Zinc homeostasis and action involve an intimate association of the mineral with proteins. These proteins include membrane transporters responsible for the absorption of zinc in the gut and its passage into and out of cells and subcellular organelles, transport and delivery proteins (both in the circulation and within cells), sensing proteins that will adjust home-ostasis and function according to zinc availability, and a large range of proteins to which zinc is ultimately delivered. Two major classes of these latter proteins are the enzymes and transcription factors. In addition to its association with proteins, zinc within cells is also found associated with membrane lipids and both DNA and RNA. The functions of these pools of zinc are not clear.
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