Physiological and Pharmacological Properties

Because the physiological and pharmacological properties of caffeine represent the cumulative effects of not only the parent compound but also its metabolites, it is quite possible that effects attributed to caffeine per se are in fact mediated by one or more of its metabolites. It must also be noted that most of the knowledge about caffeine's effects has been derived from acute administration to fasted subjects submitted to a period of caffeine abstinence in order to ensure low plasma caffeine concentrations. It is thus difficult to extrapolate the results to the usual pattern of caffeine consumption in which most people consume it at different intervals throughout the day and over periods of years.

Breaking Bulimia

Breaking Bulimia

We have all been there: turning to the refrigerator if feeling lonely or bored or indulging in seconds or thirds if strained. But if you suffer from bulimia, the from time to time urge to overeat is more like an obsession.

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