G Frost and A Dornhorst, Imperial College at Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
© 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In the past 10 years, a number of important epidemiological and experimental studies have linked glycemic index to postprandial glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk factors. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) recommended that the physiological effects of dietary carbohydrates be classified according to their glyce-mic index. This review examines the historical and scientific background of the glycemic index.
a surrogate marker of the insulin response to different carbohydrates, with the possible exception of diary products. Indeed, the insulin response in non-diabetic subjects to a wide range of foods (glycemic indices between 32 and 100) are highly correlated. The exception to this is possibly diary products which have an insulin response high than predicted but the glycemic index. This remains unexplained at present. Dietary carbohydrates stimulate insulin secretion both directly by stimulating the pancreatic fl cell and indirectly through their secretion effect. The pattern of insulin secretion caused by different
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