Kidney Function

Renal function is compromised by choline deficiency, which leads to abnormal concentrating ability, free-water reabsorption, sodium excretion, glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and gross renal hemorrhage. The deterioration in renal function may be related to changes in acetylcholine release by nerves that regulate blood flow to the kidney. Additionally, the renal glomerulus uses the choline-metabolite betaine as an osmolyte to assist cells in maintaining their volume in the presence of concentrated salts in urine.

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