Hyperparathyroidism is an endocrine disorder characterized by raised serum calcium levels and increased cortical bone loss. It is usually caused by a benign adenoma, which secretes excessive PTH, thereby increasing both bone resorption and calcium retention by the kidney. Pathological bone loss is also a feature of many malignant disease states. Bone destruction may result from osteoclast activation in the immediate vicinity of invading tumors or from the systemic effects of circulating factors released by the tumor cells.
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