Human Nutrition

second edition Editor-in-Chief benjamin caballero

Editors lindsay allen andrew prentice

ACADEMIC PRESS

ELSEVIER

ACADEMIC PRESS

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Elsevier Ltd., The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford, OX5 1GB, UK

© 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

The following articles are US Government works in the public domain and not subject to copyright:

CAROTENOIDS/Chemistry, Sources and Physiology FOOD FORTIFICATION/Developed Countries FRUCTOSE LEGUMES TEA

TUBERCULOSIS/Nutrition and Susceptibility TUBERCULOSIS/Nutritional Management VEGETARIAN DIETS

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.

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Requests may also be completed on-line via the homepage (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/permissions).

Second edition 2005

Library of Congress Control Number: 2004113614

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

ISBN 0-12-150110-8 (set)

This book is printed on acid-free paper Printed and bound in Spain

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

Benjamin Caballero

Johns Hopkins University Maryland USA

EDITORS

Lindsay Allen

University of California Davis, CA, USA

Andrew Prentice

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine London, UK

Christopher Bates

MRC Human Nutrition Research Cambridge, UK

Carolyn D Berdanier

University of Georgia Athens, GA, USA

Bruce R Bistrian

Harvard Medical School Boston, MA, USA

Johanna T Dwyer

Frances Stern Nutrition Center Boston, MA, USA

Paul Finglas

Institute of Food Research Norwich, UK

Terrence Forrester

Tropical Medicine Research Institute University of the West Indies, Mona Campus, Kingston, Jamaica

Hedley C Freake

University of Connecticut Storrs, CT, USA

Catherine Geissler

King's College London London, UK

Susan A Jebb

MRC Human Nutrition Research Cambridge, UK

Rachel Johnson

University of Vermont Burlington, VT, USA

Janet C King

Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute Oakland, CA, USA

Anura Kurpad

St John's National Academy of Health Sciences Bangalore, India

Kim Fleisher Michaelson

The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University Frederiksberg, Denmark

Carlos Monteiro

University of Säo Paulo Säo Paulo, Brazil

John M Pettifor

University of the Witwatersrand & Chris

Hani-Baragwanath Hospital Johannesburg, South Africa

Barry M Popkin

University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, NC, USA

Michele J Sadler

MJSR Associates Ashford, UK

Ricardo Uauy

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine UK and INTA University of Chile, Santiago, Chile

David York

Pennington Biomedical Research Center Baton Rouge, LA, USA

FOREWORD

Why an encyclopedia? The original Greek word means 'the circle of arts and sciences essential for a liberal education', and such a book was intended to embrace all knowledge. That was the aim of the famous Encyclopedie produced by Diderot and d'Alembert in the middle of the 18th century, which contributed so much to what has been called the Enlightenment. It is recorded that after all the authors had corrected the proofs of their contributions, the printer secretly cut out whatever he thought might give offence to the king, mutilated most of the best articles and burnt the manuscripts! Later, and less controversially, the word 'encyclopedia' came to be used for an exhaustive repertory of information on some particular department of knowledge. It is in this class that the present work falls.

In recent years the scope of Human Nutrition as a scientific discipline has expanded enormously. I used to think of it as an applied subject, relying on the basic sciences of physiology and biochemistry in much the same way that engineering relies on physics. That traditional relationship remains and is fundamental, but the field is now much wider. At one end of the spectrum epidemiological studies and the techniques on which they depend have played a major part in establishing the relationships between diet, nutritional status and health, and there is greater recognition of the importance of social factors. At the other end of the spectrum we are becoming increasingly aware of the genetic determinants of ways in which the body handles food and is able to resist adverse influences of the environment. Nutritionists are thus beginning to explore the mechanisms by which nutrients influence the expression of genes in the knowledge that nutrients are among the most powerful of all influences on gene expression. This has brought nutrition to the centre of the new 'post-genome' challenge of understanding the effects on human health of gene-environment interactions.

In parallel with this widening of the subject there has been an increase in opportunities for training and research in nutrition, with new departments and new courses being developed in universities, medical schools and schools of public health, along with a greater involvement of schoolchildren and their teachers. Public interest in nutrition is intense and needs to be guided by sound science. Governments are realizing more and more the role that nutrition plays in the prevention of disease and the maintenance of good health, and the need to develop a nutrition policy that is integrated with policies for food production.

The first edition of the Encyclopaedia of Human Nutrition established it as one of the major reference works in our discipline. The second edition has been completely revised to take account of new knowledge in our rapidly advancing field. This new edition is as comprehensive as the present state of knowledge allows, but is not overly technical and is well supplied with suggestions for further reading. All the articles have been carefully reviewed and although some of the subjects are controversial and sensitive, the publishers have not exerted the kind of political censorship that so infuriated Diderot.

J.C. Waterlow Emeritus Professor of Human Nutrition London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

February 2005

INTRODUCTION

The science of human nutrition and its applications to health promotion continue to gain momentum. In the relatively short time since the release of the first edition of this Encyclopedia, a few landmark discoveries have had a dramatic multiplying effect over nutrition science: the mapping of the human genome, the links between molecular bioenergetics and lifespan, the influence of nutrients on viral mutation, to name a few.

But perhaps the strongest evidence of the importance of nutrition for human health comes from the fact that almost 60% of the diseases that kill humans are related to diet and lifestyle (including smoking and physical activity). These are all modifiable risk factors. As individuals and organizations intensify their efforts to reduce disease risks, the need for multidisciplinary work becomes more apparent. Today, an effective research or program team is likely to include several professionals from fields other than nutrition. For both nutrition and non-nutrition scientists, keeping up to date on the concepts and interrelationships between nutrient needs, dietary intake and health outcomes is essential. The new edition of the Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition hopes to address these needs. While rigorously scientific and up to date, EHN provides concise and easily understandable summaries on a wide variety of topics. The nutrition scientist will find that the Encyclopedia is an effective tool to ''fill the void'' of information in areas beyond his/her field of expertise. Professionals from other fields will appreciate the ease of alphabetical listing of topics, and the presentation of information in a rigorous but concise way, with generous aid from graphs and diagrams.

For a work that involved more than 340 authors requires, coordination and attention to detail is critical. The editors were fortunate to have the support of an excellent team from Elsevier's Major Reference Works division. Sara Gorman and Paula O'Connell initiated the project, and Tracey Mills and Samuel Coleman saw it to its successful completion.

We trust that this Encyclopedia will be a useful addition to the knowledge base of professionals involved in research, patient care, and health promotion around the globe.

Benjamin Caballero, Lindsay Allen and Andrew Prentice

Editors April 2005

GUIDE TO USE OF THE ENCYCLOPEDIA

Structure of the Encyclopedia

The material in the Encyclopedia is arranged as a series of entries in alphabetical order. Most entries consist of several articles that deal with various aspects of a topic and are arranged in a logical sequence within an entry. Some entries comprise a single article.

To help you realize the full potential of the material in the Encyclopedia we have provided three features to help you find the topic of your choice: a Contents List, Cross-References and an Index.

1. Contents List

Your first point of reference will probably be the contents list. The complete contents lists, which appears at the front of each volume will provide you with both the volume number and the page number of the entry. On the opening page of an entry a contents list is provided so that the full details of the articles within the entry are immediately available.

Alternatively you may choose to browse through a volume using the alphabetical order of the entries as your guide. To assist you in identifying your location within the Encyclopedia a running headline indicates the current entry and the current article within that entry.

You will find 'dummy entries' where obvious synonyms exist for entries or where we have grouped together related topics. Dummy entries appear in both the contents lists and the body of the text.

Example

If you were attempting to locate material on food intake measurement via the contents list:

FOOD INTAKE see DIETARY INTAKE MEASUREMENT: Methodology; Validation. DIETARY SURVEYS. MEAL SIZE AND FREQUENCY

The dummy entry directs you to the Methodology article, in The Dietary Intake Measurement entry. At the appropriate location in the contents list, the page numbers for articles under Dietary Intake Measurement are given.

If you were trying to locate the material by browsing through the text and you looked up Food intake then the following information would be provided in the dummy entry:

Food Intake see Dietary Intake Measurement: Methodology; Validation. Dietary Surveys. Meal Size and Frequency

Alternatively, if you were looking up Dietary Intake Measurement the following information would be provided:

DIETARY INTAKE MEASUREMENT

Contents

Methodology

Validation

2. Cross-References

All of the articles in the Encyclopedia have been extensively cross-referenced.

The cross-references, which appear at the end of an article, serve three different functions. For example, at the end of the ADOLESCENTS/Nutritional Problems article, cross-references are used:

i. To indicate if a topic is discussed in greater detail elsewhere.

See also: Adolescents: Nutritional Requirements of Adolescents. Anemia: Iron-Deficiency Anemia. Calcium: Physiology. Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa; Bulimia Nervosa; Binge Eating. Folic Acid: Physiology, Dietary Sources, and Requirements. Iron: Physiology, Dietary Sources, and Requirements. Obesity: Definition, Aetiology, and Assessment. Osteoporosis: Nutritional Factors. Zinc: Physiology.

ii. To draw the reader's attention to parallel discussions in other articles.

See also: Adolescents: Nutritional Requirements of Adolescents. Anemia: Iron-Deficiency Anemia. Calcium: Physiology. Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa; Bulimia Nervosa; Binge Eating. Folic Acid: Physiology, Dietary Sources, and Requirements. Iron: Physiology, Dietary Sources, and Requirements. Obesity: Definition, Aetiology, and Assessment. Osteoporosis: Nutritional Factors Zinc: Physiology.

iii. To indicate material that broadens the discussion.

See also: Adolescents: Nutritional Requirements of Adolescents. Anemia: Iron-Deficiency Anemia. Calcium: Physiology. Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa; Bulimia Nervosa; Binge Eating. Follic Acid: Physiology, Dietary Sources, and Requirements. Iron: Physiology, Dietary

Sources, and Requirements.

Obesity: Definition, Aetiology, and

Assessment. Osteoporosis: Nutritional Factors.

Zinc: Physiology.

3. Index

The index will provide you with the page number where the material is located, and the index entries differentiate between material that is a whole article, is part of an article or is data presented in a figure or table. Detailed notes are provided on the opening page of the index.

4. Contributors

A full list of contributors appears at the beginning of each volume.

CONTRIBUTORS

E Abalos

Centro Rosarino de Estudios Perinatales Rosario, Argentina

A Abi-Hanna

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Baltimore, MD, USA

L S Adair

University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, NC, USA

A Ahmed

Obetech Obesity Research Center Richmond, VA, USA

B Ahren

Lund University Lund, Sweden

J Akre

World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland A J Alberg

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore, MD, USA

L H Allen

University of California at Davis Davis, CA, USA

D Anderson

University of Bradford Bradford, UK

J J B Anderson

University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, NC, USA

R A Anderson

US Department of Agriculture Beltsville, MD, USA

L J Appel

Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD, USA

A Arino

University of Zaragoza Zaragoza, Spain

M J Arnaud

Nestle S.A. Vevey, Switzerland

E W Askew

University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT, USA

R L Atkinson

Obetech Obesity Research Center Richmond, VA, USA

S A Atkinson

McMaster University Hamilton, ON, Canada

L S A Augustin

University of Toronto Toronto, ON, Canada

D J Baer

US Department of Agriculture Beltsville, MD, USA

A Baqui

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore, MD, USA

Y Barnett

Nottingham Trent University Nottingham, UK

G E Bartley

Agricultural Research Service Albany, CA, USA

C J Bates

MRC Human Nutrition Research Cambridge, UK

J A Beltran

University of Zaragoza Zaragoza, Spain

A E Bender

Leatherhead, UK

D A Bender

University College London London, UK

I F F Benzie

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Hong Kong SAR, China

C D Berdanier

University of Georgia Athens, GA, USA

R Bhatia

United Nations World Food Programme Rome, Italy

Z A Bhutta

The Aga Khan University Karachi, Pakistan

J E Bines

University of Melbourne Melbourne, VIC, Australia

J Binkley

Vanderbilt Center for Human Nutrition Nashville, TN, USA

R Black

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore, MD, USA

J E Blundell

University of Leeds Leeds, UK

A T Borchers

University of California at Davis Davis, CA, USA

C Boreham

University of Ulster at Jordanstown Jordanstown, UK

F Branca

Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione Rome, Italy

J Brand-Miller

University of Sydney Sydney, NSW, Australia

A Briend

Institut de Recherche pour le Deeveloppement Paris, France

P Browne

St James's Hospital Dublin, Ireland

I A Brownlee

University of Newcastle Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK

H Brunner

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois Lausanne, Switzerland

A J Buckley

University of Cambridge Cambridge, UK

H H Butchko

Exponent, Inc. Wood Dale, IL, USA

J Buttriss

British Nutrition Foundation London, UK

B Caballero

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and

Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD, USA

E A Carrey

Institute of Child Health London, UK

A Cassidy

School of Medicine University of East Anglia Norwich, UK

G E Caughey

Royal Adelaide Hospital Adelaide, SA, Australia

J P Cegielski

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, GA, USA

C M Champagne

Pennington Biomedical Research Center Baton Rouge, LA, USA

S C Chen

US Department of Agriculture Beltsville, MD, USA

L Cheskin

Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD, USA

S Chung

Columbia University New York, NY, USA

L G Cleland

Royal Adelaide Hospital Adelaide, SA, Australia

L Cobiac

CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition Adelaide, SA, Australia

G A Colditz

Harvard Medical School Boston, MA, USA

T J Cole

Institute of Child Health London, UK

L A Coleman

Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation Marshfield, WI, USA

S Collier

Children's Hospital, Boston, Harvard Medical School, and Harvard School of Public Health Boston, MA, USA

M Collins

Muckamore Abbey Hospital Antrim, UK

K G Conner

Johns Hopkins Hospital Baltimore, MD, USA

K C Costas

Children's Hospital Boston Boston, MA, USA

R C Cottrell

The Sugar Bureau London, UK

W A Coward

MRC Human Nutrition Research Cambridge, UK

J M Cox

Johns Hopkins Hospital Baltimore, MD, USA

S Cox

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine London, UK

P D'Acapito

Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione Rome, Italy

S Daniell

Vanderbilt Center for Human Nutrition Nashville, TN, USA

O Dary

The MOST Project Arlington, VA, USA

T J David

University of Manchester Manchester, UK

Wageningen University Wageningen, The Netherlands

M de Onis

World Health Organization Geneva, Switzerland

M C de Souza

Universidad de Mogi das Cruzes Sao Paulo, Brazil

R de Souza

University of Toronto Toronto, ON, Canada

C H C Dejong

University Hospital Maastricht Maastricht, The Netherlands

L Demeshlaira

Emory University Atlanta, GA, USA

K G Dewey

University of California at Davis Davis, CA, USA

H L Dewraj

The Aga Khan University Karachi, Pakistan

C Doherty

MRC Keneba The Gambia

C M Donangelo

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

A Dornhorst

Imperial College at Hammersmith Hospital London, UK

E Dowler

University of Warwick Coventry, UK

J Dowsett

St Vincent's University Hospital Dublin, Ireland

A K Draper

University of Westminster London, UK

M L Dreyfuss

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore, MD, USA

R D'Souza

Queen Mary's, University of London London, UK

C Duggan

Harvard Medical School Boston, MA, USA

A G Dulloo

University of Fribourg Fribourg, Switzerland

E B Duly

Ulster Hospital Belfast, UK

J L Dupont

Florida State University Tallahassee, FL, USA

J Dwyer

Tufts University Boston, MA, USA

J Eaton-Evans

University of Ulster Coleraine, UK

C A Edwards

University of Glasgow Glasgow, UK

M Elia

University of Southampton Southampton, UK

P W Emery

King's College London London, UK

J L Ensunsa

University of California at Davis Davis, CA, USA

C Feillet-Coudray

National Institute for Agricultural Research Clermont-Ferrand, France

J D Fernstrom

University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA, USA

M H Fernstrom

University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA, USA

F Fidanza

University of Rome Tor Vergata Rome, Italy

P Fieldhouse

The University of Manitoba Winnipeg, MB, Canada

N Finer

Luton and Dunstable Hospital NHS Trust Luton, UK

J Fiore

University of Westminster London, UK

H C Freake

University of Connecticut Storrs, CT, USA

J Freitas

Tufts University Boston, MA, USA

R E Frisch

Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies Cambridge, MA, USA

G Frost

Imperial College at Hammersmith Hospital London, UK

G Frühbeck

Universidad de Navarra Pamplona, Spain

D Gallagher

Columbia University New York, NY, USA

L Galland

Applied Nutrition Inc. New York, NY, USA

C Geissler

King's College London London, UK

M E Gershwin

University of California at Davis Davis, CA, USA

H Ghattas

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine London, UK

E L Gibson

University College London London, UK

T P Gill

University of Sydney Sydney, NSW, Australia

W Gilmore

University of Ulster Coleraine, UK

J Gomez-Ambrosi

Universidad de Navarra Pamplona, Spain

J M Graham

University of California at Davis Davis, CA, USA

J Gray

Guildford, UK

J P Greaves

London, UK

M W Green

Aston University Birmingham, UK

R Green

University of California Davis, CA, USA

R F Grimble

University of Southampton Southampton, UK

M Gronb^k

National Institute of Public Health Copenhagen, Denmark

J D Groopman

Johns Hopkins University Baltimore MD, USA

S M Grundy

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas, TX, USA

M A Grusak

Baylor College of Medicine Houston, TX, USA

M Gueimonde

University of Turku Turku, Finland

C S Gulotta

Johns Hopkins University and Kennedy

Krieger Institute Baltimore, MD, USA

G R Goldberg

MRC Human Nutrition Research Cambridge, UK

P Haggarty

Rowett Research Institute Aberdeen, UK

J C G Halford

University of Liverpool Liverpool, UK

C H Halsted

University of California at Davis Davis, CA, USA

J Hampsey

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Baltimore, MD, USA

E D Harris

Texas A&M University College Station, TX, USA

Z L Harris

Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine Baltimore, MD, USA

P J Havel

University of California at Davis Davis, CA, USA

W W Hay Jr

University of Colorado Health Sciences Center Aurora, CO, USA

R G Heine

University of Melbourne Melbourne, VIC, Australia

R Heinzen

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore, MD, USA

A Herrera

University of Zaragoza Zaragoza, Spain

B S Hetzel

Women's and Children's Hospital North Adelaide, SA, Australia

A J Hill

University of Leeds Leeds, UK

S A Hill

Southampton General Hospital Southampton, UK

G A Hitman

Queen Mary's, University of London London, UK

J M Hodgson

University of Western Australia Perth, WA, Australia

M F Holick

Boston University Medical Center Boston, MA, USA

C Hotz

National Institute of Public Health Morelos, Mexico

R Houston

Emory University Atlanta, GA, USA

H-Y Huang

Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD, USA

J R Hunt

USDA-ARS Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center Grand Forks, ND, USA

R Hunter

King's College London London, UK

P Hyland

Nottingham Trent University Nottingham, UK

B K Ishida

Agricultural Research Service Albany, CA, USA

J Jacquet

University of Geneva Geneva, Switzerland

M J James

Royal Adelaide Hospital Adelaide, SA, Australia

W P T James

International Association for the Study of Obesity/

International Obesity Task Force Offices London, UK

A G Jardine

University of Glasgow Glasgow, UK

S A Jebb

MRC Human Nutrition Research Cambridge, UK

K N Jeejeebhoy

University of Toronto Toronto, ON, Canada

D J A Jenkins

University of Toronto Toronto, ON, Canada

G L Jensen

Vanderbilt Center for Human Nutrition Nashville, TN, USA

I T Johnson

Institute of Food Research Norwich, UK

P A Judd

University of Central Lancashire Preston, UK

M A Kalarchian

University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA, USA

R M Katz

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Mount

Washington Pediatric Hospital Baltimore, MD, USA

C L Keen

University of California at Davis Davis, CA, USA

N L Keim

US Department of Agriculture Davis, CA, USA

E Kelly

Harvard Medical School Boston, MA, USA

C W C Kendall

University of Toronto Toronto, ON, Canada

T W Kensler

Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD, USA

J E Kerstetter

University of Connecticut Storrs, CT, USA

M Kiely

University College Cork Cork, Ireland

P Kirk

University of Ulster Coleraine, UK

S F L Kirk

University of Leeds Leeds, UK

P N Kirke

The Health Research Board Dublin, Ireland

G L Klein

University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston Galveston TX, USA

R D W Klemm

Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD, USA

D M Klurfeld

US Department of Agriculture Beltville, MD, USA

P G Kopelman

Queen Mary's, University of London London, UK

J Krick

Kennedy-Krieger Institute Baltimore, MD, USA

D Kritchevsky

Wistar Institute Philadelphia, PA, USA

R Lang

University of Teeside Middlesbrough, UK

A Laurentin

Universidad Central de Venezuela Caracas, Venezuela

A Laverty

Muckamore Abbey Hospital Antrim, UK

M Lawson

Institute of Child Health London, UK

F E Leahy

University of Auckland Auckland, New Zealand

A R Leeds

King's College London London, UK

J Leiper

University of Aberdeen Aberdeen, UK

M D Levine

University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA, USA

A H Lichtenstein

Tufts University Boston MA, USA

E Lin

Emory University Atlanta, GA, USA

L Lissner

Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University Göteborg, Sweden

C Lo

Children's Hospital, Boston, Harvard Medical School, and

Harvard School of Public Health Boston, MA, USA

P A Lofgren

Oak Park, IL, USA

B Lonnerdal

University of California at Davis Davis, CA, USA

M J Luetkemeier

Alma College Alma, MI, USA

Y C Luiking

University Hospital Maastricht Maastricht, The Netherlands

P G Lunn

University of Cambridge Cambridge, UK

C K Lutter

Pan American Health Organization Washington, DC, USA

A MacDonald

The Children's Hospital Birmingham, UK

A Maqbool

The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Philadelphia, PA, USA

M D Marcus

University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA, USA

E Marietta

The Mayo Clinic College of Medicine Rochester, MN, USA

P B Mark

University of Glasgow Glasgow, UK

V Marks

University of Surrey Guildford, UK

D L Marsden

Children's Hospital Boston Boston, MA, USA

R J Maughan

Loughborough University Loughborough, UK

K C McCowen

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard

Medical School Boston, MA, USA

S S McDonald

Raleigh, NC, USA

S McLaren

London South Bank University London, UK

J L McManaman

University of Colorado Denver, CO, USA

D N McMurray

Texas A&M University College Station, TX, USA

D J McNamara

Egg Nutrition Center Washington, DC, USA

J McPartlin

Trinity College Dublin, Ireland

R P Mensink

Maastricht University Maastricht, The Netherlands

M Merialdi

World Health Organization Geneva, Switzerland

A R Michell

St Bartholomew's Hospital London, UK

J W Miller

UC Davis Medical Center Sacramento, CA, USA

P Miller

Kennedy-Krieger Institute Baltimore, MD, USA

D J Millward

University of Surrey Guildford, UK

D M Mock

University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Little Rock, AR, USA

N Moore

John Hopkins School of Medicine Baltimore, MD, USA

J O Mora

The MOST Project Arlington, VA, USA

T Morgan

University of Melbourne Melbourne, VIC, Australia

T A Mori

University of Western Australia Perth, WA, Australia

J E Morley

St Louis University St Louis, MO, USA

P A Morrissey

University College Cork Cork, Ireland

M H Murphy

University of Ulster at Jordanstown Jordanstown, UK

S P Murphy

University of Hawaii Honolulu, HI, USA

J Murray

The Mayo Clinic College of Medicine Rochester, MN, USA

R Nalubola

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, US Food and Drug Administration, MD, USA

J L Napoli

University of California Berkeley, CA, USA

V Nehra

The Mayo Clinic College of Medicine Rochester, MN, USA

B Nejadnik

Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD, USA

M Nelson

King's College London London, UK

P Nestel

International Food Policy Research Institute Washington, DC, USA

L M Neufeld

National Institute of Public Health Cuernavaca, Mexico

M C Neville

University of Colorado Denver, CO, USA

F Nielsen

Grand Forks Human Nutrition Research Center Grand Forks, ND, USA

N Noah

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine London, UK

K O O'Brien

Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD, USA

Johns Hopkins General Clinical Research Center Baltimore, MD, USA

J M Ordovas

Tufts University Boston, MA, USA

S E Ozanne

University of Cambridge Cambridge, UK

D M Paige

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore, MD, USA

J P Pearson

University of Newcastle Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK

S S Percival

University of Florida Gainesville, FL, USA

T Peters

King's College Hospital London, UK

B J Petersen

Exponent, Inc. Washington DC, USA

J C Phillips

BIBRA International Ltd Carshalton, UK

M F Picciano

National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD, USA

A Pietrobelli

Verona University Medical School Verona, Italy

S Pin

Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine Baltimore, MD, USA

B M Popkin

University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, NC, USA

E M E Poskitt

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine London, UK

A D Postle

University of Southampton Southampton, UK

J Powell-Tuck

Queen Mary's, University of London London, UK

V Preedy

King's College London London, UK

N D Priest

Middlesex University London, UK

R Rajendram

King's College London London, UK

A Raman

University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI, USA

H A Raynor

Brown University Providence, RI, USA

Y Rayssiguier

National Institute for Agricultural Research Clermont-Ferrand, France

L N Richardson

United Nations World Food Programme Rome, Italy

F J Rohr

Children's Hospital Boston Boston, MA, USA

A R Rolla

Harvard Medical School Boston, MA, USA

P Roncales

University of Zaragoza Zaragoza, Spain

A C Ross

The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA, USA

R Roubenoff

Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Cambridge, MA, USA and Tufts University Boston, MA, USA

D Rumsey

University of Sheffield Sheffield, UK

CHS Ruxton

Nutrition Communications Cupar, UK

J M Saavedra

John Hopkins School of Medicine Baltimore, MD, USA

J E Sable

University of California at Davis Davis, CA, USA

M J Sadler

MJSR Associates Ashford, UK

N R Sahyoun

University of Maryland College Park, MD, USA

S Salminen

University of Turku Turku, Finland

M Saltmarsh

Alton, UK

J M Samet

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore, MD, USA

C P Sanchez-Castillo

National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubirän, Tlalpan, Mexico

M Santosham

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore, MD, USA

C D Saudek

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Baltimore, MD, USA

A O Scheimann

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Baltimore, MD, USA

B Schneeman

University of California at Davis Davis, CA, USA

D A Schoeller

University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI, USA

L Schuberth

Kennedy Krieger Institute Baltimore, MD, USA

K J Schulze

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Baltimore, MD, USA

Y Schutz

University of Lausanne Lausanne, Switzerland

K B Schwarz

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Baltimore, MD, USA

J M Scott

Trinity College Dublin Dublin, Ireland

C Shaw

Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust London, UK

J Shedlock

Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine Baltimore, MD, USA

S M Shirreffs

Loughborough University Loughborough, UK

R Shrimpton

Institute of Child Health London, UK

H A Simmonds

Guy's Hospital London, UK

A P Simopoulos

The Center for Genetics, Nutrition and Health Washington, DC, USA

R J Smith

Brown Medical School Providence, RI, USA

P B Soeters

University Hospital Maastricht Maastricht, The Netherlands

N Solomons

Center for Studies of Sensory Impairment, Aging and

Metabolism (CeSSIAM) Guatemala City, Guatemala

J A Solon

MRC Laboratories Gambia Banjul, The Gambia

K Srinath Reddy

All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi, India

S Stanner

British Nutrition Foundation London, UK

J Stevens

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Chapel Hill, NC, USA

J J Strain

University of Ulster Coleraine, UK

H S Thesmar

Egg Nutrition Center Washington, DC, USA

B M Thomson

Rowett Research Institute Aberdeen, UK

D I Thurnham

University of Ulster Coleraine, UK

L Tolentino

National Institute of Public Health Cuernavaca, Mexico

D L Topping

CSIRO Health Sciences and Nutrition Adelaide, SA, Australia

B Torun

Center for Research and Teaching in Latin

America (CIDAL) Guatemala City, Guatemala

R J Stratton

University of Southampton Southampton, UK

R J Stubbs

The Rowett Research Institute Aberdeen, UK

C L Stylianopoulos

Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD, USA

A W Subudhi

University of Colorado at Colorado Colorado Springs, CO, USA

J Sudagani

Queen Mary's, University of London London, UK

S A Tanumihardjo

University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI, USA

J A Tayek

Harbor-UCLA Medical Center Torrance, CA, USA

E H M Temme

University of Leuven Leuven, Belgium

M G Traber

Oregon State University Corvallis, OR, USA

T R Trinick

Ulster Hospital Belfast, UK

K P Truesdale

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Chapel Hill, NC, USA

N M F Trugo

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

P M Tsai

Harvard Medical School Boston, MA, USA

K L Tucker

Tufts University Boston, MA, USA

O Tully

St Vincent's University Hospital Dublin, Ireland

E C Uchegbu

Royal Hallamshire Hospital Sheffield, UK

M C G van de Poll

University Hospital Maastricht Maastricht, The Netherlands

W A van Staveren

Wageningen University Wageningen, The Netherlands

J Villar

World Health Organization Geneva, Switzerland

M L Wahlqvist

Monash University Victoria, VIC, Australia

A F Walker

The University of Reading Reading, UK

P A Watkins

Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins

University School of Medicine Baltimore, MD, USA

A A Welch

University of Cambridge Cambridge, UK

R W Welch

University of Ulster Coleraine, UK

K P West Jr

Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD, USA

S Whybrow

The Rowett Research Institute Aberdeen, UK

D H Williamson

Radcliffe Infirmary Oxford, UK

M-M G Wilson

St Louis University St Louis, MO, USA

R R Wing

Brown University Providence, RI, USA

C K Winter

University of California at Davis Davis, CA, USA

H Wiseman

King's College London London, UK

M Wolraich

Vanderbilt University Nashville, TN, USA

R J Wood

Tufts University Boston, MA, USA

X Xu

Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine Baltimore, MD, USA

Z Yang

University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI, USA

A A Yates

ENVIRON Health Sciences Arlington, VA, USA

S H Zeisel

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Chapel Hill, NC, USA

X Zhu

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Chapel Hill, NC, USA

S Zidenberg-Cherr

University of California at Davis Davis, CA, USA

T R Ziegler

Emory University Atlanta, GA, USA

CONTENTS

VOLUME 1

ACIDS see ELECTROLYTES: Acid-Base Balance

ADIPOSE TISSUE G Frühbeck and J Gomez-Ambrosi 1

ADOLESCENTS

Nutritional Requirements CHS Ruxton and J Fiore 15

Nutritional Problems C Lo 26

AGING P Hyland and Y Barnett 40

ALCOHOL

Absorption, Metabolism and Physiological Effects R Rajendram, R Hunter, V Preedy and T Peters 48

Disease Risk and Beneficial Effects M Grßnb&k 57

Effects of Consumption on Diet and Nutritional Status C H Halsted 62

ALUMINUM N D Priest 69

AMINO ACIDS

Chemistry and Classification P W Emery 76

Metabolism P W Emery 84

Specific Functions M C G van de Poll, Y C Luiking, C H C Dejong and P B Soeters 92

ANEMIA

Iron-Deficiency Anemia K J Schulze and M L Dreyfuss 101

Megaloblastic Anemia J M Scott and P Browne 109

ANTIOXIDANTS

Diet and Antioxidant Defense I F F Benzie and J J Strain 117

Observational Studies IF F Benzie 131

Intervention Studies S Stanner 138

APPETITE

Physiological and Neurobiological Aspects J C G Halford and J E Blundell 147

Psychobiological and Behavioral Aspects R J Stubbs, S Whybrow and J E Blundell 154

ARTHRITIS L A Coleman and R Roubenoff 163

ASCORBIC ACID

Physiology, Dietary Sources and Requirements DA Bender 169

Deficiency States C J Bates 176

ATHEROSCLEROSIS see CHOLESTEROL: Sources, Absorption, Function and Metabolism. CORONARY HEART DISEASE: Prevention

B VITAMINS see COBALAMINS. NIACIN. PANTOTHENIC ACID. RIBOFLAVIN. THIAMIN: Physiology; Beriberi. VITAMIN B6

BACTERIA see INFECTION: Nutritional Interactions; Nutritional Management in Adults BASES see ELECTROLYTES: Acid-Base Balance

BEER see ALCOHOL: Absorption, Metabolism and Physiological Effects; Disease Risk and Beneficial Effects;

Effects of Consumption on Diet and Nutritional Status BEHAVIOR E L Gibson and M W Green 183

BERIBERI see THIAMIN: Beriberi

BEVERAGES see ALCOHOL: Absorption, Metabolism and Physiological Effects; Disease Risk and Beneficial

Effects; Effects of Consumption on Diet and Nutritional Status. TEA BIOAVAILABILITY R J Wood 195

BIOTIN D M Mock 201

BLOOD LIPIDS/FATS see HYPERLIPIDEMIA: Overview. LIPOPROTEINS BLOOD PRESSURE see HYPERTENSION: Etiology

BODY COMPOSITION D Gallagher and S Chung 210

BONE B M Thomson 220

BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM J D Fernstrom and M H Fernstrom 225

BREASTFEEDING C K Lutter 232

BURNS PATIENTS S A Hill 238

CAFFEINE MJArnaud 247

CALCIUM L H Allen and J E Kerstetter 253

CALORIES see ENERGY: Balance; Requirements. ENERGY EXPENDITURE: Indirect Calorimetry; Doubly

Labeled Water CANCER

Epidemiology and Associations Between Diet and Cancer G A Colditz 260

Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Cancers Other Than Colorectal Cancers H-Y Huang 266

Epidemiology of Lung Cancer A J Alberg and J M Samet 272

Dietary Management C Shaw 284

Effects on Nutritional Status C Shaw 289

Carcinogenic Substances in Food D Anderson and J C Phillips 295

CARBOHYDRATES

Chemistry and Classification C L Stylianopoulos 303

Regulation of Metabolism C L Stylianopoulos 309

Requirements and Dietary Importance C L Stylianopoulos 316

Resistant Starch and Oligosaccharides A Laurentin and C A Edwards 322

CARCINOGENS see CANCER: Carcinogenic Substances in Food CAROTENOIDS

Chemistry, Sources and Physiology B K Ishida and G E Bartley 330

Epidemiology of Health Effects S A Tanumihardjo and Z Yang 339

CEREAL GRAINS R W Welch 346

CHEESE see DAIRY PRODUCTS CHILDREN

Nutritional Requirements M Lawson 357

Nutritional Problems E M E Poskitt 370

CHOLECALCIFEROL see VITAMIN D: Physiology, Dietary Sources and Requirements; Rickets and

Osteomalacia CHOLESTEROL

Sources, Absorption, Function and Metabolism D J McNamara 379

Factors Determining Blood Levels S M Grundy 385

CHOLINE AND PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE XZhu and S H Zeisel 392

CHROMIUM RA Anderson 396

COBALAMINS R Green 401

CELIAC DISEASE V Nehra, E Marietta and J Murray 407 COFACTORS

Inorganic E D Harris 418

Organic E D Harris 427 COFFEE see CAFFEINE COLON

Structure and Function A Maqbool 439

Disorders A Maqbool 448

Nutritional Management of Disorders D M Klurfeld 460

COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING K G Dewey 465

COPPER X Xu, S Pin, J Shedlock and Z L Harris 471 CORONARY HEART DISEASE

Hemostatic Factors W Gilmore 476

Lipid Theory D Kritchevsky 482

Prevention K Srinath Reddy 487

CYSTIC FIBROSIS J Dowsett and O Tully 494

CYTOKINES R F Grimble 501

DAIRY PRODUCTS J Buttriss 511

DEHYDRATION A W Subudhi, E W Askew and M J Luetkemeier 518

DENTAL DISEASE R C Cottrell 527 DIABETES MELLITUS

Etiology and Epidemiology J Sudagani and G A Hitman 535

Classification and Chemical Pathology K C McCowen and R J Smith 543

Dietary Management C D Saudek and S H Oh 551

DIARRHEAL DISEASES A Baqui, R Heinzen, M Santosham and R Black 565 DIETARY FIBER

Physiological Effects and Effects on Absorption I T Johnson 572

Potential Role in Etiology of Disease D L Topping and L Cobiac 578

Role in Nutritional Management of Disease A R Leeds 586

VOLUME 2

DIETARY GUIDELINES, INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES B Schneeman 1 DIETARY INTAKE MEASUREMENT

Methodology A A Welch 7

Validation M Nelson 16

DIETARY SURVEYS K L Tucker 27

DIETETICS PAJudd 32

DIGESTIBILITY see BIOAVAILABILITY

DRUG-NUTRIENT INTERACTIONS K G Conner 38

EARLY ORIGINS OF DISEASE

Fetal A J Buckley and S E Ozanne 51

Non-Fetal L S Adair 59

EATING BEHAVIOR see MEAL SIZE AND FREQUENCY EATING DISORDERS

Anorexia Nervosa A R Rolla 66

Bulimia Nervosa A J Hill and S F L Kirk 74

Binge Eating M D Marcus, M A Kalarchian and M D Levine 80

EGGS D J McNamara and H S Thesmar 86

EICOSANOIDS see PROSTAGLANDINS AND LEUKOTRIENES ELECTROLYTES

Acid-Base Balance A G Jardine and P B Mark 93

Water-Electrolyte Balance S M Shirreffs and R J Maughan 100

ENERGY

Metabolism S Cox 106

Balance Y Schutz 115

Requirements W P T James 125

Adaptation A G Dulloo and J Jacquet 131

ENERGY EXPENDITURE

Indirect Calorimetry A Raman and D A Schoeller 139

Doubly Labeled Water W A Coward 145

EXERCISE

Beneficial Effects C Boreham and M H Murphy 154

Diet and Exercise R J Maughan 162

FAMINE K P West Jr 169

FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS see VITAMIN A: Biochemistry and Physiological Role. VITAMIN D: Physiology, Dietary Sources and Requirements; Rickets and Osteomalacia. VITAMIN E: Metabolism and Requirements. VITAMIN K FAT STORES see ADIPOSE TISSUE

FATS see FATTY ACIDS: Metabolism; Monounsaturated; Omega-3 Polyunsaturated; Omega-6

Polyunsaturated; Saturated; Trans Fatty Acids. LIPIDS: Chemistry and Classification; Composition and Role of Phospholipids

FATS AND OILS AH Lichtenstein 177

FATTY ACIDS

Metabolism PA Watkins 186

Monounsaturated P Kirk 198

Omega-3 Polyunsaturated A P Simopoulos 205

Omega-6 Polyunsaturated J M Hodgson, T A Mori and M L Wahlqvist 219

Saturated R P Mensink and E H M Temme 225

Trans Fatty Acids M J Sadler 230

FERTILITY R E Frisch 237

FETAL ORIGINS OF DISEASE see EARLY ORIGINS OF DISEASE: Fetal; Non-Fetal

FIBER see DIETARY FIBER: Physiological Effects and Effects on Absorption; Potential Role in Etiology of

Disease; Role in Nutritional Management of Disease FISH A Ariño, J A Beltrán, A Herrera and P Roncales 247

FLAVONOIDS see PHYTOCHEMICALS: Classification and Occurrence; Epidemiological Factors FOLATE see FOLIC ACID

FOLIC ACID J McPartlin 257

FOOD ALLERGIES

Etiology T J David 265

Diagnosis and Management T J David 270

FOOD CHOICE, INFLUENCING FACTORS A K Draper 277

FOOD COMPOSITION DATA S P Murphy 282

FOOD FOLKLORE J Dwyer and J Freitas 289

FOOD FORTIFICATION

Developed Countries R Nalubola 295

Developing Countries O Dary and J O Mora 302

FOOD INTAKE see DIETARY INTAKE MEASUREMENT: Methodology; Validation. DIETARY SURVEYS.

MEAL SIZE AND FREQUENCY FOOD INTOLERANCE T J David 309

FOOD SAFETY

Mycotoxins J D Groopman and T W Kensler 317

Pesticides M Saltmarsh 323

Bacterial Contamination N Noah 329

Other Contaminants C K Winter 340

Heavy Metals G L Klein 344

FORTIFICATION see FOOD FORTIFICATION: Developed Countries; Developing Countries

FRUCTOSE N L Keim and P J Havel 351

FRUITS AND VEGETABLES A E Bender 356

FUNCTIONAL FOODS

Health Effects and Clinical Applications L Galland 360

Regulatory Aspects H H Butchko and B J Petersen 366

GALACTOSE A Abi-Hanna and J M Saavedra 377

GALL BLADDER DISORDERS B Nejadnik and L Cheskin 384

GERIATRIC NUTRITION see OLDER PEOPLE: Physiological Changes; Nutritional Requirements;

Nutrition-Related Problems; Nutritional Management of Geriatric Patients GLUCOSE

Chemistry and Dietary Sources D J A Jenkins, R de Souza, L S A Augustin and C W C Kendall 390 Metabolism and Maintenance of Blood Glucose Level V Marks 398

Glucose Tolerance B Ahrán 405

GLYCEMICINDEX G Frost and A Dornhorst 413

GOITRE see IODINE: Deficiency Disorders

GOUT L A Coleman and R Roubenoff 419

GRAINS see CEREAL GRAINS

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT, PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS W W Hay Jr 423

GROWTH MONITORING T J Cole 433

GUT FLORA see MICROBIOTA OF THE INTESTINE: Probiotics; Prebiotics

HANDICAP

Down's Syndrome M Collins and A Laverty 443

Prader-Willi Syndrome A O Scheimann 449

Cerebral Palsy J Krick and P Miller 452

HEART DISEASE see CORONARY HEART DISEASE: Hemostatic Factors; Lipid Theory; Prevention

HEIGHT see NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT: Anthropometry

HOMOCYSTEINE J W Miller 462

HUNGER J CG Halford, A J Hill and J E Blundell 469

HYPERACTIVITY M Wolraich 475

HYPERLIPIDEMIA

Overview T R Trinick and E B Duly 479

Nutritional Management A H Lichtenstein 491

HYPERTENSION

Etiology T Morgan and H Brunner 499

Dietary Factors L J Appel 506

Nutritional Management C M Champagne 513

HYPOGLYCEMIA V Marks 523

VOLUME 3

IMMUNE SYSTEM see IMMUNITY: Physiological Aspects; Effects of Iron and Zinc IMMUNITY

Physiological Aspects A T Borchers, C L Keen and M E Gershwin 1

Effects of Iron and Zinc C Doherty 7

INBORN ERRORS OF METABOLISM

Classification and Biochemical Aspects D L Marsden 13

Nutritional Management of Phenylketonuria D L Marsden, F J Rohr and K C Costas 22

INFANTS

Nutritional Requirements S A Atkinson 28

Feeding Problems R M Katz, L Schuberth and C S Gulotta 42

INFECTION

Nutritional Interactions H Ghattas 47

Nutritional Management in Adults J A Tayek 54

INTESTINE see SMALL INTESTINE: Structure and Function; Disorders; MICROBIOTA OF THE INTESTINE:

Probiotics; Prebiotics IODINE

Physiology, Dietary Sources and Requirements R Houston 66

Deficiency Disorders B S Hetzel 74

IRON J R Hunt 82

ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE see CORONARY HEART DISEASE: Lipid Theory

KESHAN DISEASE see SELENIUM

KETOSIS D H Williamson 91

LACTATION

Physiology J L McManaman and M C Neville 99

Dietary Requirements N M F Trugo and C M Donangelo 106

LACTOSE INTOLERANCE D M Paige 113

LEGUMES MAGrusak 120 LIPIDS

Chemistry and Classification J L Dupont 126

Composition and Role of Phospholipids A D Postle 132

LIPOPROTEINS JMOrdovas 143

LIVER DISORDERS J Hampsey and K B Schwarz 150 LOW BIRTHWEIGHT AND PRETERM INFANTS

Causes, Prevalence and Prevention M Merialdi and M de Onis 161

Nutritional Management J M Cox 168

LUNG DISEASES A MacDonald 175

LYCOPENES AND RELATED COMPOUNDS C J Bates 184

MAGNESIUM C Feillet-Coudray and Y Rayssiguier 191

MALABSORPTION SYNDROMES P M Tsai and C Duggan 196 MALNUTRITION

Primary, Causes Epidemiology and Prevention A Briend and P Nestel 203

Secondary, Diagnosis and Management N Solomons 212

MANGANESE C L Keen, J L Ensunsa, B Lönnerdal and S Zidenberg-Cherr 217

MEAL SIZE AND FREQUENCY F E Leahy 225

MEAT, POULTRY AND MEAT PRODUCTS P A Lofgren 230 MENKES SYNDROME see COPPER MICROBIOTA OF THE INTESTINE

Prebiotics J M Saavedra and N Moore 237

Probiotics M Gueimonde and S Salminen 244 MILK see DAIRY PRODUCTS

MINERALS see CALCIUM. MAGNESIUM. PHOSPHORUS. POTASSIUM. SODIUM: Physiology MOLYBDENUM see ULTRATRACE ELEMENTS MONOSATURATED FAT see FATTY ACIDS: Monounsaturated MYCOTOXINS see FOOD SAFETY: Mycotoxins

NIACIN C J Bates 253

NITROGEN see AMINO ACIDS: Chemistry and Classification; Metabolism. PROTEIN: Digestion and

Bioavailability; Quality and Sources; Requirements and Role in Diet; Deficiency NUCLEIC ACIDS E A Carrey and H A Simmonds 260

NUTRIENT-GENE INTERACTIONS

Molecular Aspects C D Berdanier and H C Freake 269

Health Implications C D Berdanier and H C Freake 276

NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS, INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES A A Yates 282

NUTRITION POLICIES IN DEVELOPING AND DEVELOPED COUNTRIES C Geissler 293

NUTRITION TRANSITION, DIET CHANGE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS B M Popkin 301 NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT

Anthropometry J Eaton-Evans 311

Biochemical Indices F Fidanza 318

Clinical Examination B Caballero 329 NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT

In the Home Setting M Elia and R J Stratton 332

Adults, Enteral K N Jeejeebhoy 342

Adults, Parenteral J Binkley, S Daniell and G L Jensen 349

Infants and Children, Parenteral S Collier and C Lo 357 NUTRITIONAL SURVEILLANCE

Developed Countries N R Sahyoun 363

Developing Countries L M Neufeld and L Tolentino 371

NUTS AND SEEDS J Gray 381

OBESITY

Definition, Etiology and Assessment A Pietrobelli 389

Fat Distribution J Stevens and K P Truesdale 392

Childhood Obesity E M E Poskitt 399

Complications A Ahmed and R L Atkinson 406

Prevention T P Gill 413

Treatment E C Uchegbu and P G Kopelman 421 OILS see FATS AND OILS OLDER PEOPLE

Physiological Changes N Solomons 431

Nutritional Requirements N Solomons 437

Nutrition-Related Problems C P G M de Groot and W A van Staveren 444

Nutritional Management of Geriatric Patients M-M G Wilson and J E Morley 449 OSTEOMALACIA see VITAMIN D: Rickets and Osteomalacia

OSTEOPOROSIS K O O'Brien 460 OXIDANT DAMAGE see ANTIOXIDANTS: Observational Studies; Intervention Studies

PANTOTHENIC ACID C J Bates 467

PARASITISM P G Lunn 472 PATHOGENS see INFECTION: Nutritional Interactions; Nutritional Management in Adults

PELLAGRA C J Bates 481 PESTICIDES see FOOD SAFETY: Pesticides

PHENYLKETONURIA see INBORN ERRORS OF METABOLISM: Nutritional Management of Phenylketonuria PHOSPHATE see SMALL INTESTINE: Structure and Function

PHOSPHORUS JJB Anderson 486

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY see EXERCISE: Beneficial Effects; Diet and Exercise PHYTOCHEMICALS

Classification and Occurrence A Cassidy 490

Epidemiological Factors H Wiseman 497

PHYTO-ESTROGENS see PHYTOCHEMICALS: Classification and Occurrence; Epidemiological Factors

POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS see FATTY ACIDS: Omega-3 Polyunsaturated; Omega-6

Polyunsaturated

POTASSIUM LJAppel 509

POULTRY see MEAT, POULTRY AND MEAT PRODUCTS

PREGNANCY

Role of Placenta in Nutrient Transfer P Haggarty 513

Nutrient Requirements L H Allen 521

Energy Requirements and Metabolic Adaptations G R Goldberg 528

Weight Gain L H Allen and J M Graham 533

VOLUME 4

PREGNANCY

Safe Diet for Pregnancy S Stanner 1

Dietary Guidelines and Safe Supplement Use L H Allen, J M Graham and J E Sabel 8

Prevention of Neural Tube Defects P N Kirke and J M Scott 15

Pre-eclampsia and Diet E Abalos and J Villar 27

PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME M C de Souza and Ann F Walker 35

PROSTAGLANDINS AND LEUKOTRIENES G E Caughey, M J James and L G Cleland 42 PROTEIN

Synthesis and Turnover D J Millward 50

Requirements and Role in Diet D J Millward 58

Digestion and Bioavailability Z A Bhutta 66

Quality and Sources B Torun 73

Deficiency Z A Bhutta and H L Dewraj 82 PULSES see LEGUMES PYRIDOXINE see VITAMIN B6

REFUGEES R Bhatia and L N Richardson 87

RELIGIOUS CUSTOMS, INFLUENCE ON DIET P Fieldhouse 93

RESPIRATORY DISEASES see CANCER: Epidemiology of Lung Cancer. LUNG DISEASES RETINOL see VITAMIN A: Biochemistry and Physiological Role; Deficiency and Interventions RIBOFLAVIN CJ Bates 100

RICKETS see VITAMIN D: Rickets and Osteomalacia

ROUGHAGE see DIETARY FIBER: Physiological Effects and Effects on Absorption; Potential Role in Etiology of Disease; Role in Nutritional Management of Disease

SALT see SODIUM: Physiology; Salt Intake and Health SATIETY see APPETITE: Physiological and Neurobiological Aspects

SATURATED FAT see FATTY ACIDS: Saturated

SEASONALITY F Branca and P D'Acapito 109

SEEDS see NUTS AND SEEDS

SELENIUM C J Bates 118

SENESCENCE see AGING

SKINFOLD THICKNESS see NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT: Anthropometry SMALL INTESTINE

Structure and Function D Rumsey 126

Disorders R D'Souza and J Powell-Tuck 133

SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS E Dowler 140

SODIUM

Physiology A R Michell 150

Salt Intake and Health C P Sánchez-Castillo and W P T James 154

SODIUM CHLORIDE see SODIUM: Salt Intake and Health

SPIRITS see ALCOHOL: Absorption, Metabolism and Physiological Effects; Disease Risk and Beneficial

Effects; Effects of Consumption on Diet and Nutritional Status SPORTS NUTRITION R J Maughan 167

STARCH see CARBOHYDRATES: Chemistry and Classification; Regulation of Metabolism; Requirements and Dietary Importance; Resistant Starch and Oligosaccharides STARVATION AND FASTING J E Bines and R G Heine 173

STOMACH

Structure and Function J P Pearson and IA Brownlee 180

Disorders J A Solon 190

STROKE, NUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENT S McLaren 196

SUCROSE

Nutritional Role, Absorption and Metabolism J Brand-Miller 204

Dietary Sucrose and Disease B Caballero 212

SUGAR see CARBOHYDRATES: Chemistry and Classification; Regulation of Metabolism; Requirements and Dietary Importance; GALACTOSE. GLUCOSE: Chemistry and Dietary Sources; Metabolism and Maintenance of Blood Glucose Level; Glucose Tolerance. SUCROSE: Nutritional Role, Absorption and Metabolism; Dietary Sucrose and Disease SUPPLEMENTATION

Dietary Supplements S S Percival 214

Role of Micronutrient Supplementation R D W Klemm 220

Developing Countries R Shrimpton 227

Developed Countries M F Picciano and S S McDonald 233

SURGERY

Perioperative Feeding E Kelly 241

Long-term Nutritional Management E Lin and T R Ziegler 246

TEA D J Baer and S C Chen 257

TEETH see DENTAL DISEASE

THIAMIN

Physiology D I Thurnham 263

Beriberi D I Thurnham 269

THIRST J Leiper 278

TOCOPHEROL see VITAMIN E: Metabolism and Requirements; Physiology and Health Effects TRACE ELEMENTS see CHROMIUM. COPPER. IMMUNITY: Effects of Iron and Zinc. IODINE: Physiology, Dietary Sources and Requirements. IRON. MANGANESE. SELENIUM. ZINC: Physiology

TRANS FATTY ACIDS see FATTY ACIDS: Trans Fatty Acids TUBERCULOSIS

Nutrition and Susceptibility J P Cegielski and D N McMurray 287

Nutritional Management J P Cegielski and L Demeshlaira 294

TUMOR see CANCER: Epidemiology and Associations Between Diet and Cancer; Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Cancers Other Than Colorectal Cancers; Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

ULTRATRACE ELEMENTS F Nielsen 299

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN'S FUND J P Greaves and R Shrimpton 311

URBAN NUTRITION N Solomons 317

VEGAN DIETS see VEGETARIAN DIETS VEGETABLES see FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

VEGETARIAN DIETS J Dwyer 323

VITAMIN A

Physiology A C Ross 329

Biochemistry and Physiological Role J L Napoli 339

Deficiency and Interventions K P West Jr 348

VITAMIN B1 see THIAMIN: Physiology; Beriberi VITAMIN B2 see RIBOFLAVIN

VITAMIN B6 DA Bender 359

VITAMIN B12 see COBALAMINS

VITAMIN C see ASCORBIC ACID: Physiology, Dietary Sources and Requirements; Deficiency States VITAMIN D

Physiology, Dietary Sources and Requirements M F Holick 368

Rickets and Osteomalacia J J B Anderson 378

VITAMIN E

Metabolism and Requirements M G Traber 383

Physiology and Health Effects P A Morrissey and M Kiely 389

VITAMIN K C J Bates 398

WATER see THIRST WEIGHT MANAGEMENT

Approaches N Finer 407

Weight Maintenance H A Raynor and R R Wing 413

Weight Cycling L Lissner 421

WHOLE GRAINS R Lang and S A Jebb 427

WILSON'S DISEASE see COPPER

WINE see ALCOHOL: Absorption, Metabolism and Physiological Effects; Disease Risk and Beneficial Effects;

Effects of Consumption on Diet and Nutritional Status WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION J Akre 437

YOGURT see DAIRY PRODUCTS. FUNCTIONAL FOODS: Health Effects and Clinical Applications; MICROBIOTA OF THE INTESTINE: Probiotics; Prebiotics

ZINC

Physiology H C Freake

Deficiency in Developing Countries, Intervention Studies INDEX

C Hotz 454

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