Regulation of Appetite

The stomach plays an important role in the regulation of appetite, in particular via the peptide hormone ghrelin (the so called hunger hormone). This hormone is produced by the neuroendocrine cells of the fundus and is upregulated in response to a fasting state, for example ghrelin levels are highest just

Godziny Zyk Angielski

Figure 6 Control of gastric acid secretion. +Indicates a stimulatory effect on the cell; -Indicates an inhibitory effect on the cell. [F], food and aromatic amino acids; [L], local and long reflex groups; SEC, secretin; SOM, somatostatin; GRP, gastrin-releasing peptide from parasympathetic nerve fibers; VIP, vasoactive intestinal peptide; CCK, cholecystokinin; ?, suggested effect; PACAP, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (a member of the secretin-glucagon-VIP family, which is present in gastric mucosal neurones and involved in vagally mediated acid secretion).

Figure 6 Control of gastric acid secretion. +Indicates a stimulatory effect on the cell; -Indicates an inhibitory effect on the cell. [F], food and aromatic amino acids; [L], local and long reflex groups; SEC, secretin; SOM, somatostatin; GRP, gastrin-releasing peptide from parasympathetic nerve fibers; VIP, vasoactive intestinal peptide; CCK, cholecystokinin; ?, suggested effect; PACAP, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (a member of the secretin-glucagon-VIP family, which is present in gastric mucosal neurones and involved in vagally mediated acid secretion).

before a meal and lowest just after. Ghrelin is synthesized as a preprohormone which is cleaved by proteolysis to a 28 amino acid peptide (a 27 amino acid variant also exists). The serine residue at position 3 must be substituted with octanoic acid for activity. Ghrelin released into the circulation has several actions, stimulation of the release of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary, increasing the hunger signal by binding to receptors on the hypothalmic feeding centers and promoting gastric emptying to clear the stomach for the approaching meal. The effects of ghrelin are counter balanced by the hormones released in response to the feed state, somatostatin from the stomach D cells and GLP-1 and peptide YY from the L cells of the samll intestine.

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Breaking Bulimia

Breaking Bulimia

We have all been there: turning to the refrigerator if feeling lonely or bored or indulging in seconds or thirds if strained. But if you suffer from bulimia, the from time to time urge to overeat is more like an obsession.

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