Rye (Secale cereale) is grown in temperate regions and is the most cold-tolerant of the cereals. World rye production is about 20 million tonnes annually (Table 1). About 33% of rye production is used for food and about 15% for industrial use, including whisky production. Food intakes are highest in Eastern and Central Europe, the Baltic states, and Scandinavia. Per capita supplies for food use in these countries are: Belarus, 110gday_1; Poland, 108gday_1; Austria, 39gday_1; Ukraine, 36gday_1; Slovakia, 31gday_1; Lithuania, 57gday_1; Estonia, 54gday_1; Finland, 46gday_1; Denmark, 36gday_1, and Sweden, 35gday_1. Harvested rye is a caryopsis, and it is milled to extractions ranging from 65% to wholemeal (100%). Rye flour is used to make crispbreads and yeast-leavened breads, where it is often mixed with wheat flour.
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