesterol than the control group. Moreover, the lower dosage group had lower levels of cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides than the 3.2-mg-dosage group.

Omega3 PUFA in Fish and Shellfish

The beneficial effects of eating fish for human health have been well documented. Research has shown that EPA and DHA are beneficial in protecting against cardiovascular and other diseases (Table 3). Studies examining the effects of fish consumption on serum lipids indicate a reduction in triacylglycerol and VLDL-cholesterol levels, a factor that may be protective for some individuals. Research also indicates that EPA in particular reduces platelet aggregation, which may help vessels injured by plaque formation. Fish oils also appear to help stabilize the heart rhythm, a factor that may be important in people recovering from heart attacks.

Dietary Sources High Intakes and Antimetabolites

The greatest interest, in pharmacological terms, has been centered around nicotinic acid, which has been shown to have marked antihyperlipidemic properties at daily doses of 2-6 g. Nicotinamide does not share this particular pharmacological activity. Large doses of nicotinic acid reduce the mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue by inhibiting the breakdown of triacylglycerols through lipolysis. They also inhibit hepatic triacylglycerol synthesis, thus limiting the assembly and secretion of very low-density lipoproteins from the liver and reducing serum cholesterol levels. Large doses of nicotinic acid ameliorate certain risk factors for cardiovascular disease for instance they increase circulating high-density lipoprotein levels. The ratio of HDL2 to HDL3 is increased by nicotinic acid there is a reduced rate of synthesis of apolipoprotein A-II and a transfer of some apolipoprotein A-I from HDL3 to HDL2. These changes are all considered potentially beneficial in reducing the...

Consequences of Long Term Undernutrition among Homeless Children

Hypercholesterolemia high levels of cholesterol in the blood Homeless adults also suffer several medical problems due to undernu-trition. Common problems include anemia, dental problems, gastric ulcers, other gastrointestinal complaints, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, acute and chronic infectious diseases, diabetes, and malnutrition.

Pritikin Nathan 191585 Creator of the Pritikin Diet

Heart disease and diabetes in Europe during World War II. Lester Morrison, a Los Angeles cardiologist, had given half of a group of cardiac patients a diet mimicking the low-fat wartime food rations. By 1955, the cholesterol levels of the experimental low-fat, low-cholesterol group

Strategies for Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance

Dietary Therapy A diet that is individually planned and takes into account the patient's overweight status in order to help create a deficit of 500 to 1,000 kcal day should be an integral part of any weight loss program. A patient may choose a diet of 1,000 to 1,200 kcal day for women and 1,200 to 1,500 kcal day for men. Depending on the patient's risk status, the low-calorie diet (LCD) recommended should be consistent with the NCEP's Step I or Step II Diet (see page 74 of the guidelines). Besides decreasing saturated fat, total fats should be 30 percent or less of total calories. Reducing the percentage of dietary fat alone will not produce weight loss unless total calories are also reduced. Isocaloric replacement of fat with carbohydrates will reduce the percentage of calories from fat but will not cause weight loss. Reducing dietary fat, along with reducing dietary carbohydrates, usually will be needed to produce the caloric deficit needed for an acceptable weight loss. When fat...

Absorption Transport and Storage Cholesterol Absorption

Cholesterol in the intestinal lumen typically consists of one-third dietary cholesterol and two-thirds biliary cholesterol. The average daily diet contains 300-500 mg of cholesterol obtained from animal Dietary cholesterol intake products. The bile provides an additional 8001200 mg of cholesterol throughout each day as gallbladder contractions provide a flow of bile acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids to facilitate lipid digestion and absorption. Dietary cholesterol is a mixture of free and esterified cholesterol, whereas biliary cholesterol is nonesterified and is introduced into the small intestine as a cholesterol-bile salt-phospholipid water-soluble complex. The only other source of intraluminal cholesterol is mucosal cell cholesterol, derived from either sloughed muco-sal cells or cholesterol secreted by the mucosal cells into the intestinal lumen. Measurements of exogenous and endogenous cholesterol absorption in humans indicate that there is probably very little direct...

Hepatobiliary Disorders

Cholestatic disorders in patients with Crohn's disease of the small bowel, aggressive administration of an elemental diet rich in medium-chain triglycerides may be beneficial. It is accepted, however, that endoscopic interventions should be used as needed in the case of significant biliary obstruction. For prevention of severe osteoporosis, supplementation with vitamin D and calcium is needed. Vitamin K and alendronate may be beneficial in increasing bone mineral density. Serum levels of the fat-soluble vitamins should be monitored in high-risk patients and vitamins replaced as appropriate.

Very lowdensity lipoprotein VLDL

Lipoprotein particles that initially leave the liver, carrying cholesterol and lipid. VLDLs contain 10 to 15 percent of the total serum cholesterol along with most of the triglycerides in the fasting serum VLDLs are precursors of LDL, and some forms of VLDL, particularly VLDL remnants, appear to be atherogenic.

Potential Importance of Phytoestrogens to Human Health Molecular Mechanisms of Action

Although cholesterol lowering is probably the best documented cardioprotective effect of soya, vascular protection is also likely to contribute and may be mediated via a number of mechanisms. Soya isofla-vones are likely to contribute to the cardioprotective benefits of soya.

Presentations classic silent and diabetic ketoacidosis

Pathophysiology Dka

DKA is characterized by complete lack of insulin production such that glucose use is crippled and triglycerides must be broken down to provide the body with energy. The resulting byproducts of fatty acid metabolism the ketones aceto-acetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate further exacerbate the osmotic diuresis and cause acidosis. Dehydration and poor perfusion also may lead to lactic acidosis. The consequences of insulin deficiency are shown in Fig. 2.

Sleepdisordered breathing SDB in patients with ischemic stroke

In recent years a well-designed studies, with large number of participants, were published on the impact of snoring in other vascular diseases. It has been found, that snoring has negative effect on the incidence, clinical course and mortality of myocardial infarction (Janszky, 2008). In women with type II diabetes snoring increases the risk of hyperlipidemia and increases levels of triglycerides (Williams, 2007). Snoring also increases the risk of diabetes (Al-Delaimy, 2002). Snoring, regardless of other risk factors, increases the incidence of carotid atherosclerosis (Lee, 2008). Recent studies (Davies, 2003), however, do not prove that snoring is a direct risk factor for ischemic stroke. A series of new reports indicate the importance of snoring in the development of risk factors for cerebrovascular diseases (Williams, 2007 Lee, 2008). Snoring, especially loud and habitual, can indirectly contribute to the development of ischemic stroke.

Pharmacology A Antioxidative Activity

Interestingly, the observed antioxidative effects of phenylethanoid glycosides were found to be dependent of the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups they have. Those with four phenolic hydroxy groups have stronger antioxidative effects than those with only two or less. As to the antioxidative mechanism, these compounds were shown to have at least two mechanisms of scavenging free radicals they are able to suppress free-radical processes at two stages the formation of superoxide anions and the production of lipid peroxides. The antioxidative effects would offer a plausible explanation for the observed therapeutic effects for arteriosclerosis. On the other hand, phenyl-ethanoid glycosides in B. hancei may partly account for its ethnomedicinal application for the relief of hyperlipemia and hypercholesterolemia.

Chlorophyllphytolphytanic acid

Phytanic and pristanic acid are nearly completely absorbed from the small intestine. Pancreatic lipase(FX3.1.1.3land phospholipasesA2 (EC3.1J.4) and B (HC3.1.1.5) in the digestive tract release phytanic and pristanic acids from dietary triglycerides or other lipids, which arc then incorporated into mixed micelles. These micelles transfer their content into enterocytes through poorly understood mechanisms. Phytanic and pristanic acids can then be incorporated into triglycerides and other lipids and exported with chylomicrons, just like other long-chain fatty acids,

When should I see my doctor about my GERD symptoms

You should see your doctor about GERD or heartburn before waiting too long. A burning chest discomfort may be GERD or it could be something else such as a heart problem. Angina or heart pain can be difficult to differentiate from GERD. If you are not sure or have any questions, this should prompt a visit to your doctor, especially if the discomfort is associated with shortness of breath, dizziness, sweating, and or arm or jaw pain or if the chest discomfort is associated with exercise. People with risk factors associated with heart disease such as a family history of heart attacks, smokers, those with high blood pressure, and those with high cholesterol are at increased risk for heart disease, and any chest pain warrants a doctor visit.

Major Contributors of Dietary Saturated Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cholesterol

According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) recall data from 1999-2000, the 10 major dietary sources of saturated fatty acids in US diets are regular cheese (6.0 of the total grams of saturated fatty acids consumed), whole milk (4.6 ), regular ice cream (3.0 ), 2 low-fat milk (2.6 ), pizza with meat (2.5 ), French fries (2.5 ), Mexican dishes with meat (2.3 ), regular processed meat (2.2 ), chocolate candy (2.1 ), and mixed dishes with beef (2.1 ). Hence, the majority of saturated fatty acids are contributed by regular dairy products (16 ), and the top 10 sources contribute 30 of the total saturated fatty acids consumed. The increased prevalence of fat-free and low-fat dairy products provides a viable option with which to encourage a populationwide decrease in saturated fat intake. To put the value of decreasing populationwide intakes of saturated fat into perspective, it has been estimated that the isocaloric replacement of 5 of energy from saturated...

Your Health Empty Calories

Lipids are insoluble in water, and thus they are difficult to carry in the blood. They are categorized into triglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids. The principal dietary lipids in the body are cholesterol and triglycerides. Phospholipids are mostly tied up in cell membranes and do not play a significant role in energy metabolism. Triglycerides, which are made in the liver to store excess energy from carbohydrates, make up a major portion of adipose tissue. This tissue provides the body with insulation to keep warm and cushions joints and organs for protection. Triglycerides are composed of three-carbon glycerol molecules with three fatty acids attached, one to each of the three carbons.

Liver in Specific Hepatobiliary Disorders Hepatocellular Diseases

In alcoholics, utilization of lipids and carbohydrates is markedly compromised due to an excess of reductive equivalents and impaired oxidation of triglycerides. Alcoholics are often resistant to insulin and exhibit impaired uptake of glucose into muscle cells. Insulin-dependent diabetes is common. Heavy alcohol consumption is frequently associated with deficiencies of a wide variety of micronutrients, including the fat- and water-soluble vitamins, particularly folate, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, thiamine, and vitamin A. A variety of international associations have made nutritional recommendations for patients with various types of alcoholic liver disease. The primary recommendation is of course abstinence, which may be all that is needed in patients with fatty liver. Patients with alcoholic hepatitis should take 40kcal kg, 1.5-2.0 g protein kg, 4-5g kg of carbohydrates, and 1-2g kg of lipids per day. Those with cirrhosis without malnutrition should take 35kcal kg, 1.3-1.5 g protein kg,...

Indications Milk Thistle

HHB) Fibrosis (1 CGH) Food Allergies (1 WAM) Gallstones (1 HHB MAB SKY HC020444-262 NP9(2) 6) Gastrosis (f APA) Hematuria (f HC020444-262 NP9(2) 6) Hemoptysis (f BIB) Hemorrhage (f KAB MCK) Hemorrhoid (f BIB HHB MAB WOI) Hepatosis (f12 KOM PH2 SHT WAM) Hepatosis A (1 BGB) High Blood Pressure (1 MCK HC020444-262) High Cholesterol (1 MAB) High Triglycerides (1 CGH X15177299) Hydrophobia (f BIB GMH) Hypereme-sis (f1 NP9(2) 6) Hypotonia (f HH3) Infection (f HHB) Inflammation (f1 APA HC020444-262 X15617879) Intoxication (1 FAD) Insulin Resistance (1 SYN) Itch (1 MAB) Jaundice (f2 BIB HH3 MAB PH2 PNC WAM) Leukemia (f1 HC020444-262 NP9(2) 6) Leukorrhea (f BIB) Malaria (f1 BIB HHB PHR PH2 HC020444-262) Menopause (f HHB) Metastasis (1 X15224346) Metrorrhagia (f HHB) Migraine (f HH3) MS (f ACT9 251) MS (1 HC020444-262) Mushroom Poisoning (2 FAD SHT) Myalgia (1 HC020444-262) Nausea (f1 MAB Cyto-protective (1 NP9(2) 6) Nephrosis (f12 BGB NP9(2) 6) Neurosis (f ACT9 251) Obesity (1 PNC) Oligolactea...

Learn How to Interpret Your Full Lipid Profile

High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is the type of cholesterol that we think of as good or protective. If small amounts of plaque (LDL or bad cholesterol) have been laid down in your blood vessels and you have enough HDL, you will be able to dissolve this plaque and use it as an energy source. 3. Triglycerides are the fats that appear in the blood immediately after a meal or snack. Normally, they are stripped of their fatty acids when they pass through various types of tissue, especially adipose (beneath the skin) fat and skeletal muscle. When this happens, they are converted into stored energy that is gradually released and metabolized between meals according to the metabolic needs of your body. Almost everyone loves sugars and other kinds of carbohydrates. Unfortunately, if you are insulin sensitive and eat more carbohydrates than you require daily, your triglyceride level will elevate. When this happens, your disease risk for hypoglycemia and type 2 diabetes can increase and you will...

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