Renal function is compromised by choline deficiency, which leads to abnormal concentrating ability, free-water reabsorption, sodium excretion, glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and gross renal hemorrhage. The deterioration in renal function may be related to changes in acetylcholine release by nerves that regulate blood flow to the kidney. Additionally, the renal glomerulus uses the choline-metabolite betaine as an osmolyte to assist cells in maintaining their volume in the presence of concentrated salts in urine.
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Metabolism. There isn’t perhaps a more frequently used word in the weight loss (and weight gain) vocabulary than this. Indeed, it’s not uncommon to overhear people talking about their struggles or triumphs over the holiday bulge or love handles in terms of whether their metabolism is working, or not.