The final group of lipids that has been investigated in terms of possible psychological benefits is the phospholipids and, in particular, phosphotidylser-ine. As with cholesterol, the proposed mode of action whereby this substance affects psychological function is via alterations in cell-membrane fluidity. A number of studies have claimed that dietary supplementation with phosphotidylserine can arrest the symptoms of both age-related decline and full dementia. In general, however, these studies have been poorly carried out and suffer from procedural difficulties such as a lack of appropriate control populations, alterations in dosage during the trial, and use of unvalidated or inappropriate neuropsy-chological assessment measures. Indeed, some of the more methodologically rigorous trials have specifically shown that phosphotidylserine supplementation exerts no significant effect on psychological function. The evidence for the efficacy of phospho-tidylserine is, therefore, unclear.

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