Requirements and Recommendations

According to the new definition of the expert panel appointed by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Science (IOM), dietary reference intakes (DRIs) are defined as a set of reference values for nutrient intake, and include the estimated average requirement (EAR), recommended dietary allowance (RDA), adequate intake (AI), and tolerable upper intake level (UL). EAR refers to the average daily intake value of a nutrient that is estimated to fulfill the needs of healthy people in a particular lifestage or group. RDA refers to the minimum daily intake that fulfills the need of almost all healthy people in a particular lifestage or group. AI refers to the observed intake of a particular group of healthy people, and is used when there is lack of scientific experimentation for the determination of the EAR or the RDA. UL refers to the maximum daily intake level of a nutrient that is not likely to pose an adverse health effect for almost all people.

The DRIs for carbohydrate consumption of individual groups and lifestages are outlined in Table 2. These values are based on the average minimum amount of glucose needed for brain function. A UL for carbohydrates was not set because no studies have shown that excessive consumption of carbohydrates has a detrimental effect on health. Based on the dilutional effect of added sugars on micronutri-ents, the expert panel suggests a maximal intake of less than 25% of energy from added sugars. Total sugar intake can be decreased by limiting foods high in added sugars and consuming naturally occurring sugar products, like milk, dairy products, and fruit.

The IOM does not specify dietary requirements or recommendations for NSP consumption, but has provided recommended intakes for fiber, which includes NSP. The DRIs for total fiber consumption of individual groups and lifestages are outlined in Table 3. It has not been shown that a high fiber intake has a harmful effect in healthy individuals. Therefore, a UL for fiber has not been set.

There is insufficient evidence to support a recommendation by the IOM for the consumption of low-GI foods or the replacement of high-GI foods, like bread and potatoes. Although several studies propose adverse effects of high-GI carbohydrates and beneficial effects of low-GI foods, a recommendation on consumption of low-GI foods is a major dietary change that requires substantial scientific evidence. Therefore, a UL based on GI is not set.

The 1998 report of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) regarding the role of carbohydrates in human nutrition recommends the consumption of at least 55% of total energy in the form of carbohydrates from a variety of sources. The committee proposes that the majority of carbohydrates consumed should originate from NSP, principally from

Table 2 Carbohydrate requirements and recommendations (DRIs)

Age group/Life stage

Males

Females

Males

Females

Infants (0-6 months) Infants (6-12 months) Children (1-18 years) Adults (>18 years) Pregnancy Lactation

100 100

100 100 135 160

130 130

60 95

130 130 175 210

DRIs, dietary reference intakes; EAR, estimated average requirement; RDA, recommended dietary allowance; AI, adequate intake.-Data from Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (2002) Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Table S Total fiber recommendations (DRIs) Age group/Lifestage AI (g day~1)

Males Females

Children (1-3 years)

19

19

Children (4-8 years)

25

25

Children (9-13 years)

31

26

Children (14-18 years)

38

26

Adults (19-50 years)

38

25

Adults (>51 years)

30

21

Pregnancy

28

Lactation

29

DRIs, dietary reference intakes; AI, adequate intake.Data from Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (2001) Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

cereals, vegetables, legumes, and fruit. Furthermore, it suggests that free sugars should be restricted to less than 10% of total energy. This report recognizes that there is no direct causal link between sugar consumption and chronic disease. However, sugars significantly increase the energy density of the human diet and high-sugar drinks have been associated with childhood obesity.

A 2002 report of the American Heart Association suggests the restriction of sugar consumption. This report recognizes that there are no beneficial effects of increased sugar consumption. On the contrary, some studies suggest that it may have adverse health effects. In order to enhance the nutrient density and reduce the energy density of the diet, increased consumption of high-sugar foods should be avoided.

See also: Cancer: Epidemiology and Associations Between Diet and Cancer; Effects on Nutritional Status. Carbohydrates: Chemistry and Classification; Regulation of Metabolism; Resistant Starch and Oligosaccharides. Cereal Grains. Dental Disease. Diabetes Mellitus: Etiology and Epidemiology. Dietary Fiber: Role in Nutritional Management of Disease. Energy: Metabolism. Fructose. Fruits and Vegetables. Galactose. Glucose: Chemistry and Dietary Sources. Glycemic Index. Hypertension: Etiology. Lipids: Chemistry and Classification. Obesity: Definition, Etiology and Assessment. Sucrose: Nutritional Role, Absorption and Metabolism; Dietary Sucrose and Disease. World Health Organization.

Atkins Low Carb Diet Recipes

Atkins Low Carb Diet Recipes

The Atkins Diet is here. Dr Atkins is known for his great low carb diets. Excluding, Dr Atkins carb counter and Dr Atkins New Diet Revolution.

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