Reasons For High Cholesterol

Beat Cholesterol Guide

Beat Cholesterol In 30 Days is the latest program that teaches people how to control their cholesterol levels, and reduce their risk of a heart attack dramatically. The program also provides people with easy and simple exercises to get lean, fit, and healthy. In addition, this program is designed by Scott Davis, an alternative health expert and medical researcher who has over 14 years of experience in the healthcare industry. Davis shows that lowering your cholesterol is a straightforward process: changing your diet according to the guidelines in the guide will reduce your cholesterol to healthy levels. There's nothing relative or interpreted in this book. Certain foods will make your cholesterol levels better. But some will make them worse, and Davis makes it easy to determine and identify the cholesterol-raising culprits in your cupboard. Davis believes so much in the results of this test that he is offering a no-risk guarantee when you buy his e-book. If for any reason you arent satisfied in the first 60 days you can get your money back. At the very worst, even if you dont learn anything new from this e-book you will get your money back. Continue reading...

Natural Cholesterol Guide Overview

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Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Synthetic vectors are being evaluated for the treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and hyperlipidemias. FH is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. Patients have persistently elevated levels of LDL in their serum, which leads to the development of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (43). Tomita et al. (44) injected a complex of hemagglutinat-ing virus of Japan (HVJ) liposomes and a plasmid expressing the human LDL receptor into the hepatic portal vein of LDL receptor knockout mice. RNA was detected in the livers that peaked at days 7 to 10 after injection, but became undetectable by day 21. At day 7 there was a modest but statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol levels. Another approach being taken to treat hypercholesterolemia is to express apoli-poprotein E, which is involved in removing excess lipopro-teins and cholesterol from tissues. Rinaldi et al. (45) injected a plasmid that...

Curcumin Lowers Serum Cholesterol Levels

Numerous studies suggest that curcumin lowers serum cholesterol levels (78-84). Soudamini et al. investigated the effect of oral administration of curcumin on serum cholesterol levels and on lipid peroxidation in the liver, lung, kidney, and brain of mice treated with carbon tetrachloride, paraquat, and cyclophosphamide (81). Oral administration of curcumin significantly lowered the increased peroxidation of lipids in these tissues produced by these chemicals. Administration of curcumin also significantly lowered the serum and tissue cholesterol levels in these animals, indicating that the use of curcumin helps in conditions associated with peroxide-induced injury such as liver damage and arterial diseases. Soni and Kuttan examined the effect of curcumin administration in reducing the serum levels of cholesterol and lipid peroxides in 10 healthy human volunteers receiving 500 mg of curcumin per day for 7 days (82). A significant decrease in the level of serum lipid peroxides (33 ), an...

Cholesterol Reduction

Flavonoids are known to reduce cholesterol. A 30-day study of induced hyperlipidaemia in rats found that baicalein, quercetin, rutin and naringin reduced cholesterol, with baicalein being the most potent. Baicalein was also the most effective flavonoid in reducing triglyceride levels (De Oliveira et al 2002). In another in vivo study, rats were fed a cholesterol-laden diet and half were also given 5. baicalensis radix extract (Regulska-llow et al 2004). The treatment rats displayed a significant reduction in plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol as compared with control animals.

Hypercholesterolemia high blood cholesterol

Tion, sequestration, or excretion from the body is called the cholesterol balance. When cholesterol accumulates, the balance is positive when it declines, the balance is negative. In 1993, the NHLBI National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults issued an updated set of recommendations for monitoring and treatment of blood cholesterol levels. The NCEP guidelines recommended that total cholesterol levels and subfractions of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol be measured beginning at age 20 in all adults, with subsequent periodic screenings as needed. Even in the group of patients at lowest risk for coronary heart disease (total cholesterol < 200 mg dL and HDL > 35 mg dL), the NCEP recommended that rescreening take place at least once every 5 years or upon physical examination.

Hypercholesterolaemia And Hypertriglyceridaemia

Niacin has been used for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridaemia since the 1950s. Large doses of niacin reduce total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoprotein (a) levels and also markedly raise HDL-cholesterol C levels (lllingworth et al 1994). Considering these factors are also predictive of cardiovascular events, niacin is used to reduce overall risk of cardiovascular disease (Canner et al 1986). According to a recent meta-analysis effects on LDL- 2007 Elsevier Australia Extended-release niacin (nicotinic acid) has been evaluated in at least four randomised, placebo-controlled trials, with the most efficacious results occurring at doses of 1 500-2000 mg day (Goldberg 1998, Grundy 2002, Guyton et al 2000, Morgan et al 2003). Results were dose- and time-dependent, with trials ranging in length from 4 to 16 weeks. At the 1500 and 2000 mg doses, reductions were noted in total cholesterol (-7 to -12.1 ) total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio (-17 to...

Type II or Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by elevation of plasma LDL cholesterol levels. Mutations at the LDL receptor gene locus on chromosome 19 are Apo C-II deficiency High Familial hypercholesterolemia Familial combined hyperlipidemia Polygenic hypercholesterolemia High Familial hypercholesterolemia The ranges of LDL cholesterol levels in plasma of FH subjects are 200-400 mgdl1 in heterozygotes and above 450mgdl 1 in homozygotes. The frequency of defects at the LDL receptor locus is about 1 in 500 for the heterozygous state and 1 in a million in the homozygous state. The genetic defect(s) associated with a common form of hypercholesterolemia present in most subjects with cholesterol levels between 250 and 300mgdr1 has not been elucidated. This disorder may be due to a combination of minor gene defects (i.e., presence of apo E-4 allele) that in combination with the environment (i.e., diet, lack of exercise) predispose individuals to...

Reduces Serum Cholesterol Levels

A 2000 meta-analysis of 13 clinical trials concluded that garlic is superior to placebo in reducing total cholesterol levels, exerting a modest effect (Stevinson et al 2001). The mechanism of action involves inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by deactivating HMG-CoA reductase via enhanced phosphorylation, but not changing theamount of the enzyme, according to in vitro research (Liu & Yeh 2002). The compounds containing an allyl-d sulfide or a I lyl-su If hyd ryl group are most likely responsible for the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by garlic and that this inhibition is likely to be mediated at sterol 4-alpha-methyl oxidase (Singh & Porter 2006). Clinical evidence also suggests it raises HDL levels and reduces triglyceride levels (Bordia et al 1998).

Hypertension And Cholesterol Lowering

CoQ10 has been studied both as stand-alone and adjunctive treatment in hypertension. According to a review of 8 studies, supplemental CoQ10 results in a mean decrease in systolic blood pressure of 16 mmHg and in diastolic blood pressure of 10 mmHg (Rosenfeldt et al 2003). The effect on blood pressure has been reported within 10 weeks of treatment at doses usually starting at 100 mg daily. One small 10-week open study of 26 subjects with essential hypertension study found that an oral dose of 50 mg taken twice daily also reduced total serum cholesterol levels with a modest increase in serum HDL-cholesterol (Digiesi et al 1994).

Dietary Cholesterol Intake Patterns

Dietary cholesterol intakes in the United States have been declining, from an average of 500 mg per day in men and 320 mg per day in women in 1972 to levels in 1990 of 360 mg per day in men and 240 mg per day in women. This decline is due in part to dietary recommendations to the US public to reduce total and saturated fat intake and to reduce dietary cholesterol daily intake to less than 300 mg and in part from the increased availability of products with reduced fat and cholesterol content. Major efforts in the early 1970s by public health agencies and advertising emphasized reducing dietary cholesterol as a means to lower plasma cholesterol levels, leading to a high degree of consumer concern regarding cholesterol-containing foods and demand for low-cholesterol products. Today, practically all foods sold in the United States are labeled for their cholesterol content and their percentage contribution to the daily value of 300 mg for cholesterol.

Dietary Cholesterol and Plasma Cholesterol

The effect of dietary cholesterol on plasma cholesterol levels has been an area of considerable debate. In 1972, the American Heart Association recommended that dietary cholesterol intake should average less than 300mgperday as part of a 'heart-healthy,' plasma cholesterol-lowering diet. Since that initial recommendation, a number of other public health dietary recommendations in the United States have endorsed the 300 mg daily limit. Interestingly, few dietary recommendations from other countries contain a dietary cholesterol limitation. The evidence for a relationship between dietary cholesterol and plasma cholesterol indicates that the effect is relatively small, and that on average a change of 100 mg per day in dietary cholesterol intake results in a 0.057 mmoll-1 (2.2mgdl-1) change in plasma cholesterol concentrations. Studies have also shown that the majority of individuals are resistant to the plasma cholesterol-raising effects of dietary cholesterol 'nonresponders' and have...

High Cholesterol

Probiotics modestly reduce cholesterol levels in healthy subjects and may have stronger effects in people with hyperlipidaemia. In another study, 32 subjects with serum total cholesterol ranging from 5.7 to 7.25 mg dL were randomly assigned to two treatments (1) Intake of a low-fat drinking yoghurt prepared with two ordinary yoghurt starters (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus placebo group) and (2) intake of a low-fat drinking yoghurt prepared with the two yoghurt starters plus Bifidobacterium longum strain BL1 (probiotic group). After intake for 4 weeks at 3 100 mL day, reduction of serum total cholesterol was observed in approximately half of the probiotic group subjects a particularly significant decrease in serum total cholesterol was found among subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia (serum total cholesterol > 6.2 mg dL). The serum lipid concentrations in the placebo group subjects were almost stable during the experimental periods...

Better Than Statins

Researchers gave 120 men with high cholesterol either the statin drug, Zocor, or a placebo (sugar pill) and instructed them to eat either their usual diet or a Mediterranean-type diet. After 12 weeks, the diet had cut LDL by 11 percent, Zocor had cut it by 30 percent, and diet plus Zocor cut LDL cholesterol by 41 percent. A bonus the Mediterranean diet wiped out the (unwanted) 13-percent rise in insulin levels caused by the Zocor.29 In our practice, we lower cholesterol up to 40 percent by eliminating sugar and eating beets.

Dietary Cholesterol

All dietary cholesterol is derived from animal products. The major sources of cholesterol in the diet are egg yolks, products containing milk fat, animal fats, and animal meats. Many studies have shown that high intakes of cholesterol will increase the serum cholesterol concentration. Most of this increase occurs in the LDL cholesterol fraction. When cholesterol is ingested, it is incorporated into chylomicrons and makes its way to the liver with chylomicron remnants. There it raises hepatic cholesterol content and suppresses LDL receptor expression. The result is a rise in serum LDL cholesterol concentrations. Excess cholesterol entering the liver is removed from the liver either by direct secretion into bile or by conversion into bile acids also, dietary cholesterol suppresses hepatic cholesterol synthesis. There is considerable variability in each of these steps in hepatic cholesterol metabolism for this reason the quantitative effects of dietary cholesterol on serum LDL...

What This Book Can Do for

If you choose to go to your doctor and get a lipid profile, you will most likely see an improvement in your total cholesterol, HDL (good cholesterol), triglycerides, and glucose. While heredity plays a part in the lipid profile for example, high cholesterol runs in some families studies have shown that people can control approximately 70 percent of hereditary factors through lifestyle. 7. Fifty percent of our children are obese or overweight and a significant number of kids are already experiencing major health problems such as high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, deformities of the hips and knees, asthma, premature puberty, increased triglycerides, high cholesterol, and decreased levels of HDL. When an airplane is in trouble, parents are told to put on their oxygen mask so that they can help their children. The only way that we are going to save our kids is to put on the mask to take responsibility for developing healthy nutritional and exercise patterns ourselves.

Carrie Amazing Changes in Her Lipid Profile

With a body fat percentage of 20.5, Carrie had dropped from a size 12 dress to a size 6. She told me, I had no idea that eating and exercising right would make such a dramatic difference. Whenever someone in her family comes back from their yearly physical with high cholesterol and triglycerides, she tells them about my program. Recently she told me, My brother in Pennsylvania called and said that he had been to his doctor. He had gained 30 pounds, his triglycerides were 300, and his cholesterol was 323. I read him the riot act Then I went right down the list with him, coaching him with everything you had taught me and promising to send him a copy of your books Lose Your Love Handles and Maximum Energy for Life. Yesterday he called me back and told me that he had lost 16 pounds, his triglycerides had dropped to 156, and his cholesterol was now 232, just from following your program. Thank you, Mackie.

Considering How Fibromyalgia Relates to Womens Ages

By abdominal obesity (a body shape like an apple instead of a pear), high triglycerides, high blood pressure, low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, the good cholesterol), and high fasting glucose (blood sugar) levels. The researchers also found that higher urinary levels of norepinephrine and cortisol were associated with a risk for metabolic syndrome.

Dietary Fiber and the Etiology of Hormone Dependent Cancers

Direct binding of sex hormones is possible but is subject to the same concerns as were raised for cholesterol reduction. In addition, it is possible that other components in, or associated with, fiber (phytooestrogens or antioxidants) may be responsible for any observed protective effect. Soy phytooestrogens are believed to play a role in lowering the risk of breast cancer in Asian populations. Lycopenes are antioxidant carotenoids from tomatoes, and their intake has been correlated with a lower risk of prostate cancer.

Functional Interactions

Reduction in the concentration of bile acids A reduction in the concentration of bile acids will affect the absorption of most fat-soluble compounds. Lower bile-acid concentration may result from increased binding and excretion or from decreased production. For example, the antibiotic neomycin binds to bile acids and increases their faecal excretion, thus reducing their luminal concentration and, in this fashion, decreasing the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. This interaction, like many others, can be used ther-apeutically to reduce bile-acid turnover in patients with certain liver diseases and to lower cholesterol levels by reducing their reabsorption.

Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide (123), and anything that can delay or help prevent CVD will make a significant impact in both economic- and health-related terms. Established risk factors for CVD include hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and increased thrombotic index, and there is an ever-increasing list of new CVD risk factors and predictors, such as homocysteine, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress. Modulating risk factors is the key to primary prevention of CVD (141). no deleterious changes were seen in plasma biomarkers of kidney or liver function. Furthermore, there was a small (around 7 ) but significant decrease in total cholesterol concentration (144). A cholesterol-lowering effect was also seen in a study using an in vitro rat liver homogenate model (145). One triterpene (the oxygenated lanosterol, Compound VI) from G. lucidum was reported to show a marked inhibitory effect on cholesterol synthesis from...

Cardiovascular Effects

Antihyperlipidaemic Ginsenoside Rb1 has been shown to lower triglyceride and cholesterol levels via cAMP-production in the rat liver (Park et al 2002b). P. ginseng extract (6 g day) for 8 weeks resulted in a reduction in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and plasma malondialdehyde levels and an increase in HDL (Kim & Park 2003) in eight males. Ginseng has also been reported to decrease hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels in rats, indicating a potential use of ginseng in the treatment of fatty liver (Yamamoto et al 1983).

General Guidelines for the Treatment of Lipoprotein Abnormalities for CHD Prevention

There is a clear benefit from lowering LDL cholesterol with diet or drug therapy in patients with hyperlipidemia or CHD or both. Dietary therapy includes using diets that are restricted in total fat (< 30 of calories), saturated fat (< 7 of calories), and cholesterol (< 200 mg day-1). Pharmacological therapies include anion exchange resins, niacin, and HMG CoA reductase inhibitors. The latter agents have been demonstrated to also lower CHD mortality. It should be noted that dramatic interindividual variations have been demonstrated in response to diet and drug therapies. Consequently the efficacy of hypolipidemic therapies will vary from individual to individual. More information is needed about the benefits of HDL cholesterol raising in patients with low HDL cholesterol levels as well as the benefits of lowering triacylglycerol plasma concentrations, and more specifically the triacylgly-cerol carried in lipoprotein remnants. This is also true regarding the benefits of Lp(a)...

Nutritional summary

Flushing (burning and itching of face, arms and chest) and stomach irritation arc the main side effects of moderately high supplemental niacin intake (more than 35 mg d). Liver damage that may culminate in irreversible liver failure is a risk associated with long-term use of very high doses (3000 and more mg dl as a cholesterol-lowering drug. Such high doses must never be used without close monitoring of liver function. High intakes of nicotinic acid may interfere with the effects of sulfinpyrazone (Anturane).

Functional Properties and Tissue Health

In certain circumstances, lycopene can reduce LDL-cholesterol levels, possibly by inhibiting hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCoA reductase), the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis (see below). Lycopene was shown to have modest hypocholesterolemic properties in one small clinical trial.

Lycopene and Cardiovascular Disease

The European Multicentre Euramic Study, which reported that risk of developing myocardial infarct was inversely related to lycopene intake, after appropriate adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors. Some Scandinavian studies have subsequently supported this claim moreover, lycopene is capable of reducing LDL-cholesterol levels, possibly by inhibiting hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCoA reductase), the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis.

Lipid Lowering Effect

Ha et al. (9) investigated the lipid-lowering effect of C. tora ethanol extacts in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Rats were fed either normal diets or diets high in cholesterol (10 g kg diet), supplemented with C. tora ethanolic extract (0, 0.25, or 0.5 ) for 4 weeks. Liver triglyceride and cholesterol contents were raised in the high-cholesterol groups and were significantly reduced in the groups fed C. tora. Serum levels of HDL cholesterol were slightly increased by consumption of C. tora. The results showed that ethanol extracts of C. tora may exert a lipid-lowering effect in rats fed high-cholesterol diets. Furthermore, Choi et al. (10) indicated that ethanol-treated rats fed with 200 or 400 mg kg body wt. day Cassia ethanolic extract had a hypolipemic effect compared with rats treated with ethanol alone.

Lipids And Cardiovascular Disease

And lesions and are related to the course of myocardial infarction 116,122 . However, atherosclerotic plaque formation and the mechanisms for the ensuing increased morbidity and mortality are complex processes, which involve, for example, the production of superoxide by monocytes, and the formation of autoantibodies against oxidized LDL and MDA-LDL 123,124 , In aortic muscle or endothelial cells in vitro, oxidized LDL can increase collagen and fibronectin synthesis, apoptosis, intracellular calcium and TBA formation 122,125 , Moreover, concomitant pathologies such as hypertension are additional risk factors for the etiology of atherosclerosis. For example, in hypertension, ATC status as reflected by red blood cell (but not plasma), concentrations is lower than that of normotensive controls 126 , Age-related reductions in the anti-oxidant capacity of plasma, acting against peroxyl radicals, may also contribute to the atherosclerosis 127 , There is also a tentative association between...

Effect of Meal Frequency on Absorption

Meal frequency not only affects insulin and glucose levels but also influences an individual's circulating lipids. An inverse relationship exists between meal frequency and lipid levels, suggesting that infrequent feeding leads to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease due to large fluctuations in circulating lipids. Increased meal frequency, on the other hand, is associated with several benefits, such as decreased serum cholesterol levels, decreased total high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, decreased esterified fatty acids, and decreased enzyme levels in adipose tissue associated with fatty acid storage. Paradoxically, individuals who report that they eat more frequently not only have lower total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) but also have a greater intake of energy, total fat, and saturated fatty acids. Considering that some of these results were found in a free-living

Mechanisms Underlying the Metabolic Effect of Meal Frequency

The mechanisms underlying beneficial responses to frequent feeding as opposed to an infrequent meal pattern are not fully understood. Frequent feeding has been shown to elicit lower plasma glucose fluctuations than does a more infrequent eating pattern. The absolute amount of carbohydrate eaten at each episode of ingestion in a frequent feeding pattern is simply not great enough to elevate glucose to the same extent as more infrequent eating. Small elevations in plasma insulin seen with frequent feeding are most likely in response to minimal fluctuations in glucose. The mechanisms responsible for the effect of an increased frequency of meal eating on lipid metabolism are not as clear-cut. The lower serum cholesterol levels observed during frequent feeding may be related to lower serum insulin levels. Insulin appears to have a key role in enhancing the hepatic synthesis of cholesterol through its ability to stimulate hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reduc-tase (HMG-CoA), the...

Potential Effects Requiring Further Clinical Work

Cholesterol control The cholesterol-lowering effects of probiotics have been the subject of two recent reviews with contradictory results. The first, which focused on short-term intervention studies with one yogurt type, reported a 4 decrease in total cholesterol and a 5 decrease in LDL. Contrary to this, the second review concluded that no proven effects could be found. In this context, it is clear that long-term studies are required before the establishment of any conclusion.

Nutrient Gene Interactions in Chronic Disease

HDL is thought to be protective against heart disease. However, the association between the A polymorphism and elevated HDL is quite inconsistent. This is explained by considering diet. Women with the A polymorphism who consumed > 6 of energy as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) had higher HDL cholesterol concentrations than women consuming < 6 dietary PUFA. In women lacking this polymorphism, no such effect of diet was seen. Thus, although women with the A polymorphism would clearly benefit from the standard recommendation for increasing dietary PUFA, those who lack it may not, at least with respect to HDL.

Hazard Identification

Short-term feeding studies (7 to 46 days) in rats have shown growth retardation, hepatomegaly, and hypercholesterolemia at L-histidine levels of approximately 2 to 4 g kg body weight d (Harvey et al., 1981 Hitomi-Ohmura et al., 1992 Ohmura et al., 1986 Solomon and Geison, 1978). Harvey and coworkers (1981) reported significantly reduced concentrations of copper and zinc in the plasma and reduced liver concentrations of copper after feeding diets containing 8 percent L-histidine ( 4 g kg body weight d) for 46 days. Hypercholesterolemia was eliminated by the simultaneous feeding of an L-histidine- and copper-supplemented diet, supporting the hypothesis that the histidine-induced hypercholesterolemia was a result of changes in copper status. Feeding mice 1.3 g L-histidine kg body weight d for 21 days resulted in an increase in the absorption and utiliza-

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention

P. curatellifolia seed is widely used in traditional medicine due to its multiple therapeutic activities. The health and nutritive benefits of the seeds may be attributed to their secondary products and vitamin content. Vitamins constitute a range of different types of organic molecules that are essential for the proper functioning of humans (Evans, 1989). Polyphenols including flavonoids are aromatic hydroxylated compounds, and are among the most potent and therapeutically useful bioactive substances (Siess et al., 1996 Apak et al., 2007). P. curatellifolia seed extract is used as bitters and a stomachic for the promotion of good health, by virtue of its antioxidant properties (Fathiazad et al., 2006 Shafaghat & Salimi, 2008). The antioxidant activity of seed extracts has been utilized by traditional herbalists in treating diverse degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (Zafra-Stone et al., 2007 L. Adebisi, personal communication, October 17, 2009). The seed extract...

Preventing Cardiovascular Disease

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigating the effects of a quercetin-containing supplement on plasma quercetin status, risk factors for heart disease and serum platelet fatty acid levels was conducted on 27 healthy men and women with cholesterol levels of 4.0-7.2 mmol L (Conquer et al 1998). The subjects consumed a quercetin-containing supplement (1 g quercetin day) or rice flour placebo for 28 days. Quercetin intakes were approximately 50-fold greater than dietary intakes previously associated with lower coronary heart disease mortality in epidemiologic studies. Plasma quercetin concentrations were approximately 23-fold greater in subjects consuming the quercetin capsules than in the placebo group. Quercetin supplementation did not alter serum total, LDL- or HDL-cholesterol or triglyceride levels, or other cardiovascular disease or thrombogenic risk factors such as platelet thromboxane B2 production, blood pressure or resting heart rate. This is in contrast to a previous...

Components of Physical Fitness

The relative proportion of fat-free mass to fat mass in the body. Fat-free mass is composed of muscle, bone, organs, and water, whereas fat is the underlying adipose tissue. Excessive fat is a good predictor of health problems because it is associated with cardiovascular disease, high cholesterol, and high blood pressure. Higher proportions of fat-free mass indicate an increase in muscle, and thus an increased ability to adapt to everyday stress.

Coronary Artery Disease

It is well documented that high dietary protein in rabbits induces hypercholesterolemia and arteriosclerosis (Czarnecki and Kritchevsky, 1993). However, this effect has not been consistently shown in either swine (Luhman and Beitz, 1993 Pfeuffer et al., 1988) or humans. In humans, analysis of data from the Nurses' Health Study showed an inverse relationship between protein intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (Hu et al., 1999). The association was weak but suggests that high protein intake does not increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Similar conclusions have

Atherosclerotic and Arteriosclerotic Vascular Diseases

Coronary heart disease Longitudinal studies show a positive correlation of BMI with coronary heart disease (CHD), and obesity is an independent predictor of CHD. However, in the presence of other risk factors, such as hypertension, high serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels, low serum HDL cholesterol levels, and insulin resistance, all of which are increased by obesity, the risk of atherosclerotic CHD increases dramatically. Weight loss reduces all of these risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, but because long-term reductions in body weight have been difficult to achieve, there are few long-term studies of changes in cardiovascular mortality due to weight loss. A very low-fat diet (10 of total calories as fat) has been shown to reduce the size of atherosclerotic plaques in coronary arteries. Such low-fat diets almost invariably produce weight loss.

Effects of Excess Dietary Fat Intake

The effects of this excess intake of dietary fat has some well-established implications for the health of overweight Americans. For instance, the consumption of excess amounts of saturated fats has been recognized as the most important dietary factor to increase levels of cholesterol. A high cholesterol level is detrimental to health and leads to a condition known as atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is the build-up of cholesterol on the walls of arteries, which may eventually result in the blocking of blood flow. When this occurs in the arteries of the heart, it is called coronary artery disease. When this process occurs in the heart, a myocardial infarction, or heart attack, may occur.

Micronutrient Deficiency

There is a rising trend toward dietary supplementation with pharmaceutical preparations containing large doses of vitamins and minerals, based on conclusions drawn from the results of several studies. Available evidence derived from human and animal studies indicates that antioxidant micronutrients, mainly vitamins A, C and E, may play a role in boosting immunity, preventing neoplastic disease, and preventing or retarding the progression of several degenerative diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Vitamins E and C have also been shown to reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, in addition to lowering fasting plasma insulin levels and improving insulin efficiency. Epidemiological studies have suggested a protective role for antiox-idants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, -carotene, and glutathione in macular degeneration and cataracts. Nevertheless, evidence derived from other epidemio-logical studies suggests that...

Clinical Studies

In one large prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of TAO, 75 steroid-dependent asthma patients were randomized to TAO, 250 mg daily, or placebo, with attempted tapering of methylprednisolone as tolerated (77). The study was hampered by a high patient dropout rate (TAO group seven patients at one year, 20 patients at two years placebo group 11 patients at one year, 30 patients at two years.) Those TAO patients continuing on the study did tolerate lower steroid doses at one year (p < 0.03), but they did not have a significant reduction in the number of hospitalizations and emergency department visits, and had more cases of bone loss (p < 0.01) and higher cholesterol levels (p < 0.05) than did placebo subjects. The study concluded that TAO offered no advantage for asthma outcome, and was associated with greater steroid-related side effects. In a Cochrane review of aggregate data from three randomized trials in which 112 patients were recruited, data from...

Microbial Polymerization Activity

The production of glucan and levan from sucrose by Lactobacillus reuteri and the production of a levan-type fructan by L. sanfranciscensis have been described by van Geel-Shutten et al. (1998). As suggested by Di Cagno et al. (2006), the synthesis of the previously mentioned EPS by sourdough LAB could be considered as a useful tool to replace the commercial additives used for improving the texture of baked goods. The fructan from L. sanfranciscensis has been found to positively affect dough rheology and bread texture. Moreover, glucan, fructans, and gluco- and fructooligosaccharides have potential gut health-promoting properties (Poutanen et al, 2009). Fructose oligosaccharides and inulin are increasingly used as prebiotic additives in baked goods. They are not digested by pancreatic enzymes and thus are available for metabolism by intestinal microorganisms, mainly Bifidobacteria (Tieking et al, 2003). In general, EPS are reported to be able to replace hydrocolloids currently used for...

Human and nonhuman primate studies

Apolipoprotein A-I is the most abundant protein in HDL and plays an important role in maintaining the structure of HDL and activating lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), an enzyme involved in converting cholesterol to cholesterol ester. HDL appears to be primarily cardioprotective by transporting cholesterol from the periphery to the liver for export as bile acids. This process is termed reverse cholesterol transport. From epidemiological studies, higher levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with a decrease in cardiovascular disease risk. Similar studies have shown that apolipoprotein A-I levels show a similar inverse relationship with risk for cardiovascular disease 4 , Consumption of moderate amounts of alcohol is associated with an increase in HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I. The increases occur in a dose-dependent fashion. As little asl5gof alcohol day can increase apolipoprotein A-I levels in humans 5 , Hojnacki et al. 6 examined the dose response of alcohol on...

Mechanisms calcium and the regulation of energy metabolism

This brings up again an idea proposed a longer time ago, according to which the divalent cation calcium prevents the intestinal absorption of part of the dietary fat and increases faecal lipid loss and sterol excretion forming insoluble fatty acid soaps and bile salts (Denke et al., 1993, Drenick, 1961, Vaskonen et al., 2001, 2002, Vaskonen 2003, Welberg et al., 1994). By the same mechanism calcium may enhance a cholesterol-lowering effect of other food components, e.g. plant sterols (Vaskonen et al., 2001). The extent of this effect increased with an increasing proportion of long-chain saturated fatty acids in the diet, whereby, with Western eating habits, the energy excretion with fat is probably around 1 and 3 of the daily energy supply, i.e. around 30 and 90 kcal day. In a study by Shahkhalalili and co-workers (2001) calcium fortification of chocolate doubled calcium ingestion from 950 to 1855 mg day and increased faecal fat excretion by 36 kcal day (4.04 g day). This effect seems...

Why is the risk of blood vessel diseases increased so much in diabetes

There are several reasons why the risk of vascular diseases, such as heart attack, stroke, and diseases of the vessels in the limbs (peripheral vascular disease), is increased in both types of diabetes. The weight gain and lack of exercise common in people with type 2 diabetes lead to other conditions such as abnormal cholesterol levels and high blood pressure, which are potent causes of vascular disease. If all of these risk factors are not treated effectively, the probability of vascular disease remains high. High blood sugar over months and years leads to a chemical reaction of the sugar in the blood vessels, damaging them structurally. Perhaps most importantly, we now know that diabetes and obesity can be described as irritants to the body tissues, meaning that the body becomes generally inflamed. We know that this is so because we can measure high levels of compounds that indicate inflammation in the blood of many people with diabetes. It turns out that this inflammation, when...

Decision making 7 practical steps

The side effects of cancer treatment are never less in the elderly. In addition to the standard side effects, there are significant age-related toxicities to consider. Though most of these are more a function of frailty than chronological age, even the fittest senior cannot avoid the physical effects of aging. In addition to the changes in fat and muscle you see in the mirror, there are age-related changes in your kidney, liver, and digestive (gastrointestinal) function. These changes affect how your body absorbs and metabolizes anticancer drugs and other medicines. The average older woman takes many different medicines (to control, for example, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, osteoporosis, diabetes, arthritis, etc.). This polypharmacy can cause undesirable side effects as the many drugs interact with each other and the anticancer medications.

Physiological Function Of Soy Proteins

Approximately 100 years ago, the cholesterol-lowering effects of soy protein compared with animal protein were reported in rabbits (Ignatowsky, 1908). Since then, many studies have reported the effects of soy proteins on serum lipids in humans however, results have been inconsistent, possibly because of different experimental conditions, such as soy protein content in the diet and degree of hypercholesterolemia in the subjects. In a meta-analysis published in 1995, Anderson et al. concluded that soy protein consumption significantly decreased serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and TG, corresponding to the degree of hypercholesterolemia. Based on these findings, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted the following health claim for soy protein in 1999 25 grams of soy protein a day, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heart disease. Most commercially available SPI products contain significant...

Postprandial Plasma Lipid Responses To Different Types Of Breads

High-carbohydrate (HC) diets are recommended for lowering the risk of coronary heart disease because they decrease plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations. In the study by Queenan et al. (2007), 75 hypercholesterolemic men and women were randomly assigned to either the 6 g day concentrated oat b-glucan treatment group or the 6 g day dextrose (control) treatment group. After 6 weeks, it was observed that 6 g concentrated oat b-glucan per day during this period significantly reduced the total and LDL cholesterol in subjects with elevated cholesterol, and the LDL cholesterol reduction was greater than the change in the control group. In a study comparing the effects of whole wheat bread and b-glucan supplemented oat bread on the lipid profile, the oat-derived b-glucan was found to significantly improve high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol while diminishing LDL cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol in overweight individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia...

Hiv And Tryptophan Depletion

An open, prospective trial has also concluded that extended-release niacin therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of dyslipidaemia associated with antiretroviral therapy 2000 mg day was given to 14 subjects for 14 weeks and resulted in significant reductions in serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and non-HDL-cholesterol (Gerber et al 2004).

Significant Interactions

The combined use of niacin and statins, including atorvastatin (lipitor), fluvastatin (lescol), lovastatin (mevacor), pravastatin (pravachol), simvastatin (zocor), has been found to provide added therapeutic effects and reduce requirements for statin medications (Gardner et al 1996, 1997, Jacobson et al 1994, Yim & Chong 2003). A review of the combination of once daily, extended-release niacin and lovastatin therapy found that the addition of niacin may enhance or improve the lipid profile of those who require a further decrease of triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and or increase of HDL-cholesterol, even after stable statin therapy. The combination has been found to be safe with no increase in adverse reactions (Yim & Chong 2003) beneficial interaction possible.

Presentday Cultivation And Usage

The safflower seed (SS) is well suited for organic skin care products, and has been clinically proven to be highly beneficial in lowering serum cholesterol levels. It is also used quite commonly as an alternative to sunflower seeds in birdfeeders. Today, SS the source of OSS is used for meal, birdseed, in the food and industrial products markets, and foots (the residue from oil processing) to manufacture soap, but it is primarily grown for its oil.

The biological and clinical impact of SAR1b mutations

Table 4 provides the lipid profiles of the patients for which mutations in SAR1B have been established. As is typical for individuals affected with AD CMRD, the mean values of total and HDL-cholesterol, apoAI and apoB are decreased, LDL-cholesterol is mildly decreased and triglycerides are in the normal range, however there is a large range of values for each of these parameters. As previously discussed, some patients present with low triglycerides or apoB levels and could be confused with atypical abetalipoproteinemia (familes 7, 12), and those with normal HDL cholesterol (family 10) could be confused with heterozygous FHBL. In homozygous patients, missense mutations are more frequent (12 families) than nonsense (8) and are as severe as nonsense mutations, except for the patient in family 10 (p.E62K) who has a normal HDL cholesterol level. The clinical data are not different among patients with different mutations. Several patients have been diagnosed later (adult or teenager)...

Ascorbic Acid in Xenobiotic and Cholesterol Metabolism

There is impairment of drug metabolism in ascorbate-deficient guineapigs, which is normalized on repletion (Zannoni et al., 1972), possibly reflecting the effects of ascorbate on expression of cytochrome P450 (Mori et al., 1997). This may also account for the hypercholesterolemia and impaired synthesis of bile acids that is seen in vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs. Cholesterol 7-hydroxylase, the first enzyme of bile acid synthesis, is cytochrome P450-dependent, and its activity is reduced in deficiency. In general, the effects on collagen synthesis are more marked and more important than those of decreased formation of carnitine (as a result of impaired activity of trimethyllysine and y-butyrobetaine hydroxylases Section 14.1.1), impaired xenobiotic metabolism, or hypercholesterolemia (Section 13.3.8). However, depletion of muscle carnitine may account for the lassitude and fatigue that precede clinical signs of scurvy. Some scorbutic patients develop chest pains, and acute cardiac...

Metabolic Effects Of Lupine Kernel Fiber

The blood lipids did not change in normocholesterolemic subjects. In contrast, the 4-week intervention with LKFiber-enriched food, studied in hypercholesterolemic subjects, led to a decrease of total plasma cholesterol by 12 (p < 0.001). The LDL concentration was lowered by 15 (p < 0.001), but high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol remained unchanged, which resulted in a 12 decline in the LDL HDL ratio (Fechner and Jahreis, 2011). The reduction of total cholesterol and LDL was similar to the effects of soluble viscous fiber such as psyllium (Anderson et al., 2000). The work group of Johnson also showed only a cholesterol-lowering effect of LKFiber in hypercholesterolemic patients (Hall et al., 2005). Normocholesterolemia X 4.9 Hypercholesterolemia X 6.6 No Yes the primary BAs significantly, but the secondary BA excretion was slightly decreased. Presumably, the observed reduction in the pH value (Fechner et al., 2009) is responsible for the rise in the excretion of primary BAs...

Garlic Allium Sativum

Traditionally garlic has been used for a wide range of conditions, e.g., the common cold and other infections. Today, the main indication for garlic is hypercholesterolemia. A recent meta-analysis (9) included 13 placebo-controlled, double-blind RCTs with a total of 806 patients with hypercholesterolemia. The methodological quality of these studies was good (Jadad score 3-5). The results of the meta-analysis demonstrated a weighted mean difference of 15.7 mg dL (95 CI 25.6 to 5.7). For the most rigorous RCTs, the effect size was only 9.4 mg dL and not any longer statistically significant. Our overall conclusion therefore was ''garlic is superior to placebo .but the effect is modest and of debatable clinical relevance'' (9).

Biomarkers of Diseases

Perhaps the most important outcomes in intervention studies are changes in risk factors or biomarkers of disease, especially for cardiovascular disease. Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL and LDL) concentrations are considered important biomarkers for risk of cardiovascular disease. In a large (N 65) study of men and women consuming six cups of black tea per day, there was no change in plasma LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, or triglycerides compared to a control beverage. However, in a controlled diet study of 12 individuals with slightly elevated LDL-cholesterol, consumption of five cups of black tea per day compared to a control, caffeine-containing beverage resulted in a 6.5 decrease in total cholesterol and an 11.1 decrease in LDL-cholesterol after 3 weeks of consumption. There were no concomitant changes in HDL-cholesterol or triglycerides. A cholesterol-lowering effect of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract has also been observed in a large (N 240), double-blind, randomized...

Vitamin C in Cardiovascular Disease

Scorbutic guinea pigs develop hypercholesterolemia, which may lead to the development of cholesterol-rich gallstones. This is largely the result of impaired activity of cholesterol 7-hydroxylase, which is an ascorbate-dependent enzyme (Section 13.3.8), resulting in reduced oxidation of cholesterol to bile acids. There is no evidence that increased intakes of vitamin C above requirements result in increased cholesterol catabolism.

Sublingual nifedipine

Sublingual nifedipine is used worldwide to lower BP acutely in so-called hypertensive emergencies. Unfortunately, many patients who received sublingual nifedipine needed it about as much as a patient with high cholesterol would need a sublingual statin. Ofnote, there is good evidence that the sublingual application is of no added benefit because what gets into the blood stream is actually what is swallowed. Also, sublingual nifedipine lowers BP in a completely uncontrolled way, and such an abrupt BP drop has been associated with acute MI, stroke and death. Clearly, this is BP cosmetics and should be considered malpractice.

Dual energy Xray absortiometry DEXA A

Dyslipidemia Disorders in the lipoprotein metabolism classified as hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, combined hyperlipidemia, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. All of the dyslipidemias can be primary or secondary. Both elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and low levels of HDL cholesterol predispose to premature atherosclerosis. use of certain drugs (clofibrate, estrogens, and bile acid sequestrants), and presence of gastrointestinal disease. Gallstones sometimes develop during dieting for weight reduction. There is an increased risk for gallstones and acute gallbladder disease during severe caloric restriction.

High Blood Cholesterol

Cholesterol Lowering in the Patient with Coronary Heart Disease Physician Monograph. Reviews the scientific evidence that cholesterol lowering in patients with coronary heart disease produces dramatic benefits. Provides guidance on implementing dietary and drug treatment and improving patient adherence to lowering cholesterol in the patient with coronary heart disease.

Enhance your Patient Education with Nhlbi Materials

Step by Step Eating To Lower Your High Blood Cholesterol. Advises patients on how to make diet and lifestyle changes to lower their high blood cholesterol levels. Explains the Step I and Step II diets and gives practical tips for buying and preparing foods, eating out, increasing physical activity and selecting a weight loss program. Sample menus at two calorie levels and nutrient content tables of a wide variety of foods are included. Live Healthier, Live Longer Lowering Cholesterol for the Person With Heart Disease. Gives the patient with coronary heart disease information on how to lower high blood cholesterol through diet, physical activity and weight control to prevent future heart attacks and improve the quality of life. Practical information included on choosing foods lower in saturated fat, total fat, and cholesterol.

Biosynthesis Of Betanin

Prickly pear has long been known in traditional medicine for treating a number of pathologies from ulcer, fatigue, and dyspnea to glaucoma, liver conditions, and wounds (11,13). Studies with different models and several experimental conditions provided some scientific basis for the popular use of this plant. Various preparations from fleshy stems (cladodes) have been tested for treatment of diabetes symptomatology in animal models (14,15), or in humans (16). The mechanism for this action is still unknown some results, however, preclude a role for dietary fiber (15). Other studies revealed beneficial effects against ethanol-induced ulcer (17), in the treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy (18,19), and in hypercholesterolemia in humans (20) and guinea pigs (21). Diuretic activity of cladode, flower, and fruit infusions has been shown in rats (22). Obviously, other investigations are required to gain insight into the active agents in this plant and the mechanisms involved in all the...

In the cardiovascular system

Much evidence has accumulated from various lines of inquiry that indicates that the dietary fatty acid intake and lipid acyl composition of tissues is a determinant of many of the chronic diseases prominent in the Western World, notably cardiovascular disease. It has been appreciated since the 1950s that when dietary polyunsaturated fat intake is increased, a decrease in the total serum and lipoprotein cholesterol levels results 1 . Bang and Dyerberg, in their study of the Greenland Eskimos, a group in which CVD had an extremely low incidence, made the ground breaking inference that the high dietary intake of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentanoate and docosahexaenoate was responsible for this protection from disease 2 , More recently, several epidemiological studies have reported a relationship between dietary n-3 polyunsaturates and the risk of CVD 3-8 , For example, Dolechek et al. found an inverse relationship between alpha-linolenate and mortality from CVD,...

Macronutrient Composition of the Diet

HDL cholesterol The mechanisms whereby saturated fatty acids raise LDL cholesterol levels are not known, although available data suggest that they suppress the expression of LDL receptors. The predominant saturated fatty acid in most diets is palmitic acid (C16 0) it is cholesterol-raising when compared with cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, specifically oleic acid (C18 cis1 n-9), which is considered to be 'neutral' with respect to serum cholesterol concentrations. In other words, oleic acid is considered by most investigators to have no effect on serum cholesterol or lipoproteins. Another saturated fatty acid, myristic acid (C14 0), apparently raises LDL cholesterol concentrations somewhat more than does palmitic acid, whereas other saturates - lauric (C12 0), caproic (C10 0), and caprylic (C8 0) acids - have a somewhat lesser cholesterol-raising effect. On average, for every 1 of total energy consumed as cholesterol-raising saturated fatty acids, compared with oleic acid, the serum...

Structure Of Streptozotocin

Averrhoa Bilimbi Leaf Cholesterol

Blood-Lipid and Cholesterol-Lowering Effect The daily administration of ABe per orally (125 mg kg twice a day) for 14 days to STZ-diabetic SD rats caused a reduction in the serum triglycerides and an increase in HDL cholesterol. However, ABe did not decrease the serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. This leads to an increase in the antiathero-genic index and HDL cholesterol total cholesterol ratio (11). Moreover, the daily administration of ABe (125 mg kg) and metformin (500 mg kg) to STZ-diabetic rats twice a day for 2 weeks caused a reduction in food and water intake and an increase in body weight (11). Since ABe increased HDL cholesterol, it significantly increased the antiatherogenic index and HDL cholesterol total cholesterol ratio. ABe thus has the potential to prevent the formation of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, which are the secondary diabetic complications of severe diabetes mellitus (13). In contrast, metformin failed to increase the HDL-cholesterol level...

Novel Medical Treatments

Selenoprotein

The presence of a lithogenic bile is primarily a result of a sustained hypersecretion of biliary cholesterol, which has 2 key components hepatic and intestinal.31 In principle, drugs influencing hepatic synthesis and or secretion of cholesterol (ie, statins) and or Inhibition of Hepatic Cholesterol Synthesis by Statins Statins are competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, the rate-limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis. They occupy a portion of the binding site of HMG CoA, blocking access of this substrate to the active site on the enzyme.124 Currently available statins in the United States include lovastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, atorvastatin, and rosuvastatin. Statins seem also to reduce cholesterol secretion and concentration in bile independently of their ability to block hepatic cholesterol synthesis.125-128 Such combined effects of statins on cholesterol homeostasis in the liver and bile might be able to lower the...

Cant get an erection

Or pituitary gland, or a deficiency of testosterone may cause impotence. Disease of the arteries and veins may cause impotence. Smoking, diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol promote disease of the arteries. Men with arterial disease may have difficulty in attaining an erection, whereas men with disease of the veins may have difficulty in maintaining an erection. Disease of the veins results in impotence because the veins are unable to constrict. After an erection is attained, blood normally leaks from the penis back into the veins, causing the penis to soften. After an erection is attained, the veins constrict, preventing leakage of blood from the penis maintaining the erection.

Secondary Metabolites

Of thioesters or amides, results in a huge number of possible structures. Polyketide secondary metabolites include orsellinic acid, tetrahydroxynaphthalene (precursor for melanin), statins, fumonisin, and the aflatoxins, which are some of the most toxic compounds on earth. The function of aflatoxins in fungi is unknown however, after consumption of plant material contaminated by Aspergillus spp, toxicosis followed by death can occur in even large animals by almost undetectable quantities. Species' susceptibility varies greatly however, the liver is the primary target, where cytochrome P450 enzymes convert aflatoxins to the reactive 8,9-epoxide form (Mishra and Das 2003). The reactive aflatoxin epoxide then binds to eukary-otic DNA and proteins, specifically the N7 position of guanines. Aflatoxin-DNA adducts can result in GC to TA transversions, and it's carcinogenic potency is highly correlated with the extent of aflatoxin-DNA adducts formed in vivo (Bennett and Klich 2003). While...

Linda A Jacobs Jane Alavi Angela DeMichele Steven Palmer Carrie Stricker and David Vaughn

Shortness of breath High cholesterol Forgetfulness Trouble concentration Trouble with calculations Rapid heart rate Chest pain Tightness in your chest Arm swelling side of your surgery Hand swelling side of your surgery Broken bones Bone pain Urinary frequency Burning when urinating Urine leakage when coughing Numbness tingling in hands Numbness tingling in feet Hot flashes Night sweats Vaginal dryness Decreased desire for sex Decreased satisfaction with sex Ringing in your ears Decreased hearing Weight gain (more than 10 lbs) Weight loss (more than 10 lbs)

Uses Of Laser And Rapeseedoliveoil

In energy from saturated fatty acids, serum LDL cholesterol concentration increases by 0.033 mmol L (Mensink and Katan, 1992), 0.036 mmol L (Clarke et al., 1997), or 0.045 mmol L (Hegsted et al., 1993). Although all fats will increase serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration relative to carbohydrate, the increase attributable to saturated fats is greater than that observed for monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Serum HDL cholesterol concentration increases by 0.011 to 0.013 mmol L for each 1 percent increase in saturated fat (Clarke et al., 1997 Hegsted et al., 1993 Mensink and Katan, 1992). A report from the Netherlands suggested that a diet enriched with elaidic acid (a subfraction of 18 1 trans) compared to one enriched with oleic acid (18 1 cis) increased total and LDL cholesterol concentrations and decreased HDL cholesterol concentrations, hence resulting in a less favorable total cholesterol HDL cholesterol ratio (Mensink and Katan, 1990)....

Basis For Gene Therapy For

IEM can also be caused by deficiency of protein that is involved in the transport of metabolite (Fig. 2b). Examples include the cystine transporter in cystinosis and the LDL (low-density lipoprotein) receptor in familial hypercholesterolemia. In this class of disorder, a metabolite accumulates in one tissue as result of an enzymatic deficiency (Fig. 3a). This leads to increased metabolite levels in the blood and toxicity in other tissues. The prototype for this type of disorder is phenylketon-uria in which deficiency of hepatic phenylalanine hydroxylase leads to increased blood levels of phenylalanine and toxic effects to the developing brain. Familial hypercholesterolemia is another IEM that fits this model. Deficiency of the LDL receptor in the liver leads to increased levels of LDL and subsequent damage to the coronary arteries.

Type A Personality and Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular disease is one of the most frequent causes of death and disability in the United States. Health professionals have been searching for the factors that put people at risk for this disease. Known risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease include high blood pressure, obesity, smoking, family history of heart disease, inactive lifestyle, and high cholesterol. In the 1970s, physicians began to consider a new risk factor , a specific personality trait. As mentioned in Chapter 13, this grew out of the observation by some physicians that the patients who had had heart attacks often behaved dif fer-ently, and they seemed to have different personalities, compared with other patients. The heart attack patients were often more competitive and aggressive, more active and energetic in their actions and speaking, and more ambitious and driven (Friedman & Rosenman, 1974). They called this collection of behaviors the Type A personality. Early studies of the Type A...

Nutrition and Sutoxins

Boils, eczema, fluor albus etc.803 Because pig meat had a high energy density it would first be stored in the connective tissue if eaten excessively. In Reckeweg's opinion this led to the obesity (adiposity) typical in pork eaters. Eating too much pork would also result in raised cholesterol levels which could cause high blood pressure, arteriosclerosis or circulatory disorders, myocardial infarction etc.804 The sulphur-rich mucous substance of the connective tissue presented a particular risk, Reckeweg warned. Homotoxicology blamed amino sugars, hexosamines and sulphurous substances such as chondroitin sulphuric acid and mucoitin sulphuric acid for the mucous swelling of the connective tissue.805

Curcumin Inhibits Myocardial Infarction

In another study, Babu and Srinivasan showed the hypolipidemic action of curcumin in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes (102). Rats were maintained on 0.5 curcumin-containing diet for 8 weeks. The diet lowered blood cholesterol significantly exclusively by decreasing the LDL-VLDL fraction. A significant decrease in blood triglyceride and phospholipids was also brought about by dietary curcumin. In a parallel study, wherein diabetic animals were maintained on a high-cholesterol diet, the extents of hypercho-lesterolemia and phospholipidemia were higher than in those maintained on the control diet. Curcumin lowered cholesterol and phospholipid levels in these animals also. Liver cholesterol and triglyceride and phospholipid contents were elevated under diabetic conditions. Dietary curcumin showed a distinct tendency to counter these changes in lipid fractions of liver. This effect of curcumin was also seen in diabetic animals maintained on a high-cholesterol diet. Dietary...

Chitosan plus herbal extracts

Polymer also possessing medicinal activities, such as antifungal, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, anticancer, antiplaque, ant tartar, hemostatic, wound healing, and potentiates anti-inflammatory response, inhibits the growth of cariogenic bacteria, immunopotentiation, antihypertensive, serum cholesterol lowering, increases salivary secretion (anti-xerostomia), and helps in the formation of bone substitute materials. The adherence of oral bacteria on the tooth surface leads to plaque formation. It is believed that the adhesion between the bacteria and the tooth surface is due to electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. These interactions are disrupted by chitosan derivatives because of competition by the positively charged amine group. The antibacterial activity of chitosan could be due to the electrostatic interactions between the amine groups of chitosan and the anionic sites on bacterial cell wall because of the presence of carboxylic acid residues and phospholipids. Use of most of...

Classification of Hyperlipidemia

A (mild hypercholesterolemia) hypercholesterolemia) hypercholesterolemia and or Causes of Hypercholesterolemia level. Occasionally, a raised HDL level is responsible for high cholesterol, as seen in the familial condition of primary hyper-a-lipoproteinemia. Secondary causes given in Table 6 include hypothyroidism, nephrotic syndrome, some cases of diabetes mellitus, and cholestasis. Primary causes include polygenic familial hypercholesterolemia, in which several gene abnormalities together with environmental effects serve to raise serum cholesterol. Several genetic loci contribute to increased plasma LDL levels, but there are five specific monogenic disorders that increase LDL familial hypercholesterole-mia (LDL receptor gene), familial ligand-defective apoB-100 (apoB gene), autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH gene), sitosterolen (ABCG5 or ABCG8 genes), and cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP7A1 gene). Much less common, but more clearly defined, are the two autosomal...

Introduction Of Oral Drug Delivery

An ion-exchange resin (IER) comprises an insoluble, commonly synthetic matrix possessing ionizable groups capable of exchanging ions with those in bulk solution with which it is in contact. Thus, under appropriate conditions it can deliver to or sequester chemical species from an aqueous environment. The process is reversible, exchange capability being regenerated by washing the resin with an excess of the originally bound ions. The technology is utilized in many industrial applications such as chemical and biosynthesis, food processing and agriculture. In the pharmaceutical industry it is used to separate and purify proteins, nucle-otides and amino acids. Use in dosage form design may improve bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs, mask bitter taste and control drug release, either to enhance effectiveness or possibly inhibit narcotic abuse. Resins are also used as therapeutic agents for lowering cholesterol, potassium reduction and in chronic renal failure.

Searching For Human Lith Genes

Because of its multifactorial pathogenesis, it is difficult to identify human gene abnormalities that are responsible for the formation of cholesterol gallstones. Monogenic predisposition for cholelithiasis has only been ascribed to mutations in the genes in specific subgroups of patients. Table 2 summarizes human LITH genes that have been identified and updated in 2008. Missense mutations in the ABCB4 gene, which encodes the phospholipid transporter in the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes, are the basis for a particular type of cholelithiasis. The disorder is characterized by intrahepatic sludge, gallbladder cholesterol gallstones, mild chronic cholestasis, a high cholesterol phospholipid ratio in bile, and recurrent symptoms after cholecystectomy.42,43 A defect in the ABCB4 gene could constitute the basis for this highly symptomatic and recurrent form of gallstone disease. In patients with hepatolithiasis, a common disease in Asia, low expression levels of ABCB4 and...

Will I need to have a cardiac stress test also called an exercise test before surgery

It is possible your surgeon will want you to have an exercise stress test prior to your surgery. People who are likely to require a stress test include people who have had heart disease, diabetes, or a stroke. In addition if you have multiple heart disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, cigarette smoking, or a strong family history of heart disease your doctor may request that you have a stress test. Men over the age of forty-five and women over fifty-five may also require a stress test.

Guidelines For Management Of Gallstone Disease

Gall Bladder

Gallbladder stones are frequently found in asymptomatic patients during routine abdominal ultrasonography, because in most cases (60 -80 ) gallstones do not generate symptoms.43,48,49 Previous observations have shown that the average risk of developing symptomatic gallstones is 2.0 to 2.6 per year.45,50 By contrast, the presence of microstones and sludge in the gallbladder is a major risk factor for the development of biliary pain and complicated gallstone disease, and also plays a main role in the cause of acute otherwise idiopathic pancreatitis.51-53 Nevertheless, the yearly incidence of complications is low (0.3 ), and the annual risk for gallbladder cancer is as low as 0.02 .54,55 Treatment of asymptomatic patients with gallstones, therefore, is not routinely recommended, as the overall risk of biliary colic, complications, and gallbladder cancer is low.56-58 Expectant management is considered the appropriate choice in most asymptomatic patients with gallstones (grade A). The...

Indications Camelthorn

Abscess (f BIB KAB) Adenopathy (f JLH UPW) Anorexia (f BIB SAY) Arthrosis (f GHA) Asthma (f BIB) Atherosclerosis (1 WO3) Bacteria (1 WO2) Biliousness (f DEP) Bleeding (f BIB) Bronchosis (f BIB) Cancer (f JLH) Cancer, abdomen (f JLH) Cancer, gland (f JLH) Cardiopathy (1 X1305866) Cataract (f GHA PAY) Catarrh (f PAY) Cerebrosis (f BIB) Constipation (f PAY) Corneosis (f BIB) Cough (f DEP PAY) Dermatosis (f BIB) Diarrhea (f1 SAY X15138016) Enterosis (f UPW) Epistaxis (f BIB) Fever (f PAY) Gastrosis (f PAY) Gingivosis (f PAY) Halitosis (f PAY) Headache (f BIB WO3) Hematachezia (f PAY) Hemicrania (f BIB KAB) Hemorrhoid (f BIB KAB) High Blood Pressure (1 WO3) High Cholesterol (1 WO3) High Triglycerides (1 WO3) Impotence (f PAY) Infection (f1 PAY WO2) Jaundice (f GHA) Leprosy (f BIB KAB) Migraine (f BIB) Nephrosis (f PAY) Obesity (f1 BIB KAB WO3) Odontosis (f PAY) Opacity (f BIB) Ophthalmia (f KAB) Pain (f1 GHA WO3 X15507342) Polyp (f JLH) Pulmonosis (f JLH PAY WO3) Rheumatism (f PAY WO2)...

Ayervedic Medicine Dr Abel

The Chinese herb Jue-ming-zi has been used in many traditional Chinese medical prescriptions. C. tora was first recorded in Shen-Nung-Pen-Tsao-Ching as upper category, and in the successive Pen-Tsao of descending dynasties. It is used to remove ''heat'' from the liver and improve visual acuity, to moisten the supposedly dry digestive apparatus, and to facilitate bowel movement as a laxative. Previous studies on C. tora show its therapeutic effects on hypertension (7,8), on hypercholesterolemia (9,10), as an antihepatotoxin (11), an antimicrobial (12-14), on blood platelet coagulation (15), on the eyes, and in constipation (16). This herb has been reported to contain many active substances, including chrysophenol, emodin, rhein, etc. (17). Recently many researchers have studied the antioxidant activity and antigenotoxicity of C. tora. Choi et al. (18) reported that anthraquinone aglycons and naphthopyrone glycosides from C. tora had inhibitory activity against aflatoxin B1 in the Ames...

Gallbladder And Intestinal Motility

And relatively high cholesterol secretion. There is also a progressive concentration of gallbladder bile during this period, which is partially counteracted by periodic interdigestive gallbladder contraction in association with antral phase 3 of the migrating motor complex of the intestine.

Potato tule See arrowhead

Prairie oyster Traditional cure for a hangover a raw egg with Worcestershire sauce and brandy the egg is swirled with the liquid but the yolk remains intact. pravastatin See statins. probucol Drug used in treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia acts by inhibiting synthesis of cholesterol and increasing catabolism of low-density lipoprotein (see lipoproteins, plasma).

Health and nutritional benefits of breadfruit

Breadfruit is a staple food sought after because it is an inexpensive source of high energy. Compared to banana, cassava, plantain, taro, and sweet potato, it is a relatively good source of calcium (Monro et al., 1986). Potassium and phosphorus have been reported in relatively good quantities, although amounts may vary between cultivars. Compared to other tropical starchy foods, it is an acceptable source of vitamin C (20 mg 100 mg of pulp) and has good levels of iron, niacin, and riboflavin at all stages of maturity. Although not high in protein, the amino acid profile of its protein is favorable. Breadfruit also contains significantly high amounts of fiber. According to the American Heart Association, fiber decreases bad cholesterol and triglycerides, which increase the risk of heart attack. An increased intake of fiber lowers low-density lipoprotein (bad) cholesterol levels while elevating high-density lipoprotein (good) cholesterol levels in the body. Breadfruit protects the body...

Fat Distribution and Disease Risk

Researchers have found positive correlations between fasting glucose, insulin, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triaclyglycer-ols using imaging techniques, sagittal diameter, waist circumference, and WHR in most, but not all, studies. Visceral fat and HDL cholesterol are inversely associated. The strength of the associations varies but tends to be largest for triaclyglycerols. Associations are reduced after controlling for BMI and age. disease risk factors, including abdominal obesity, cluster in individuals. This cluster of risk factors is referred to as metabolic syndrome. The other risk factors in metabolic syndrome are insulin resistance glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia (high triaclygly-cerols and low HDL cholesterol), and high blood pressure.

Indications Fenugreek

Enteralgia (f APA CRC) Edema (f BOW) Enterosis (f BGB BOU PH2 WOI) Exhaustion (f MAD) Fever (f1 APA BOU CRC PH2 X15374601) Fistula (f CRC) Fracture (f HJP) Furunculosis (f BGB HHB PHR VAD), Gas (f1 APA) Gastrosis (f APA BGB BOU CAN GMH) Gonorrhea (f UPW) Gout (f BGB CAN CRC GMH) Hay Fever (f PED) Helicobacter (1 X15331344) Hemorrhoid (f MAD NAD) Hepatosis (f CRC JLH KAP) Hernia (f APA BGB CRC PH2) High Blood Pressure (f1 CAN HJP), High Cholesterol (2 APA BRU CAN SKY) High Triglycerides (1 BGB SKY) Hyperlipidemia (1 BGB) Impotence (f APA CRC PH2) Impotence (f DAA) Infection (1 APA WOI X15331344) Inflammation (f12 APA BRU KOM PH2 X15374601) Itch (f BOU) Ischemia (1 X16205934) Kidney stone (1 JEB26 249) Labor (f1 APA) Leprosy (f UPW) Leukorrhea (f KAP) Lymphadenitis (f BGB CAN) Mastosis (f JLH) Muscular Dystrophy (f UPW) Myalgia (f BGB CAN) Nematode (1 PR15 538) Nephrosis (f APA CRC JLH) Neuralgia (f APA CRC) Neurasthenia (f BOW GMH NAD) Ophthalmia (f JLH VAD) Orchosis (f JLH)...

Tocopherols and Cardiovascular Disease Epidemiological Evidence

In the ASAP study, men and women (all subjects had hypercholesterolemia at entry) were given vitamin E (91 mg twice daily), slow-release vitamin C (250 mg twice daily), a combination of both, or placebo for 3 years. The progression of atherosclerosis (the mean intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery measured) was significantly retarded only in the men who smoked and took both vitamins. It is important to note that, in general, women develop fewer cardiovascular events than do men. Thus, women may profit less from vitamin E treatment than men. In studies in which many women are enrolled, the low incidence of CVD may weaken the statistical power of the overall trial.

Solanaceae Nightshade family

One benefit of lycium that is generally accepted is to promote a healthy gut flora, while lowering bad LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels in the bloodstream. The berries serve to stabilize the capillaries, veins, and arteries throughout the body. They work on thread and varicose veins, and fragile capillaries that bleed under the skin. They also help to reduce narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis), thereby benefiting cold hands and feet. high cholesterol

Recognizing Causative Factors of Undernutrition

A wide variety of prescribed drugs can cause anorexia, nausea, and other symptoms of gastrointestinal distress in older persons, rendering medication review an important component of nutritional management. Digoxin, theophylline, and nonstero-idal anti-inflammatory agents are frequent culprits in this regard. Enquiry must also be made into the use and tolerance of self-prescribed medication. Offending drugs, once identified, must be discontinued. Iatrogenesis also contributes to undernutrition by way of therapeutic diets. Low-cholesterol and low-salt diets are often prescribed to older persons on the basis of data extrapolated from younger persons. There is currently little evidence to suggest that these diets are of any benefit to older persons when used as primary prevention strategies. Available data actually indicate increased mortality in older adults with low-cholesterol levels. Evidence suggests that hypocholesterolemia may reflect increased cytokine expression in acutely ill...

Applications To Health Promotion And Disease Prevention Adverse Effects And Reactions

Almonds in the daily diet reduced LDL cholesterol by as much as 9.4 , reduced the LDL HDL ratio by 12.0 , and increased HDL cholesterol by 4.6 (Jenkins et al., 2002). Claimed health benefits of almonds furthermore include improved complexion, improved transition of food through the colon, and even the prevention of cancer. Recent research associates the inclusion of almonds in the diet with elevating the blood levels of beneficial high density lipoproteins, and lowering the levels of low density lipoproteins. High concentrations of phenolics and flavonoids in the testa provide for antioxidative efficacy (Wijeratne et al., 2006). Bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus var. amara) in particular accumulate substantial amounts of the cyanogenic di-glycoside amygdalin (D-mandelonitrile-b-D-gentiobioside Figure 14.1) in their seeds. The seeds can contain up to 5 amygdalin ( 1 mg hydrogen cyanide per seed), and 10 15 seeds are considered lethal for children while 50 60 seeds represent a critical...

Dyslipidemia Diabetes Mellitus and the Metabolic Syndrome

Given that cholesterol gallstone disease is a metabolic problem, it should correlate with lipid abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, and adiposity. Although most gallstones in the Western world consist of cholesterol, there is no definite association with hypercholesterolemia.1 Rather, a low HDL cholesterol carries an increased risk of developing stones, as does hypertriglyceridemia.

Viigarlic Allium Sativum

A number of clinical trials have been performed using a variety of garlic compounds. These trials have generated conflicting results. A recent meta-analysis has suggested that garlic supplementation may decrease total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL levels modestly, but only in the short term (60). Analysis of studies longer than 24 weeks failed to reveal significant effects (60). High-density lipoprotein levels do not seem to be affected by garlic administration (60). When used in the short term, garlic seems to improve cholesterol levels by 4-6 (61). When compared to the 17-32 sustained decrease in cholesterol levels seen with statin drugs (62,63), the use of garlic cannot be endorsed as a viable alternative for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Additionally, its use for the treatment ofhypertension, diabetes, or peripheral vascular disease is not supported (60,64).

Omega3 PUFA in Fish and Shellfish

The beneficial effects of eating fish for human health have been well documented. Research has shown that EPA and DHA are beneficial in protecting against cardiovascular and other diseases (Table 3). Studies examining the effects of fish consumption on serum lipids indicate a reduction in triacylglycerol and VLDL-cholesterol levels, a factor that may be protective for some individuals. Research also indicates that EPA in particular reduces platelet aggregation, which may help vessels injured by plaque formation. Fish oils also appear to help stabilize the heart rhythm, a factor that may be important in people recovering from heart attacks.

Dietary Sources High Intakes and Antimetabolites

The greatest interest, in pharmacological terms, has been centered around nicotinic acid, which has been shown to have marked antihyperlipidemic properties at daily doses of 2-6 g. Nicotinamide does not share this particular pharmacological activity. Large doses of nicotinic acid reduce the mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue by inhibiting the breakdown of triacylglycerols through lipolysis. They also inhibit hepatic triacylglycerol synthesis, thus limiting the assembly and secretion of very low-density lipoproteins from the liver and reducing serum cholesterol levels. Large doses of nicotinic acid ameliorate certain risk factors for cardiovascular disease for instance they increase circulating high-density lipoprotein levels. The ratio of HDL2 to HDL3 is increased by nicotinic acid there is a reduced rate of synthesis of apolipoprotein A-II and a transfer of some apolipoprotein A-I from HDL3 to HDL2. These changes are all considered potentially beneficial in reducing the...

Consequences of Long Term Undernutrition among Homeless Children

Hypercholesterolemia high levels of cholesterol in the blood Homeless adults also suffer several medical problems due to undernu-trition. Common problems include anemia, dental problems, gastric ulcers, other gastrointestinal complaints, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, acute and chronic infectious diseases, diabetes, and malnutrition.

Pritikin Nathan 191585 Creator of the Pritikin Diet

Heart disease and diabetes in Europe during World War II. Lester Morrison, a Los Angeles cardiologist, had given half of a group of cardiac patients a diet mimicking the low-fat wartime food rations. By 1955, the cholesterol levels of the experimental low-fat, low-cholesterol group

Strategies for Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance

Dietary Therapy A diet that is individually planned and takes into account the patient's overweight status in order to help create a deficit of 500 to 1,000 kcal day should be an integral part of any weight loss program. A patient may choose a diet of 1,000 to 1,200 kcal day for women and 1,200 to 1,500 kcal day for men. Depending on the patient's risk status, the low-calorie diet (LCD) recommended should be consistent with the NCEP's Step I or Step II Diet (see page 74 of the guidelines). Besides decreasing saturated fat, total fats should be 30 percent or less of total calories. Reducing the percentage of dietary fat alone will not produce weight loss unless total calories are also reduced. Isocaloric replacement of fat with carbohydrates will reduce the percentage of calories from fat but will not cause weight loss. Reducing dietary fat, along with reducing dietary carbohydrates, usually will be needed to produce the caloric deficit needed for an acceptable weight loss. When fat...

Absorption Transport and Storage Cholesterol Absorption

Cholesterol in the intestinal lumen typically consists of one-third dietary cholesterol and two-thirds biliary cholesterol. The average daily diet contains 300-500 mg of cholesterol obtained from animal Dietary cholesterol intake products. The bile provides an additional 8001200 mg of cholesterol throughout each day as gallbladder contractions provide a flow of bile acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids to facilitate lipid digestion and absorption. Dietary cholesterol is a mixture of free and esterified cholesterol, whereas biliary cholesterol is nonesterified and is introduced into the small intestine as a cholesterol-bile salt-phospholipid water-soluble complex. The only other source of intraluminal cholesterol is mucosal cell cholesterol, derived from either sloughed muco-sal cells or cholesterol secreted by the mucosal cells into the intestinal lumen. Measurements of exogenous and endogenous cholesterol absorption in humans indicate that there is probably very little direct...

Potential Importance of Phytoestrogens to Human Health Molecular Mechanisms of Action

Although cholesterol lowering is probably the best documented cardioprotective effect of soya, vascular protection is also likely to contribute and may be mediated via a number of mechanisms. Soya isofla-vones are likely to contribute to the cardioprotective benefits of soya.

Pharmacology A Antioxidative Activity

Interestingly, the observed antioxidative effects of phenylethanoid glycosides were found to be dependent of the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups they have. Those with four phenolic hydroxy groups have stronger antioxidative effects than those with only two or less. As to the antioxidative mechanism, these compounds were shown to have at least two mechanisms of scavenging free radicals they are able to suppress free-radical processes at two stages the formation of superoxide anions and the production of lipid peroxides. The antioxidative effects would offer a plausible explanation for the observed therapeutic effects for arteriosclerosis. On the other hand, phenyl-ethanoid glycosides in B. hancei may partly account for its ethnomedicinal application for the relief of hyperlipemia and hypercholesterolemia.

When should I see my doctor about my GERD symptoms

You should see your doctor about GERD or heartburn before waiting too long. A burning chest discomfort may be GERD or it could be something else such as a heart problem. Angina or heart pain can be difficult to differentiate from GERD. If you are not sure or have any questions, this should prompt a visit to your doctor, especially if the discomfort is associated with shortness of breath, dizziness, sweating, and or arm or jaw pain or if the chest discomfort is associated with exercise. People with risk factors associated with heart disease such as a family history of heart attacks, smokers, those with high blood pressure, and those with high cholesterol are at increased risk for heart disease, and any chest pain warrants a doctor visit.

Lower Your Cholesterol In Just 33 Days

Lower Your Cholesterol In Just 33 Days

Discover secrets, myths, truths, lies and strategies for dealing effectively with cholesterol, now and forever! Uncover techniques, remedies and alternative for lowering your cholesterol quickly and significantly in just ONE MONTH! Find insights into the screenings, meanings and numbers involved in lowering cholesterol and the implications, consideration it has for your lifestyle and future!

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