Vitamin D

Because of its importance in increasing calcium retention, recommended intakes of vitamin D are doubled during pregnancy. Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy causes disorders of calcium metabolism, including neonatal hypocalcemia and tetany, hypoplasia of infants' tooth enamel, and maternal osteomalacia. Because the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is high during the winter months at northern latitudes in regions such as Europe, the United States, and Canada, and Japan, vitamin D supplements may be necessary for women who live in these regions or who have little exposure to sunlight. A national survey in the United States conducted in the 1990s revealed that approximately 40% of African American women in the southeastern region had low blood levels of 25-hydroxyvita-min D, and that not drinking vitamin D-fortified milk was a risk factor for deficiency. In the absence of vitamin D fortification or supplementation, infants in Paris, for example, have higher plasma levels of parathyroid hormone and other indications of vitamin D deficiency if they are born soon after the winter months. Vitamin D supplements reversed the indications of vitamin D deficiency. High maternal intakes of vitamin D are toxic and were implicated as the cause of a syndrome that included mental and physical growth retardation and hyper-calcemia in British infants between 1953 and 1957. Excessive amounts of vitamin D taken during gestation have also caused aortic stenosis and abnormal skull development in infants. The upper limit for vitamin D in pregnancy is 50 mg per day, the same as for nonpregnant women.

Breaking Bulimia

Breaking Bulimia

We have all been there: turning to the refrigerator if feeling lonely or bored or indulging in seconds or thirds if strained. But if you suffer from bulimia, the from time to time urge to overeat is more like an obsession.

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