Prevention

Although drugs are now available to eradicate infections, unless the home environment changes, most individuals will soon become reinfected. The transmission of all the parasites discussed occurs most commonly through close contact between the

Table 3 Drugs of choice for parasitic infections

Infection

Drug

Ascariasis

Mebendazole, albendazole, pyrantel

pamoate

Hookworm

Mebendazole, albendazole

infection

Schistosomiasis

Praziquantel, metrifonate, niridazole,

oltipraz

Trichuriasis

Mebendazole, albendazole

Strongyloidiasis

Thiobendazole, ivermectin

Giardiasis

Metronidazole, tinidazole,

secnidazole, furazolidone,

albendazole

Cryptosporidiosis

Nitazoxanide, spiramycin,

clindamycin,

Amebiasis

Metronidazole, secnidazole,

paromomycin, nitazoxanide

host and infected human feces, either orally or by skin penetration. The basic requirement for prevention is an efficient and hygienic mode of disposal of feces, improved facilities in the home, for example clean running water, concrete floor to the home, plus a knowledge of basic hygiene. Use of footwear and avoidance of contact with water likely to contain schistosome cercaria would help. For the foreseeable future, however, such control measures are quite unrealistic in most developing countries and the alternative may be the large-scale, nation-wide use of anthelmintics to regularly deworm all individuals in endemic areas. School-based regular treatment programmes can be effective. Safe, effective, and relatively cheap drugs are now available and their use in this way could substantially reduce the level of helminth disease throughout the developing world. Such programs can be expected to result in a marked reduction in the prevalence and severity of iron deficiency anemia but in most situations, to have a relatively small impact on child growth, stunting, and incidence of protein-energy malnutrition.

See also: Anemia: Iron-Deficiency Anemia. Cytokines. Diarrheal Diseases. Infection: Nutritional Interactions. Iron. Zinc: Physiology.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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