Transmembrane Pathway IV

Transport processes for sodium, potassium, and chloride exist on the basal and apical plasma

Table 2 Major fatty acids of human and bovine milk (wt%)

Fatty acid

Human milk

Western diet

Nigerian diet

Bovine milk

Saturated fatty acids

Medium and intermediate chain (formed in mammary gland)

8:0, octanoic acid 0.46

10:0, decanoic acid 1.03

12:0, lauric acid 4.40

14:0, myristic acid 6.27 Long chain

16:0, palmitic acid 22.0

18:0, stearic acid 8.06

Monounsaturated fatty acids

16:1 n-7 (cis), palmitoleic acid 3.29

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (essential fatty acids)

18:2 n-6, linoleic acid 10.76

18:3 n-3, linolenic acid 0.81 Long-chain PUFA (n-6)

18:3 n-6, 7-linolenic acid 0.16

20:3 n-6, dihomo-7-linolenic acid 0.26

20:4 n-6, arachadonic acid 0.36 Long-chain PUFA (n-3)

20:5 n-3, eicosapentenoic acid 0.04

22:6 n-3, docashexenoic acid 0.22

23.35 10.15

11.06 1.41

0.08

0.09

Data from Jensen RG (1995) Handbook of Milk Composition. San Diego: Academic Press.

membranes of alveolar epithelial cells. Uptake mechanisms for calcium, phosphate, and iodide, however, are thought to be limited to the basal membrane. The mammary epithelial cells possess a GLUT1 glucose transporter and a sodium-dependent glucose transporter. The GLUT1 transporter is thought to mediate glucose transport at the basal and Golgi membranes, but it does not contribute to glucose transport at the apical membrane. Both sodium-dependent and sodium-independent amino acid transport mechanisms analogous to those found in other organs are located in the basolateral component of the mammary epithelium. It is unclear if apical membranes have similar transport mechanisms for amino acids, and it is unknown how amino acids get into milk.

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