Chronic alcoholic patients are often iron deficient because of increased frequency of gastrointestinal bleeding, typically due to alcoholic gastritis or eso-phageal tears from frequent retching and vomiting, or from rupture of esophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension. The major consequence of iron deficiency is anemia, which may be compounded by the concurrent effects of folate and pyridoxine deficiencies. Conversely, increased exposure to iron, e.g., from cooking in iron pots, increases the likelihood and severity of alcoholic liver disease, since the presence of iron in the liver promotes oxidative liver damage during the metabolism of alcohol.

See also: Ascorbic Acid: Deficiency States. Calcium. Cancer: Epidemiology and Associations Between Diet and Cancer. Folic Acid. Iron. Liver Disorders. Thiamin: Physiology. Vitamin A: Biochemistry and Physiological Role. Vitamin B6. Vitamin E: Metabolism and Requirements. Zinc: Physiology.

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