As well as acting to regulate body water levels by an increase or decrease in the amount of urine produced, the kidneys are also responsible for the elimination of waste products from the body. This, therefore, also affects the daily urine volume. For example, a healthy individual eating a normal diet excretes approximately 600-800 mosmol of solute per square metre of body surface area per day, amounting to a total of about 10001500 mosmol day-1. The kidneys can dilute urine to at least as low as 100 mosmol kg-1 and can concentrate it to 1200 mosmol kg-1. Therefore, the daily solute load to be excreted can be accommodated in a volume ranging between approximately 500 ml and more than 131. To allow for waste product excretion, an obligatory minimum amount of urine must always be excreted, and this is generally in the region of 20-50 ml per hour. However, in the majority of healthy individuals in most situations, the volume of urine produced and excreted is in excess of these basal levels.
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