Systemic hormones that regulate skeletal growth or function growth hormone oestradiol and vitamin A

Growth hormone stimulates bone growth by prompting cell division amongst the chondrocytes of the growth plate. It acts in part by stimulating IGF-I production.

While there is no doubt that the decreased levels of oestradiol that follow normal or artificially induced menopause lead to increased bone loss, oes-tradiol's role in skeletal biology remains obscure. The recent discovery of oestradiol receptors in osteoblasts suggests it may have a direct effect on osteoblastic cells.

Vitamin A is important for the maintenance of normal bone remodeling. It may also participate in the control of three-dimensional pattern formation during limb bud development.

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