Trace Elements Copper Selenium Chromium Fluoride Manganese and Molybdenum

Copper is required for the function of many enzymes, primarily oxidases. In pregnancy, an increased intake of this mineral is recommended to cover deposition of approximately 18 mg/day, most of which is in fetal liver. The UL (10 000 mg/day) is the same as for nonpregnant women, based on the need to prevent the liver damage that occurs with high intakes.

Recommended intakes of selenium for adults are based on the criterion of maximizing plasma glutathione peroxidase activity. Based on an estimated selenium content of the fetus of 1000 mg, across pregnancy this would require that an additional 4 mg/day be consumed. The EAR is therefore increased from 45 to 49 mg/day and the RDA from 55 to 60 mg/day. The UL is determined on the basis of hair loss and brittle nails, which occur at higher levels of intake, and is the same as that set for nonpregnant women. An intake of 60 mg/day is also recommended throughout pregnancy in the United Kingdom, which is the same as the prepreg-nancy value for that population.

Chromium is required for normal insulin metabolism. There are no data from which to derive a recommendation for pregnancy, so an increase of 5 mg/day is recommended (as an AI) based on the additional weight and tissue chromium gained in pregnancy. No UL was set due to lack of documented adverse effects in humans.

For fluoride, there is no evidence that increasing the AI in pregnancy above that for the nonpregnant woman would benefit fetal tooth or bone content or afford protection against later tooth decay in the child. The UL is set at 10 mg/day to avoid fluorosis (discoloration of tooth enamel, joint pain, and skeletal abnormalities).

Manganese is required for bone formation and the normal metabolism of amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. The AI for pregnancy, estimated from the manganese content of maternal weight gain, is 2 mg/day. The UL is based on avoidance of elevated blood manganese and neurotoxicity, and it is not increased for pregnancy.

Recommended molybdenum intakes, based on the mineral's role as a cofactor for several enzymes, increase by 16 mg/day in pregnancy to cover the increment in fetal and maternal weight. The UL is derived from adverse reproductive effects seen in animals.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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