Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is associated with elevated oxidative stress (especially lipid peroxidation) and declines in antioxidant defense. This is thought to be due in part to elevated blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia), but severe oxidative stress may also precede and accelerate the development of type 2 diabetes and then of diabetic complications (CVD and microvascular complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy).

Small-scale human trials have shown administration of high doses of vitamin E to reduce oxidative stress and improve some CVD risk factors, such as blood glycated hemoglobin, insulin, and triglyceride levels, in people with diabetes. Such trials have also indicated benefit from vitamin E in improving endothelial function, retinal blood flow, and renal dysfunction. However, the findings of large clinical trials investigating the role of individual or a combination of antioxidant nutrients in reducing the risk of CVD and microvascular complications in people with diabetes have generally been disappointing. For example, the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Trial investigated the effects of vitamin E and the drug Ramipril in patients at high risk for CVD events and included a large number of middle-aged and elderly people with diabetes (more than 3600). An average of 4| years of supplementation with 400 IU of vitamin E per day was found to exert no beneficial or harmful effect on CVD outcomes or on nephropathy. The Primary Prevention Project trial found no effect of vitamin E (300mg/day) supplementation for 3 or 4 years in diabetic subjects, and the Heart Protection Study, which included a number of people with diabetes, also reported no benefit of a combination of antioxidant vitamins on mortality or incidence of vascular disease.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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