Nutrient Requirements

About every 10 years, the Institute of Medicine convenes several committees of nutrition scientists to review the scientific literature and recommend levels of daily dietary nutrients that would keep 95% of the population from developing deficiencies.

In the past, the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) or recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) concentrated on ensuring that nutrient deficiencies were minimized by specifying lower limits of intakes. However, it is now clear that many Western diets provide too much of some nutrients such as total calories, simple carbohydrates, saturated fats, and salt. Therefore, recent editions of DRIs (see Table 1 to 5) have

Table 1 Recommended dietary allowances and adequate intakes

Lifestage Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Vitamin Be Folate Vitamin B12 Pantothenic Biotin Choline group fag day-1) (mgday-1) fag day-1) fag day-1) fag day-1) (mgday-1) (mg/day-1) fag day-1) (mgday-1) fag day-1) fag day-1) Acid fag day-1) fag day-1)

Males

9-13 years 600 45

14-18 years 900 75

19-30 years 900 90 Females

9-13 years 600 45

14-18 years 700 65

19-30 years 700 75

5" 15 120"

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, The National Academies. Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

This table (taken from the DRI reports, see http://www.nap.edu) presents recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) in bold type and adequate intakes (Als) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and Als may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97-98%) individuals in a group. For healthy breast-fed infants, the Al is the mean intake. The Al for other life-stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

Table 2 Recommended dietary allowances and adequate intakes

Life stage

Calcium

Chromium

Copper

Fluoride

Iodine

Iron

Magnesium

Manganese

Molybdenum

Phosphorus

Selenium

Zinc

group

(mgday-1)

(ßgday-1)

(fig day-1)

(mgday-1)

(fig day-1)

(mgday-1)

(mgday-1)

(mgday-1)

(ßgday-1)

(mgday-1)

(ßgday-1)

(mgday-1)

Males

9-13 years

1300*

25*

700

2*

120

8

240

1.9*

34

1250

40

8

14-18 years

1300*

35*

890

3*

150

11

410

2.2*

43

1250

55

11

19-30 years

1000*

35*

900

4*

150

8

400

2.3*

45

700

55

11

Females

9-13 years

1300*

21*

700

2*

120

8

240

1.6*

34

1250

40

8

14-18 years

1300*

24*

890

3*

150

15

360

1.6*

43

1250

55

9

19-30 years

1000*

25*

900

3*

150

18

310

1.8*

45

700

55

8

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies. Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

This table presents recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) in bold type and adequate intakes (Als) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and Als may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97-98%) individuals in a group. For healthy breast-fed infants, the Al is the mean intake. The Al for other life-stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

Sources: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin Bs, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001). These reports may be accessed via http://www.nap.edu

Table 3 Dietary reference intakes (DRIs): tolerable upper intake levels (UL)a, vitamins

Life stage Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Vitamin Be Folate Vitamin Pantothenic Biotin Choline Carotenoids group (fig day-1) (mgday-1) (fig day-1) (fig day-1) K (fig day-1) (mgday-1) (fig day-1) B12 add (gday-1)

Males, females

9-13 years 1700 1200 50 600 ND ND ND 20 60 600 ND ND ND 2.0 ND

14-18 years 2800 1800 50 800 ND ND ND 30 80 800 ND ND ND 3.0 ND

19-70 years 3000 2000 50 1000 ND ND ND 35 100 1000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND

aUL = The maximum level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from food, water, and supplements. Owing to lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, or carotenoids. In the absence of ULs, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes.

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies. Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Sources: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin S6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001). These reports may be accessed via http://www.nap.edu

Table 4 Dietary reference intakes (DRIs): tolerable upper intake levels (UL)a, Elements

Life stage Arsenic Boron Calcium Chromium Copper Fluoride Iodine Iron Magnesium Manganese Molybdenum Nickel Phosphorus Selenium Silicon Vanadium Zinc group (mgday-1) (gday-1) fag day-1) (mgday-1) fag day-1) (mgday-1) fag day-1) (mgday-1) fag day-1) (mgday-1) (gday-1) fag day-1) fag day-1) (mgday-1)

Males, females

9-13 years

ND

11

2.5

ND

5000

10

600

40

350

6

1100

0.6

4

280

ND

ND

23

14-18 years

ND

17

2.5

ND

8000

10

900

45

350

9

1700

1.0

4

400

ND

ND

34

19-50 years

ND

20

2.5

ND

10000

10

1100

45

350

11

2000

1.0

4

400

ND

1.8

40

aUL = The maximum level of dally nutrient Intake that Is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total Intake from food, water, and supplements. Owing to lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for arsenic, chromium, and silicon. In the absence of ULs, extra caution may be warranted In consuming levels above recommended Intakes. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies. Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Sources: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin Be, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001). These reports may be accessed via http://www.nap.edu

Table 5 Dietary reference intakes (DRIs): estimated average requirements

Life stage Vit A Vit C Vit E Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Vit Be Folate Vit B12 Copper Iodine Iron Magnesium Molybdenum Phosphorus Selenium Zinc group (tig day-1 f (mgday-1) (fig day-1)" (mgday-1) (mgday-1) (fig day-1)" (mgday-1) (fig day-1)" (fig day-1) (fig day-1) (fig day-1) (mgday-1) (mgday-1) (fig day-1) (mgday-1) (fig day-1) (mgday-1)

Males

9-13 years

445

39

9

0.7

0.8

9

0.8

250

1.5

540

73

5.9

200

26

1055

35

7.0

14-18 years

630

63

12

1.0

1.1

12

1.1

330

2.0

685

95

7.7

340

33

1055

45

8.5

19-30 years

625

75

12

1.0

1.1

12

1.1

320

2.0

700

95

6

330

34

580

45

9.4

Females

9-13 years

420

39

9

0.7

0.8

9

0.8

250

1.5

540

73

5.7

200

26

1055

35

7.0

14-18 years

485

56

12

0.9

0.9

11

1.0

330

2.0

685

95

7.9

300

33

1055

45

7.3

19-30 years

500

60

12

0.9

0.9

11

1.1

320

2.0

700

95

8.1

255

34

580

45

6.8

aAs retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 Tg retinoi, 12 Tg tf-carotene, 24 Tg l-carotene, or 24 Tg tf-cryptoxanthin. The RAE for dietary provitamin A carotenoids is twofold greater than retinol equivalents (RE), whereas the RAE for preformed vitamin A is the same as RE.

"As a-tocopherol. a-Tocopherol includes RRR-a-tocopherol, the only form of a-tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of a-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-a-tocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of a-tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS-a-tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements. "As niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan.

dAs dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE= 1 ng food folate = 0.6 ng of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 ng of a supplement taken on an empty stomach. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies. Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

This table presents estimated average requirements (EARs), which serve two purposes: for assessing adequacy of population intakes, and as the basis for calculating recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for individuals for those nutrients. EARs have not been established for vitamin D, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline, calcium, chromium, fluoride, manganese, or other nutrients not yet evaluated via the DRI process.

specified estimated average requirements (EARs), adequate intakes (AIs), and upper limits (ULs).

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