An increased blood glucose concentration is the most common abnormality in the infected hospitalized patient. This section discusses the metabolic abnormalities in glucose, protein, and fat metabolism as well as abnormalities in specific nutrients in this population. Specific nutritional treatment plans are presented. In addition, the host response to injury and why patients may not be able to become anabolic with conventional nutritional support are discussed. The acute phase response typifies the host's response to infection. Mechanisms to blunt the catabolic state are important because the extent of muscle wasting and weight loss is inversely correlated with long-term survival. The potential uses of conventional nutritional support and newer nutritional adjunctive techniques utilized for patients are discussed.
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