Total body fat can be estimated as a percentage of body fat by comparing the sum of TSFT, BSFT, SSFT, and SISFT with reference values derived from laboratory studies by age and sex, or via the estimation of body density from regression equations with skinfold thickness measurements. There are no specific empirical equations which can be used for specific population groups. Lean body mass is calculated by difference. These calculations may overestimate body fat in lean individuals and underestimate body fat in fat adults. They should not be used in undernourished individuals or in those with diseases where the total body water content may be markedly increased.
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